On December 21, 1970, Elvis Presley paid a visit to President Richard M. Nixon at the White House in Washington, D.C. The meeting was initiated by Presley, who wrote Nixon a six-page letter requesting a visit with the President and suggesting that he be made a "Federal Agent-at-Large" in the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs. The events leading up to and after the meeting are detailed in the documentation and photographs included here, which include Presley's handwritten letter, memoranda from Nixon staff and aides, and the thank-you note from Nixon for the gifts (including a Colt 45 pistol and family photos) that Presley brought with him to the Oval Office.
Next to it is art associated with another Time cover from July 1, 1974, pictured at left, titled "Testing Detente" by Jack Davis . In it, Nixon meets then-Soviet premier Leonid Brezhnev on the eve of the 1974 Moscow summit, and both leaders are depicted with a handful of missiles behind their backs. Behind Nixon in the cartoon is one of his harshest Democratic critics in the Senate, Washington Sen. Scoop Jackson , trying to pull the president back.
Plumbers respond to “leaks” of secret information and to investigate Nixon’s political enemies. In 1971 the Plumbers tried to damage the reputation of Daniel Ellsberg—the man who had leaked the Pentagon Papers—by breaking into Ellsberg’s psychiatrist’s office and looking for information on Ellsberg. early 1972 the Plumbers decided to break into the offices of the Democratic National Committee at the Watergate hotel to collect information about the Democratic strategy for the 1972 election. After the Election Several men associated with the break-in were officials who worked for the White House or Nixon’s re-election team. People wondered if Nixon knew about the wrongdoing and if he helped to cover it up. Nixon ordered an investigation into the Watergate scandal Several men resigned from their White House jobs as a result of the investigation and the Republicans were satisfied. Still Democrats demanded an independent investigator—Archibald Cox.
Eastern Establishment Saturday night massacre Nixon argued that executive privilege gave him the right to withhold the tapes. Investigators rejected Nixon’s claim of executive privilege and Special Prosecutor Cox and the Senate Watergate committee issued subpoenas demanding the tapes. In response, Nixon executed the so-called Saturday night massacre. Nixon directed attorney general Elliot Richardson to fire Cox. He refused and quit. Nixon then ordered Richardson’s assistant to fire Cox. He refused and resigned. Finally, the third-ranking official in the Justice Department fired Cox. The president’s actions shocked the public. The Senate Investigation The Senate committee began its own investigation to find out what the president knew and when did he know it. Former attorney general John Dean reported that he had talked with Nixon about Watergate and its cover-up many times. The bombshell came when a former presidential aide named Alexander Butterfield said that Nixon had tape-recorded all conversations in his office since 1971. Nixon did not want to give up the tapes.
New technology could reveal what was on 18 minute tapehttp://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/us_and_americas/article6732422.ece
Nixon Resigns The Supreme Court ruled that Nixon must hand over the tapes. At the same time, the House Judiciary Committee voted to recommend impeachment. On August 8, 1974, Nixon resigned the presidency. He must have known that the tapes would reveal clear evidence of his wrongdoings.
Afghanistan and the War on Terror – Soviet Occupation http://www.pbs.org/newshour/indepth_coverage/asia/afghanistan/soviet.html
The Stalemated 70s
Shifting Loyalties in the South• Look at the maps, and explain the political evolution of the South starting in 1948.• Explain the reasons for the evolution, citing at least 2 historical examples that support your analysis. (ie. Significance of 1948 election, etc.)
Learning Objectives1. Describe Nixon’s foreign policy in relation to Vietnam, the Soviet Union and Communist China.2. Analyze Nixon’s domestic policies, his opposition to the “Warren Court,” his “southern strategy,” and his landslide victory against George McGovern in 1972.3. Examine the conflicts created by the secret bombing of Cambodia, the American withdrawal from Vietnam, and the first Arab oil embargo.4. Discuss the Watergate scandal and Nixon’s resignation.5. Explain the related economic, energy, and Middle East Crisis of the 1970s and why both Republican and Democratic administrations were unable to successfully address them.6. Describe the racial tensions of the 1970s and the rise of the new feminist movement.7. Discuss the Iranian Crisis and its disastrous political consequences for President Carter.
