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Chapter 4 interdependence among living organisms and the envirronment
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Chapter 4 interdependence among living organisms and the envirronment


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  • 1. Chapter 4Interdependence AmongLiving Organisms and the Environment
  • 2. 4.1 Interdependence Among Living Organisms
  • 3. a species a species a species of of frog of fish water plant1. Species is a group of organisms that have the same shape, structure and breed together.2. In the figure above, fish, frog and water plant are three different species.
  • 4. 1. Apopulation is a number or group of organisms of the same species that live together in a habitat. Apopulation Apopulation Apopulation of of frogs of fishes water plants
  • 5. 1.A community is made up of many populations living together in a particular place. All the fishes, frogs, tadpoles, water plants, snails, grass and butterflies made up the community.
  • 6. 1. A habitat is a natural living place of certain plants and animals.2. Figure above is a pond community.
  • 7. It is a habitat for water lily.
  • 8. It is a habitat for frog.
  • 9. It is a habitat for water snail.
  • 10. It is a habitat for water plant.
  • 11. It is a habitat for fish.
  • 12. They all live in the same habitat.
  • 13. 1.An ecosystem refers to the community of organisms living in the same habitat, together with the non-living environment. air water soil2.All the living organisms and the non-living environment such as water, soil and air made up an ecosystem.
  • 14. 4.2 Interaction Between Living Organisms
  • 15. 1. Prey-predator is a relationship where an animal captures and eat other animals.2. Apredator is an organism that kill and eats another organism.3. Aprey is the organism that is eaten
  • 16. 4.For example, snake is a predator, rat is its prey.
  • 17. 5. Other examples, Predator Prey Owl Rat Tiger Goat/deer Frog Insert
  • 18. 1. Symbiosis happen between two or more differentspecies which live close together and interact witheach other. There are three types of symbiosis:• Commensalism• Mutualism• Parasitism
  • 19. a. Commensalism is a relationship between twoorganisms.b.The commensal benefits from the host.c. Example:
  • 20. -Remora fish is the commensal, it feeds on thescraps of food left by the shark. The shark isunharmed.
  • 21. -The staghorn fern grows on a tree. This helps it easily obtain sunlight to process fotosyntesis.-Examples of plants that live on tress to obtain sunlight are: (i) the stoghorn fern (ii) the money plant (iii) the pigeon orchid (iv) the bird’s nest fern
  • 22. a. Mutualism is an interaction between two different organisms that live together in which both organisms benefits.b. They obtain nutrition and shelter from each other.c. Example:
  • 23. -The Egyptian Plover bird and crocodiles. the Egyptian Plover eats fleas and ticks crocodile as well as food particles stuck between crocodiles teeth.
  • 24. - Lichen consistsof fungi andalgae livingtogether. Thealgae producefood and thefungi provideshelter.
  • 25. a.Parasitism is an interaction between two organisms. Only one organisms is benefits.b.A parasite is the organism that live on or inside the other organism.c.The host the organism on which the parasite live.d.The host is negatively affected by the interaction. the parasite may even kill the host.
  • 26. e. Example-Tapeworm is a parasite, itlives in human intestine.Tapeworm obtains food andshelter from humans.Human loses weight andbecomes weak.
  • 27. 1. Competition is a relationship where organisms compete with each other for food, light, water, shelter, mate or minerals.2. Plants compete to obtain water, sunlight, mineral and living space3. Animals compete to obtain water, food, living space and mate for reproduction.4. Competition becomes more intense when the basic resources are limited.
  • 28. 5. Stronger organisms are successful in controlling their territory. Weaker and smaller organisms are driven out of the area.6. Examples a. flowering plants compete with weeds to obtain water and mineral salt. b. lions in a pride compete for food c. plants in a tropical rainforest compete for basic needs. Taller trees obtain sunlight more easily.
  • 29. 7. This is Intra-specific competition. Competition among organisms of the same species.
  • 30. 8. This is Inter-specific competition. Competition among organisms of different species.
  • 31. 4.3 Food Web
  • 32. What is producer, consumer, decomposer and food chain? Paddy Rat Snake Hawk plants (primary (secondary (tertiary (producer) consumer) consumer) consumer) Bacteria and fungi (decomposers)
  • 33. 2. Producers are all green plants that make food through photosyntesis.3. Consumer are animals that eat plants or animals.4. Decomposers are organisms that decompose dead organisms (animals or plants) and change them into simple substances.5. Example decomposer are bacteria and fungi
  • 34. 6. What about decomposer? Decomposers break down dead animal and plant materials into simple substances which can be used again by green plants.
  • 35. 1. What is a food web? beatle bird grass grasshopper eagle caterpillar chicken2. A food web consists of several food chain that are interlinked.
  • 36. Use the list of organisms below to form a food web Paddy plant Grasshopper Bacteria and Rat Frog fungi Snake Bird Caterpillar RatPaddy plant Grasshopper Frog Snake Caterpillar Bird Bacteria and fungi
  • 37. grass grasshopper frogs snakes(3 000 000) (3 000) (150) (5) Level 4 (tertiary consumer) 5 snakes Level 3 (secondary consumer) 150 frogs Level 2 (primary consumer) 3 000 grasshopper 3 000 000 Level 1 (producer) blades of grass
  • 38. 1. A pyramid of numbers shows the number of organisms at each link of the food chain.2. From the base of the pyramid to the top a. the number of organisms decrease b. the size of organisms decrease c. more energy is lost
  • 39. Tertiary consumer Secondary consumer Primary consumer Producer1. In food web or food chain, the source of energy is sunlight.2. Energy flows through a food web and food chain.3. But not all of the energy is passed to the next level, some are lost as heat.
  • 40. 1. Photosynthesis is a process that occurs in green plants, in which food is made from water and carbon dioxide in the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight.
  • 41. product ? ? carbon dioxidewater
  • 42. Gas oxygen product Glucose which is then turn into starch carbon dioxidewater
  • 43. 3. The equation below shows the process of photosynthesis Carbon + water Sun light dioxide glucose + oxygen (chlorophyll) 4. Conditions necessary for photosynthesis presence by: a. carbon dioxide c. sunlight b. water d. chlorophyll
  • 44. 1. Photosynthesis is important to maintain the equilibrium of an ecosystem.2. The importance and role of photosynthesis are: a. supplies food to animals b. removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere c.enable green plants to make their own food
  • 45. d. regulates equal and maintains carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere e. increase oxygen content in the atmosphereThe carbon cycle1. Natural gases cycles maintains the content of gases in the air.2. The carbon and oxygen cycles are two natural gas cycle3. The carbon cycle is the circulation of carbon dioxide on Earth.
  • 46. 4. The carbon cycle maintains the content of carbon dioxide in the air.5. The process that release carbon dioxide into the air include: a. respiration and breathing b. combustion c. decomposition6. Photosynthesis, which takes place in green plants, remove carbon dioxide from the air.
  • 47. THE OXYGEN CYCLE1. The oxygen cycle is the circulation of oxygen on Earth.2. The oxygen cycle to maintain oxygen on the air.3. That process that use oxygen includes: a. respiration and breathing b. combustion c. decomposition d. rusting
  • 48. 1. Animals and plants need to be conserved and preserved to ensure that the natural resources can be enjoyed by future generation.2. Steps to conserve and preserve living things include: a. establishing forest reserves.
  • 49. b. replantingc. establishing breeding centers for animals facing extinction.d. practicing selective logging, that is cutting down only old tree.e. implementing laws to prevent illegal trade in plants and animals.f. Implementing the National Forestry and Wildlife Protection Acts