Rm 1 Intro Types Research Process


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Rm 1 Intro Types Research Process

  1. 1. Research Methodology <ul><li>An Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Ashok Karri </li></ul>
  2. 2. Research Methodology <ul><li>A search for knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>A scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic </li></ul><ul><li>A systematized effort to gain new knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Research as an academic activity comprises – defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis; collecting organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definition <ul><li>Research is the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon about which we are concerned or interested. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Research Methodology <ul><li>The search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is research. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Objectives of research <ul><li>The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures </li></ul>
  6. 6. Objectives of research <ul><li>To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it (studies with this objective are known as explorative or formulative studies) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Objectives of research <ul><li>To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group (studies with this object in view are known as descriptive studies) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Objectives of research <ul><li>To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else </li></ul><ul><li>(known as diagnostic studies ) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Objectives of research <ul><li>To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables (known as hypothesis testing) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Types of Research <ul><li>Descriptive vs. Analytical </li></ul><ul><li>Applied vs. Fundamental </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative vs. Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual vs. Empirical </li></ul>
  11. 11. 1.Descriptive vs. Analytical <ul><li>The major purpose of the descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists; usually includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries. The main characteristic here is that the researcher has no control over the variables – he can only report what has happened or what is happening. Ex: survey methods to identify people’s preferences. In analytical research, the researcher has to use facts or information already available and analyze these for critical evaluation. </li></ul>
  12. 12. 2. Conceptual vs. Empirical <ul><li>Conceptual research is related to some abstract idea or theory. Used by philosophers and thinkers. </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical research relies on experience or observation alone; it is data based research; </li></ul>
  13. 13. 3. Quantitative vs. Qualitative <ul><li>Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity – it is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity. </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative research is concerned with qualitative phenomena – relating to or involving quality or kind. Ex.-motivation research. </li></ul>
  14. 14. 4. Applied vs. Fundamental <ul><li>Research can either be applied (action) research or fundamental (basic or pure). Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing society or an organization, whereas, fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalizations and with formulation of a theory. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Research Process <ul><li>Research Process consists of series of actions or steps necessary to effectively carry out research. </li></ul><ul><li>The process consists of closely related activities; such activities overlap continuously rather than following a strictly prescribed sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>The steps are as follows: </li></ul>
  16. 16. Research Process <ul><li>Formulating the research problem </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive literature survey </li></ul><ul><li>Development of working hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing the research design </li></ul><ul><li>Determining sample design </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting the data </li></ul><ul><li>Execution of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of data </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis-testing </li></ul><ul><li>Generalization and Interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of the Report </li></ul>
  17. 17. 1. Formulating the Research Problem <ul><li>Two types of problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Problems which related to state of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Problems which relate to relationships between variables </li></ul><ul><li>The formulation of a general topic into a specific research problem is the first step in scientific enquiry </li></ul>
  18. 18. Formulating the Research Problem… <ul><li>Two steps in formulating the research problem: </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the problem thoroughly </li></ul><ul><li>Rephrasing the same into meaningful terms from an analytical point of view </li></ul>
  19. 19. Formulating the Research Problem… <ul><li>Must review two types of literature: </li></ul><ul><li>The Conceptual literature concerning concepts and theories </li></ul><ul><li>The Empirical literature consisting of earlier studies, which are similar to the one proposed </li></ul>
  20. 20. Formulating the Research Problem… <ul><li>Formulating/defining a research problem is of great importance and significance in the entire research process </li></ul><ul><li>The problem must be defined unambiguously </li></ul><ul><li>Must verify the objectivity and validity of background facts concerning the problem </li></ul>