Nixon’s Politics andDomestic Policies• New Federalism • Revenue sharing• Social Programs • Medicare, Medicaid, AFDC, SSI• War on Drugs• Affirmative action • Philadelphia Plan• Environmentalism •
Battling the Warren Court Landmark Liberal Decisions• Griswold vs. Connecticut (1965) struck down a state law that banned the use of contraceptives, even by married couples; created a “right to privacy.”• Gideon vs. Wainwright (1963) - all criminals were entitled to legal counsel, even if they were too poor to afford it.• Esobendo (1964) and Miranda (1966) – 5th amendment right to remain silent; accused must be informed of rights before statements can be admissible in court• Engel vs. Vitale (1962) and School District of Abington Township vs. Schempp (1963) Court ruled against required prayers and Bible readings in public schools; 1st amendment – establishment & free exercise clauses• Reynolds vs. Sims (1964) - state legislatures, both upper and lower houses, would have to be
A stagnant economy • Low productivity – Unskilled workers, less capital investment (deteriorating machinery), Govt. health/safety guidelines • Severe inflation – Great Society – Vietnam **no tax increase Military and welfare spending puts to offset spending $ in people’s pockets, but doesn’t produce goods. More dollars + fewer goods = INFLATION!
ock!” Sh Ni xo n“ Vietnam + Social Programs = High inflation• Goodbye Gold Standard! • DEVALUING THE DOLLAR• Price Controls • 90-day freeze of wages and prices in order to stop inflation from rising. • The wage and price controls did work temporarily.
Assessing Nixon’s Politics: A Conservative or a Liberal? Nixon the Conservative Nixon the Liberal• Small govt. • funding for programs such as food stamps• “southern strategy” and increased Social to appeal to former Security payments segregationists • environmental issues• Fought crime and drug use • Created a new organization to• Appt Warren Burger as prevent work-related Chief Justice injuries and deaths • Advanced affirmative action
Nixon’s Foreign Policy• Henry Kissinger • Nixon’s national security advisor and Sec. of State • shaped much of Nixon’s foreign policy.• Play China and SU “And you and I will end the war.” off of each other in attempt to force N Vietnam to peace talks
Realpolitik: Amer ica? s best forWhat’ How does this compare to earlier Cold War era policies?? • Practicality v. Ideology • basing foreign policies on realistic views of national interest rather than on broad rules or principles. • US should not be bound by promises to fight communism or “The enemy of my enemy is my friend.” promote freedom wherever it is threatened.
“Ping-Pong Diplomacy”:U. S. Players at Great Wall, 1971 "The ping heard round the world." – Time Magazine first group of Americans allowed into China since the Communist takeover in 1949
Cozying up to China: “Six Weeks that Changed the World”•OBJECTIVES: •US – peace negotiations in Vietnam •China – the return of Taiwan to the People’s Rep.•US accepted “One China” policy –lessened support for Nationalist ’72 – Nixon is the first AmericanTaiwan President to visit China – shocks Americans!
Mao on Nixon: “I like to deal with rightists . . . They say what they really think – not like the leftists, who say one thing and mean another.” ust a iss inger: “J Mao on K e man. He is tl funny lit er with n erves all ovsh uddering comes to see e he every tim me.” President Nixon and Prime Minister Zhou Enlai, left, in Shanghai at the end of Nixon’s visit.
Relations with the Soviets: Thawing the Cold War• Grain Deal• ‘69 Slowing the arms race: • ABM, Strategic Arms Round #1 Limitations Treaty Khrushchev – (SALT I) The Kitchen Debate • build up of MIRVs**Détente – relaxing Cold War tensions GOAL: build a more Round #2 stable world in Brezhnev – which the US and arms race its adversaries accepted one
Trouble in the Middle East• 1967 Six-Day War– Israel occupying territory that had belonged to the nations of Egypt, Syria, and Jordan– UN resolution - called for Israel to withdraw from these lands and for the Arab states to recognize Israel’s right to exist• 1973 Yom Kippur War– Egypt and Syria attacked Israel, and the fighting affected the United States.•
rgo ’73 Arab Oil Emba• OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) • agreed not to ship oil to the United States and other allies of Israel. 1973, Congressed responded to an oil crisis by passing the National Maximum Speed Law which deprived states of highway funding if they allowed speeds higher than 55 mph. This is the speed at which wind resistance starts to increase and more fuel is burned. This restriction actually worked and saved gasoline, but the Congress was pressured to repeal the law in 1987. Now many states allow speeds of up to 70 or 75 mph and in some parts of rural Texas the speed limit is 80 mph. Source: Mental Floss Magazine - Volume 6 Issue 6
The first signs that all was not well with Detroit was the 1973 oil crisis, when Middle East producers declared a boycott. Queuesformed at petrol stations, and consumers for the first time switched in large numbers to smaller, more economical cars – often madeby the Japanese – which they found more reliable. The Detroit-made cars had more defects, and Detroits attempts to build asuccessful small car failed. Source: BBC
1990 – Iraqs anger at Kuwaiti over-productionsparks second Gulf War “economic warfare” In 1990, Iraq sharply decreased its oil production to raise the global price of oil; Kuwait increased theirs, thus keeping prices low
Shuttle Diplomacy Kissinger traveled— shuttled—from group to group trying to work out separate agreements.
