Managing for Social Inclusion: The Risks of Inefficient Public Policies
Managing for Social InclusionThe Risks of Inefficient Public PoliciesLeisa Perch, Team Leader - Rural and Sustainable Development, IPC-IG/UNDP
About IPC-IGProduces policy-oriented research and facilitates learning and innovation at the global level on poverty reduction and inclusive growth through: Applied Research & Knowledge Production I. Inclusive Growth and Fiscal Space II. Rural and Sustainable Development III. Social Protection and Employment Outreach, Advocacy & Partnerships Policy Dialogue & South-South Exchange
Global Solutions Rio + 20 will place a major focus on institutions for sustainable development and on the green economy South-South cooperation harness the comparative The role of emerging advantages of partners in economies in global the South to bring about sustainability challenges transformational change in and solutions the global economy and to The emerging risks from support sustainability of resource scarcity for social their own economic and social development equity and inclusive growth
Sustainability – The ChangeNeeded Delivering across the three pillars of Sustainability: Environmental, Social and Economic
1.The Green Economy… ? Getting the Policies and Finance Right “Whereas technology is often touted as the starting point for green growth, social dimensions may prove to be even more crucial” – Nicholas Perrin
Going Green with EquitySocial inclusion and the reduction of the inequalities should be at the centre of the strategyWill require social sustainability principles, such as:• preferential access for the poor and vulnerable to new jobs, green microfinance and infrastructure• adaptable social protection mechanisms which mitigate the impact of environmental and disaster risk and provide income support for green consumption by the poor• a rights-based approach which tackles fundamental structural inequalities Source: PERCH, Leisa (2012).The False Dichotomy Between Economy and Society: Implications for a Global Green Economy. UNRISD
Creating a Virtuous Circle Putting an end to the spiral of environmental degradation and poverty: through innovation in employment and education through synergies between public policy, the private sector, the non- profit sector (NGOs) and civil society through local and sustainable solutions bringing co-benefits: for example, the nexus between food and nutrition, water security and energy
2. Employment and Education Role of Public Policy, Society, Private Sector and NGOs Those who have access to resources, education and opportunities are empowered and less vulnerable to climate change, because of their capacity to cope and to identify or create other opportunities for themselves
Equal access and opportunities Creating jobs is not enough. One must ensure that these individuals are among the beneficiaries: More than 600 million people are disabled, many of whom live under the poverty line More than 33 million live with HIV/AIDS Over 300 million are indigenous peoples More than 2 billion have no access to safe water and sanitation 1.3 billion are without access to electricity More than a billion are undernourished Over 30 million are refugees or displaced people. More than one billion rural poor Education is key – youth, women, famers, etc. Risk: Policies that ignore unequal access to finance, land, food, education and other resources potentially result in further inequality which can in turn reinforce unsustainable patterns
Management of natural assets Social “Much of the planet’s remaining resources are located in rural areas where more than Accountability two thirds of the 1.4 billion people currently living in extreme poverty reside. The + transparent, accountable and participatory governance of natural assets is now a key Ecological policy challenge which needs urgent attention”1 Sustainability• Reforming natural resource law• Establishing Indigenous autonomy regimes• Corporate Citizenship• South-South Cooperation 1 Source: Khoday and Perch, Development from Below: Social Accountability in
Employment and Access to FoodSourced from FAO, 2011: Presentation to Expert Group Meeting on The Challenges of Building Employment for SustainableRecovery
Mainstreaming gender Fast facts:• Women work two-thirds of the • Rural women are the main producers of world’s working hours yet receive the world’s staple crops only 10% of the world’s income. • About half of economically active• Women members of parliament women worldwide cite agriculture as their globally average only 17% of all primary source of income, yet barely any seats. 92% of all of the world’s cabinet ministers are men. own the land they farm.• Seventy-five percent of the world’s • Agriculture systems, which are women 876 million illiterate adults are centered and earth centered, are also women. more productive.• Men own 99% of the world’s property.• In a sample of 141 countries over the period 1981–2002, it was found that natural disasters (and their subsequent impact) on average kill more women than men or kill women at an earlier age than men. Sources: Social Watch, 2007 and 2008; Oxfam, 2007; Neumayer and Plümper, 2007; and ILO, 2008.
3. Measuring the Successof Initiatives Metrics based on:Human rightsCivil, cultural, economic, political and social rights inherent to all human beings.• Eg.: the right to food: Brazilian Food Insecurity ScaleInequalityInequity constitutes a violation of human rights. Are policies successful in reducing disparities (eg. rural-urban gap, ethnic cliveages, etc.)?• Eg.: Gini Coefficient, MDGsInclusivenessAre policies socially-inclusive? (youth, marginalized, indigenous peoples, etc.)GenderAre policies gender-blind, gender-aware or gender-transformative? (WFP/ALINe)• Eg.: The Women in Agriculture Empowerment Index (WAEI)Sustainability and Environmental justiceLong–term plans and adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change. Protects the most vulnerable.• Eg.: SDGs
Example: The Women’sEmpowerment in Agriculture IndexExample of a tool for measurement This Index is an innovation in the measurement of women’s empowerment, which was developed from July 2011 to February 2012 based on pilot surveys conducted between September to November 2011 in Feed the Future’s zones of influence in three countries with markedly different sociocultural contexts: Bangladesh, Guatemala, and Uganda Source: IFPRI (2012). The Women<s Empowerment in Agriculture Index.
5. Innovative Programs and PoliciesIn the emerging South: India’s National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme Brazil’s biofuel industry and approach to food security South Africa’s Expanded Public Works Programme Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net ProgrammeGlobal: Poverty and Environment Initiative – UNEP, UNDP and REDD UNDP’s Women Green Business Initiative Ethical Markets Network
Example: UNDP’s Women Green Business Alternative • Green economy initiatives are not automatically inclusive. • This initiative equips women to engage in new economic activities that address climate change threats while building self-sufficient and resilient communities by implementing three strategic elements: 1)Creating a policy environment that enhances equal opportunities for women 2)Building capacity for women entrepreneurs 3)Increasing women’s access to climatehttp://www.dfid.gov.uk/r4d/news.asp?ArticleID=50436 change finance mechanisms
The Solidarity Economy (Brazil)“Social economy’’ or growth driven by social accountability andresponsibility combined with a focus on environmental sustainability.In Brazil, the "Solidarity Economy" started in the 1980s with the organization of ruralworkers, it expanded in the 90s and early 2000s into a social movement.It is now linked into the national policy framework through a National Secretariat and acouncil and more recently a policy signed by Lula integrating the solidarity economy intoBrazil’s growth strategy. In 2005 it involved over a million persons and 41% ofmunicipalities in Brazil. While linked to the concept of productive inclusion, it goes further.In November 2010, President Lula signed a decree making Brazil the first Equitable andSolidarity trade system in the world that is recognized and supported by the state. Solidarity Economy is a vision in which a series of parameters are to be followed during the execution of public policies aimed at creating employment and revenues through actions of promotion of the solidarity economy and of fair trade.
Thank You!Leisa Perch Team Leader –Rural and Sustainable Development IPC-IG/UNDP Ministerio do Exercito, Esplanada dos Ministerios, Bloco O, 7 Andar, Brasilia DF Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: +55 61 2105 5012