  21. 21. 2. Extensive Literature Review <ul><li>Abstracting/Indexing journals </li></ul><ul><li>Published/Unpublished bibliographies </li></ul><ul><li>Academic journals </li></ul><ul><li>Conference proceedings </li></ul><ul><li>Govt. Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Books </li></ul>
  22. 22. 3. Development of Working Hypothesis <ul><li>The researcher should state, in clear terms the working hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Working Hypothesis is a tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis is the focal point of the research, for ex: “students who receive counseling will show a greater increase in creativity than students not receiving counseling” or “car A is performing as well as car B” </li></ul>
  23. 23. Functions of a Hypothesis <ul><li>It guides the direction of the study. </li></ul><ul><li>It identifies facts that are relevant and those that are not. </li></ul><ul><li>It suggests which form of research design is likely to be most appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides a framework for organizing the conclusions that result </li></ul>
  24. 24. 4. Preparing the Research Design <ul><li>Need to prepare a research design – a conceptual structure within which the research would be conducted </li></ul><ul><li>The primary objective of the research design is to collect the relevant data </li></ul><ul><li>Research Purposes may be grouped into </li></ul><ul><li>Exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Experimentation </li></ul><ul><li>Many research designs exist. </li></ul>
  25. 25. 5. Determining the Sample Design <ul><li>All the items under consideration in any field constitute a “Universe” or “Population” </li></ul><ul><li>A complete enumeration of all the items in the “population” is known as a “census enquiry” </li></ul><ul><li>Since a complete census enquiry is not possible generally, we select a ‘sample’ – a few items from the “universe” for our study </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher selects the sample by using ‘sampling design’ – a definite plan determined before any data is actually collected </li></ul>
  26. 26. Types of Sampling <ul><li>Deliberate Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Simple Random Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Quota Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Stratified Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster/area Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-stage Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Sequential Sampling </li></ul>
  27. 27. 6. Collecting the Data <ul><li>Need to collect appropriate data </li></ul><ul><li>Primary data can be collected thru experiment or survey </li></ul><ul><li>In experiment, he observes some quantitative measurements (data), with which the hypothesis is tested </li></ul><ul><li>In Survey, data can be collected by the following methods: </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Mailing Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Through Schedules </li></ul>
  28. 28. 7. Execution of the Project <ul><li>The research study must be executed in a systematic manner to ensure that adequate and dependable data are collected. </li></ul><ul><li>Should be rigorously methodological </li></ul>
  29. 29. 8. Analysis of Data <ul><li>Requires that the data be necessarily condensed into manageable groups and tables for further analyses </li></ul><ul><li>Should classify the new data into some purposeful and usable categories </li></ul><ul><li>Coding is done at this stage </li></ul><ul><li>Tabulation – classified data are put into tables </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis, after tabulation is based on the computation of various percentages, coefficients, etc. by applying statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Tests of significance would be applied wherever relevant </li></ul>
  30. 30. 9. Hypothesis Testing <ul><li>Do the data support the hypothesis or they contrary? </li></ul><ul><li>Chi Square test, t-test, f-test are normally used </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis testing will result in either accepting the hypothesis or in rejecting it </li></ul>
  31. 31. 10. Generalization & Interpretation <ul><li>To arrive at a generalization, that is, to build a theory </li></ul><ul><li>Or to interpret the data in terms of existing state of knowledge (theories) </li></ul>
  32. 32. 11. Preparation of Report/Thesis <ul><li>Has to prepare the report </li></ul><ul><li>The layout of the report is as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>The prefatory part </li></ul><ul><li>The Main Body/Text </li></ul><ul><li>The Supplemental Part </li></ul>
  33. 33. The Prefatory Part <ul><li>Title page </li></ul><ul><li>Certification </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgments </li></ul><ul><li>Preface </li></ul><ul><li>Contents page </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Main Body <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Summary of Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Main Report </li></ul><ul><li>conclusion </li></ul>
  35. 35. The Supplemental Part <ul><li>References, or </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>Appendices </li></ul><ul><li>Index </li></ul>
  36. 36. Good Research Requires <ul><ul><li>The scope and limitations of the work to be clearly defined. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The process to be clearly explained so that it can be reproduced and verified by other researchers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A thoroughly planned design that is as objective as possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly ethical standards are applied. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All limitations are documented. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data be adequately analyzed and explained. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All findings are presented unambiguously and all conclusions be justified by sufficient evidence. </li></ul></ul>