The Watergate Scandal Begins…On June 17, 1972, police arrested five men who had broken into the offices of the Democratic National Committee. Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein of the Washington Post refused to let the story die and continued to investigate the break-in. The Post reported that the break-in was part of a widespread spying effort by the Nixon campaign, but this did not seem to affect voters.
The Crisis Continues• Nixon continued to deny his involvement in the break-in or a cover-up.• The White House revealed that an 18- minute portion of the tape had been erased.• calls for impeachment.• The “smoking gun” tape reveals the cover-up!
Gerald Ford• Vice President Spiro T. Agnew resigned after being charged with cheating on his taxes and taking payments in return for political favors.• Gerald R. Ford becomes VP • the Republican leader in the House of Representatives. Ford was the first person ever to become president without having been elected either president or vice- president.
Gerald Ford’s Presidency Ford • President Ford granted a full pardon to Richard Nixon for any crime he mayPardons have committed. Nixon • tried to cut government spending to curb inflation but the Democratic Ford Congress passed spending bills against his wishes. as • foreign affairs - Ford continued thePresident policy of détente; kept Kissinger as Secretary of State. • Ford won his party’s nomination after Election a close struggle with formerChallenge California governor Ronald Reagan.
The Playboy Interview - November 1976Because Im just human and Im tempted and Christ set some almost impossible standards for us. The Bible says, "Thou shalt not commit adultery." Christ said, I tell you that anyone who looks on a woman with lust has in his heart already committed adultery. Ive looked on a lot of women with lust. Ive committed adultery in my heart many times.... This is something that God recognizes, that I will do and have done, and God forgives me for it. But that doesnt mean that I condemn someone who not only looks on a woman with lust but who leaves his wife and shacks up with somebody out of wedlock. Christ says, dont consider yourself better than someone else because one guy screws a whole bunch of women while the other guy is loyal to his wife. The guy whos loyal to his wife ought not to be condescending or proud because of the relative degree of sinfulness.
Humanitarian Diplomacy• “human rights” = guiding principle of foreign policy – S. Africa and Rhodesia – oppressed black majority• **Camp David Accords (78) – Israel withdraws from Sinai – Egypt recognizes Israel’s borders Anwar Sadat (Egypt), Jimmy Carter and Menachem Begin (Israel)
Other notable foreign policy moves…• Recognition of China• Control of Panama canal turned over in 2000
Economy and Energy Crisis• Ford recession brought temporary drop in inflation; soared to 13% by ‘79; bill for imported oil = DEBT• “oil shocks” – US could never again be economically isolated; dependant on foreign trade• Inflation – hurts those on fixed income – Interest rates ; prime = 20% (‘80) – Industries suffer – small business, construction, housing… **makes people doubt the future!
The Malaise Speech• What circumstances surrounded Carter’s July, 1979 address to the American people?• What does Carter say is the crisis facing the American people? What is his tone?• How do you think the American people reacted to Carter’s address?• How would Carter’s speech play to Americans today? Excerpt
What finally shakes Americans??• Revolution in Iran – “the Great Shah overthrown Satan” (Jan. ’79) – Muslim fundamentalists resented Westernization/secul arization• Ayatollah Khomeini – Political/religious leader for life – Islamic Republic
Russians in Afghanistan!• Initially aiding Comm govt• invaded Afghanistan to defend regime• threaten region, US access to oil in the Persian Gulf• Ended SALT II negotiations
Did we give the Soviets their Vietnam??"We didnt push the Russians to intervene, but we knowingly increased the probability that theywould... That secret operation was an excellent idea. It had the effect of drawing the Soviets into the Afghan trap... The day that the Soviets officiallycrossed the border, I wrote to President Carter, "We now have the opportunity of giving to the Soviet Union its Vietnam War." - Alleged Brzezinski quote from 1998
Carter’s Reaction• Carter Doctrine: the U.S. would not allow any other outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf.• terminated Russian Wheat Deal• prohibited Americans from participating in the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow• reinstated registration for the draft for young males.
• Carter – funding for anti-communist guerillas (mujahedeen)• Israeli-modified Chinese weapons through deal w/ Pakistan An Afghan Mujahid demonstrates positioning of a soviet-built SA-7 hand- held surface-to-air missile.
