Constitutionalism and Federalism Events Jeremiah Oteh U.S. History
FDR’s New Deal
The Great depression was devastating to U.S. citizens who thrived in our free market economy. Politically, President Hoover suggested to let the economy fix itself; however new president, Franklin Delano Roosevelt had a new plan. The new plan was an innovative way to get government involve in a way like never before.
President Roosevelt believed he, along with the federal government, could provide the change that America wanted. His New Deal policy was a series of government projects that directly affected the well-being of citizens
A new belief was born in the United States. This belief was that “prosperity returned when government grew…prosperity returned because government grew” (Lowe 20). It was a revolution in American history. Faith and assurance was instilled back into the American people.
Though not single handedly (WWII did have a impact) the New Deal and more government control brought America out of the Depression.
It took the supreme court deeming the New Deal unconstitutional to abate FDR’s spree of policies
Truman’s Fair Deal
In the Election of 1948, which featured Henry Wallace and Harry S. Truman, our country could have gone two ways. We could have continued to expand on FDR's New Deal principals and continue to progress, or we could have disregarded the social strives Roosevelt made and taken a more conservative approach to government.
Truman, like FDR, had a desire for government to expand and help growth. The election expanded democracy because African Americans helped decide the election by a majority voting for Truman. The military grew under Truman mostly because of the Cold War and heightened fear of the Soviet Union.
His presidency was important because he expanded New Deal ideals under his "Fair Deal".
JFK’s New Frontier
In 1960 John F. Kennedy promised to take America to a “New Frontier” which included a society that the government worked to eliminate poverty, provide healthcare for all, and provide schooling for everyone.
Kennedy pushed to improve America’s space program.
Kennedy began to show pro-active supports for civil rights.
Kennedy’s assassination on November 22, 1963 showed the opposition some had for his vision of stabilizing increased government involvement.
Lyndon B. Johnson’s Great Society
Lyndon B. Johnson was affected greatly by the Vietnam war, but he was progressive in domestic affairs
He declared a war on poverty
Advocated liberalism using government to help people. A “Great Society”
He expands social security and Medicare.
Signing of the Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights act. This was very important because it showed citizens that the government was going to follow through on the 13 th , 14 th , and 15 th amendments on the constitution (going to follow through with what they say).
Richard Nixon: Watergate Scandal
Richard Nixon accomplished many things in relation to foreign policy, but as much as he did around the world it was all wiped away by his tricks done in the U.S. Nixon thought a lot of people were his enemy, and he wanted to get rid of his enemies any way he could.
On June 17 1972 five men were caught trying to break into the Democratic committee office at the Watergate complex. These men were identified as officials of the republican party and CREEP (the Committee to re-elect the president).
The tricks didn't end there; republican officials and associates of Nixon were accused of bugging phones and spreading false information on democratic candidates. Nixon tried to cover everything up, but facing impeachment he resigned on August 9, 1974.
The Watergate scandal drastically hurt the way people perceived their own government. People felt like they could now challenge and question government through riots and protest.
Some citizens concluded that all politicians were corrupt because the government could secretly violate individual rights. As a result congress passed a number of bills limiting the power of the president. They way America viewed their presidents was forever changed.
This war (1959-1975) was the first time U.S. citizens really question government on a major national policy with the decision to go to war
Before the 1960s, and the emergence of the baby-boom generation, public opposition to authority was shocking to many. This generation changed American culture forever. Students in the 60s sought more control over their own lives
The war in Vietnam unified many people more than ever. The University students and faculty held "teach ins" to inform others about the United States hand in Vietnam. The Students for a Democratic Society sponsored the 1st major anti-war march in 1965 in Washington D.C. This protest was unprecedented because it was at the beginning of the war when few knew much.
As SDS groups grew so did opposition to the war. The Youth Counter Culture Movement changed American culture. Students showed that you no longer had to accept what government said. Opposition come hand in hand with the war.
Reagan and New Federalism
Because Americans had been let down by government so much, Reagan promised “to reduce the role of the federal government” ( Lowe 22).
“ Reaganomics” refer to his cutting back the federal budget and tax cuts.
Got rid of federal programs.
Many of his plans were in direct opposition to what presidents before him like Roosevelt and Kennedy believed in would benefit U.S. citizens
George W. Bush’s Security Policies
After the terrorists attacks on September 11, 2001, President Bush’ administration enacted acts in order to retaliate against the enemy and prevent another attack from happening
The prominent act is the Patriot Act, which stands for the Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act
The Patriot Act increases federal law enforcement to prevent attacks against the U.S. The ambiguity of when its necessary for an official to get involved is what has brought controversy to this act.
This act, many say, has increased federalism because government has gotten more involved in security in public areas, which hinders liberties.