O Mba Tri Ws2,3

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O Mba Tri Ws2,3

  1. 1. SUB:Operations Management (MPRBA-206) : MBA-Trim 2 , Oct 2008 to Jan 2009 UNIT -1: Visit to Gitam Inst Of Technology, Mech Engg Workshop 1.Introduction on Production &Operations Management (P.O.M) 2.Scope of Production& Operations Mgt (P.O.M) 3.Evolutiontionary milestones 4.Types of Manufacturing systems 5.Service Operations 6.Case Study ################################################## ############################# OMba_Tri_Ws 2 Evolutionary mile stones Automation And Scientific Computer Industrial management Integrated Handicraft Revolution Systems Era ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 * Colonial * Industrial * Financial &Marketing * * Infrmn Expansion Expansion Expansion Expansion Dn & Global comptn Mile Stones: 1)Handicraft Era : James Watt,1764, : Steam Engine Adam Smith,1776,: Division of Labour American Constitution: 1789 Eli whitney,1790, :Interchangeable parts 2)Industrial Revolution: Charles Babbage,1832: Economic analysis of work & pay based on skill requirements. 3)Scientific Management: Frederic Taylor,1890,: Father of Scientific Management,Training,Time study, Production standards Frank & Lilian Gilbreth,1910,:Motion Economy & Human Factors Henry Ford,1913, : Assembly - Line Mass production Henry Gantt,1913,:Scheduling systems W.Shewart,1913,;Statistical Quality Control(S.Q.C) F.W.Harris,1915,:Economic Ordering Quantity(E.O.Q) model, for Inventory management (Part of Materials Management) Elton Mayo,1933,: Attention to behavioural factors
  2. 2. L.H.C.Tippett,1935 : Work Sampling 4)Automation & Computer Integrated Systems: Post 1930 s: Individual contributions : Dantzig, Deming, Juran, Buffa, Hertzberg, Wight, Skinner, etc. Organisational contributions : AT&T, GM, DUPONT, IBM, VOLVO,GE, SIEMENS, TOYOTA, INTEL, PHILIPS, etc. Post 1950’s: Operations Research(O.R) Techniques,Comutreised Information Systems & Age of Automation commenced (Logic units provided in equipments) Current Status: Robotisation in 70s, C.I.S(Computer Integrated Systems) in 80s, And Production became capable of responding to on line information. F.M.S(Flexible Manufacturing Systems in 90s for customization & Volumes. Extensive usage of I.T & C.T is the order of day. GLOBALISATION ERA OF OPERATIONS(FOR MARKETS) ACCELERATED DURING 1990S. Welcome to the GLOBALISATION ERA. ############################################################## OMba_Tri_Ws 3 Types of Manufacturing systems: Production process involved is categorized as (a)Flow or Continuous Production &(b) Intermittant Production. ############################################################## ##### (a)Flow or Continuous Production :
  3. 3. Repeated production,Work moves from one stage to next stage as per set sequence, standard procedures& sequence,Inputs standardized Egs: Medical tablets,Fertiliser, car. to C (b) A to B to D to E to C ( c) Varieties: (c.1) Mass production , eg: tablets, F.M.C.Gs (c.2) Process Production: Analytical :One Raw material into many products, eg. Crude oil into petrol,diesel,kerosene,tar…. Synthetic: 2 or more Raw materials into one product, eg: Iron ore & others into steel, many chemicals into soap… Assembly: (Notation: I, inputs, P parts , F.P is finished product) I1 into P1 I2 I3 into P2 into F.P I4 I5 into P3 I6 Line balance method is used. Eg: Automobile, TV… Characterictics: use of special purpose machines, high capital for equipment,Machines capacity to be balanced,Fixed material handling equipments like Cranes, fork lifts …,online inspection, Less inventory, less space requirement per unit production,% of man power costs less in total cost,less control,product layout, Demerits: Disruptions are critical Requirements:Constant demand for product,inputs of good quality,Preventive maintenance, high investment ############################################################## ## (b) Intermittant Production: Production not continuous & made only when required. Facilities(Equipment,people..) flexible to handle a variety of products and specifications. Characterictics: No single procedure,production of a product non uniform & intermittent,frequent changes in product design, usage of general purpose machines,Functional or Process Layout, Components are made for in process inventory and then assembled,small volume per product,low capital,Specialised
  4. 4. labour,PPC is critical, Labour costs high, Material handling in varying paths,All similar machines at one location. Varieties: JOB PRODUCTION: single complete unit made by a group of people.eg: ship,Building,Dam.. Work completed individually on each productEg: printing press jobs:operate printing machine for printing,folding,page setting,stapling,trimming,binding,packing&transporting. BATCH PRODUCTION: Increased production quantities for repeatition, Due to non uniform demand in the year, switching to other products becomes essential. All processes are done for one batch of a product & repeated. Eg: Export products,Motors,Boilers… BATCH PRODUCTION may be considered as a combination of Job+Mass production. ( c)Another categorization: MULTI PURPOSE PRODUCTION: System starts in the form of BATCH PRODUCTION and then grows into MASS PRODUCTION. This is the current trend. #########################################################

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