"The U.S. had nothing whatsoever to do with these peoples decision to fight ... but well be damned by history if we let them fight with stones." – Charlie Wilson (D-Rep, TX)
The Aftermath• Soviets withdraw troops• radical Islamization of Afghanistan• near-disintegration of the Afghan state = TAKEOVER BY THE TALIBAN in 96
Tomorrow’s Essay• To what extent were the social and economic problems of the 1970s a result of failed American policies and actions of the 1960s? Which of the transformations that affected America in the 1970s would likely have happened under any circumstances?
Some extra info. on Carter if you’re interested…
Carter Faces Domestic Challenges• Jimmy Carter came across as an honest man of deep religious faith who promised not to lie to the American people.• Carter immediately tried to help the nation heal some of the wounds of the past.– Ex. He issued a pardon to thousands of Vietnam War draft dodgers.• Carter tackled problems in the economy and with energy.• Finally, Carter tried to deal with environmental issues.
Challenges Facing the Nation The Economy and Energy The Impact• Inflation and • The economy added many unemployment were new jobs to help high. battle unemployment.• Carter made the • Carter was unable to development of a bring down inflation, national energy policy in fact, it got worse. a priority. • Carter’s energy• Wanted to ease policies were dependence on foreign successful at helping oil through energy reduce American conservation, dependence on foreign developing new energy oil. supplies, and loosening government • American production of regulation of the energy increased under American oil industry Carter.• Asked Americans to conserve energy
Environmental Concerns Environmental Wins Environmental Losses• Believed that • In 1979 a mishap at a conserving fuel was a nuclear power plant on key way to avoid Three Mile Island plundering the terrified the nation. environment • Although little• Passed the Alaska radiation was released, National Interest Lands public concern about Conservation Act the safety of nuclear power grew.• The act protected more than 100 million acres • Chemicals that a of land and doubled the company dumped in New size of the nation’s York began to seep up park and wildlife through the ground at refuge system. Love Canal and were linked to high rates of birth defects. • Experts warned that there were likely many more toxic waste sites
Carter’s Foreign Policy• Carter came to office with little foreign-policy experience.• Carter promised that the concept of human rights would be at the forefront of his foreign policy.• Carter worked to strengthen ties between the United States and the Soviet Union and China.• Carter gave control of the Panama Canal back to Panama.• Carter helped Egypt and Israel deal with some of the divisions that caused conflicts between their countries.
Carter’s Foreign Policy Human Rights Soviet Recognizing Relations China• Basic ideas outlined in • Carter wrote • Formally the United to Brezhnev recognized the Nations about his government of Declaration concerns with the Communist of Human Soviet human People’s Rights rights Republic of issues. China• Carter expected • Brezhnev • Ended friends and politely said recognition of enemies alike that each the Republic to uphold the country of China on highest should mind Taiwan standards in their own the treatment business. of their citizens. • Concluded SALT II talks in 1979 that limited
Carter’s Foreign Policy Panama Canal Camp David Accords• American control of • Greatest foreign- the Panama Canal had policy achievement been a source of conflict between the • Conflict between Egypt two countries. and Israel continued. Egypt would not• In 1977 Carter and recognize Israel and Panama’s leader agreed Israel continued to that Panama would take occupy Egyptian control of the canal territory. by the end of 1999. • Carter guided Anwar• The Senate narrowly el-Sadat and Menachem approved the treaties. Begin to a historic agreement that came to• For some Americans, be called the Camp loss of control of the David Accords. canal represented a decline in American • Begin and Sadat won power. the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979.
How did international crises affect Carter’s presidency?In 1979 a series of events occurred that seemed to overwhelm Carter’s presidency.In 1979 the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan.On November 4, 1979, a mob attacked the American embassy in Tehran, Iran’s capital, and took several dozen Americans hostage.
International Crises Afghanistan Iran• Soviets invaded • Revolution in Iran Afghanistan to ensure overthrew the shah and continued Communist replaced him with the rule in the country. Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini.• The attack threatened U.S.-Soviet relations • The American and called into government allowed the question Carter’s shah to enter the ability to respond to United States for Soviet aggression. medical treatment—this action enraged many• Carter blocked shipment Iranians. of grain to the Soviet Union and said the • A mob attacked the United States would U.S. embassy in Tehran boycott the 1980 and took Americans Olympics. hostage.• Americans did not like • Carter’s attempts to the grain embargo or negotiate the release the Olympic boycott of the hostages went because they seemed to nowhere.
A Crisis of Confidence• The Iranian Hostage situation dragged on throughout the presidential election year of 1980.• The situation in Iran also drove up gasoline prices so that prices of goods in the United States went up and inflation soared.• Many voters held Carter responsible for the problems and the downcast mood of the country.