Chapter 4 interaction between organism

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Chapter 4 interaction between organism

  1. 1. CHAPTER 4:INTERACTIONBETWEEN LIVINGORGANISMS
  2. 2. INTERACTIONBETWEENORGANISMSPrey predator Competition SymbiosisCommensalism ParasitismMutualism
  3. 3. Prey-predatorA relationship where an animal captures andeat other animals.Rat is the victim(prey)Snake eats andkills rat(predator)
  4. 4. OwlRat(Predator)(Prey)Frog(Predator)Insects(Prey)
  5. 5. Predator PreyOwlTigerFrogRatGoat/deerInsect
  6. 6. CompetitionCompetition is a relationship where organismscompete with each other for food, light, water,shelter, mate or minerals.Compete for food Compete for light
  7. 7. This is Intra-specific competition.Competition among organisms of the same species.
  8. 8. This is Inter-specific competition.Competition among organisms of different species.
  9. 9. INTERACTIONBETWEENORGANISMSPrey predator Competition SymbiosisCommensalism ParasitismMutualismOrganismslive together
  10. 10. Commensalism Commensalism is a relationship between twoorganisms. The commensal benefits from the host.
  11. 11. Commensalism (+,0)Remora fishGets- free transport- feeds on foodscraps left by sharkShark-not receive anybenefits or harm
  12. 12. Commensalism (+,0)Bird’s nest fern-Grows on a tree-To obtain sunlightTree-not receive anybenefits or harm
  13. 13. bBarnacles- gets shelterMussels- Not affected
  14. 14. INTERACTIONBETWEENORGANISMSPrey predator Competition SymbiosisCommensalism ParasitismMutualismOrganismslive together
  15. 15. MutualismMutualism is an interaction that benefitsboth organisms. (+,+)
  16. 16. Mutualism (+,+)Lichen consists of fungi and algae living together.Algae- produce foodFungi- Provide shelter
  17. 17. Mutualism (+,+)Nodule(containNitrogen fixingbacteria)- Plant needs nitrogen- But it must be changedto nitrates first.- Nitrogen-fixing bacteriachange nitrogen to nitratesPeanut plant root-Provide shelter and foodbacteria
  18. 18. INTERACTIONBETWEENORGANISMSPrey predator Competition SymbiosisCommensalism ParasitismMutualismOrganismslive together
  19. 19. Parasitism (+,-) Parasitism is an interaction that benefits theparasites. On the other hand, the host is harmed by theparasites.
  20. 20. Parasitism (+,-)Tapeworm- A parasite- Live in human intestine- Obtain food and shelterfrom humanHost (Human)-Loses weight-Becomes weak
  21. 21. Parasitism (+,-)Wood fungus- Obtains food andshelter from treeHost (Tree)-Is weakened andmay die
  22. 22. Parasitism (+,-)Rafflesia- Obtains food andshelter from treeHost (Tree)-Is weakened andmay die
  23. 23. Interaction EffectsPrey-predator + (predator)- (prey)Competition + (stronger organism)- (weaker organism)Commensalism + (the commensal)0 (the host)Mutualism +,+ (both organisms)Parasitism + (the parasite)- (the host)Symbiosis(“Livingtogether’’)Indicator :+  benefits - harm 0  not affected (neither benefit nor harm)
  24. 24. Biological controlAttack,destroyThe fruitsOil palm plantation
  25. 25. versusBiological controlPesticideWhich method is better to killthe pests and saveenvironment?
  26. 26. Biological controlkill- A method of using living things to kill the pests.- Use prey-predator relationship.
  27. 27. Biological controlAphids (insects)- destroy the plantLadybird- eat aphids-to save the plant
  28. 28. Biological control has many advantages as compared to usingpesticides.Some of them are :a. does not pollute the environmentb. does not kill other pests because naturalenemies are usedc. is cheap and safe to use.Biological control

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