Ending the Occupation: Hawai‘i and the Baltic States K ūhiō Vogeler, Ph.D. Political Science
Theory in  International Relations “ A theory sets forth a systematic view of phenomena by presenting a series of proposit...
Historical Institutionalism <ul><li>“ The basic, and deceptively simple, idea [of historical institutionalism] is that the...
“ Path Dependency”  & “Critical Junctures” <ul><li>Path Dependency </li></ul><ul><li>“ When a government programme or orga...
Sovereignty Defined <ul><li>“ The supreme, absolute, and uncontrollable power by which an independent state is governed.” ...
Attributes of Sovereignty in  Public International Law <ul><li>“ To qualify as a state under international law, an entity ...
Government Defined “ The machinery (agent) by which the sovereign power in a state expresses its will and exercises its fu...
Merger of Sovereignty <ul><li>Merging of one sovereign State with another sovereign State by  agreement </li></ul>Sovereig...
Examples of Merger: US 1846 British Treaty 1803 French Treaty 1819 Spanish Treaty 1848 Mexican Treaty
Examples of Merger: USSR 1922 Treaty Forming USSR 1925 Uzbek Treaty 1944 Tuva Treaty No Treaty
Prolonged Occupations in this Study <ul><li>An occupation is “effective control of a power (be it one or more states or an...
U.S. Field Manual 27-10 and the Laws of Occupation 358. Occupation Does Not Transfer Sovereignty Being an incident of war,...
Prolonged Occupations &  Historical Institutionalism Path Dependency of Occupation Critical Juncture End of Occupation Con...
Historical Institutionalism:  The Baltic States and Hawai‘i <ul><li>Because the Baltic States have been able to end their ...
Three Features of  Prolonged Occupations <ul><li>Recognition of Sovereignty. </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation Begins. </li></u...
1) Recognition of Sovereignty. The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania
Sovereignty of the Baltic States   1918  Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania proclaim independence. 1920  Baltic States sign pea...
1) Recognition of Sovereignty. Hawai‘i
Sovereignty of Hawai‘i Nov. 28, 1843  Britain & France, in the Anglo-Franco Declaration, recognize the Hawaiian Islands “a...
Hawai‘i and the United States <ul><li>The Hawaiian Kingdom signs five treaties with the United States: </li></ul><ul><li>H...
Hawaiian Diplomatic Relations <ul><li>By 1893  Hawai‘i manned over 90 Embassies and Consulates throughout the world </li><...
2) Occupation Begins. The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania
Article I. In the event of a territorial and political rearrangement in  the areas belonging to the Baltic States (Finland...
Aftermath of World War II Soviet Troops Marching Through Latvia: 10/13/1944. 1940-1941  Soviets Occupy Baltic States; Then...
2) Occupation Begins. Hawai‘i
1893 United States Intervention On January 16, 1893, the U.S. military illegally “ intervened ” in the internal affairs of...
Investigation and Petitions On March 11, 1893, U.S. President Grover Cleveland investigated the overthrow of Queen Lili’uo...
1898 Spanish-American War April 21, 1898, the United States of America declares war against the Kingdom of Spain and fight...
Congress to Unilaterally Annex Hawai‘i May 1, 1898, Representative Francis Newlands from Nevada, through the House Committ...
Hawai‘i Occupied during  Spanish-American War In order to secure the islands as a U.S. military outpost, President McKinle...
Explosion of U.S. Migration between 1900-1950 (U.S. census reports) <ul><li>Migration from U.S. territories and continent ...
A Secret Debate Until 1969, the United States conceals the “Secret Debate on U.S. Seizure of Hawai‘i” In 1898 Congressiona...
Misdirection of “Annexation” Although a treaty was never ratified, the statue of President McKinley (in front of McKinley ...
Intermission!!! Two Minute Break
The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania 3) Ending the Occupation
5 Phases of Restoration in Baltic States <ul><li>Consolidation of Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of Mass Political Grou...
1. Consolidation of Issues <ul><li>Occupation Identified </li></ul><ul><li>Dissidents/ Activists Seek Disclosure of Occupa...
2. Creation of Mass Political Groups E. Widespread Academic Acceptance of  “Oc cupation ” F. Involvement of Political Grou...
‘ Singing Revolution’ 11 September 1988,  300,000 attend “Songs of Estonia” rally.
The Baltic Way <ul><li>1989, August  “Baltic Way”; Supreme Soviet accepts existence of “Secret Protocols.”  </li></ul><ul>...
3. Infiltration of Political System <ul><li>J. Infiltration of the Occupant’s Political System </li></ul><ul><li>K. Denunc...
4. Registration of Electorate M. Identification of Legitimate Electorate N. Registration of Electorate O. Public Acceptanc...
5. Election of “New” Parliament P. Election of  “Ne w ”  Parliament from Electorate Q. Name Changed of Occupant Legislatur...
The Goal in the Baltic States Expressing  the Sovereign Right of the Will of the People Legitimacy
State Continuity <ul><ul><ul><li>Kelsen , in 1945:  “A  state exists …  not only in space but also in time, and if we rega...
Establishing Continuity <ul><li>Crawford : “A State may be said to continue as such so long as an identified polity exists...
Baltic States:  Population & Legal Order <ul><li>1. Jus Sanguinis  (Parentage) </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutions </li></ul><...
Review of the Process in the Baltic States <ul><li>5 Phases of Restoration </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidation of Issues </li>...
Legal Continuity (Part 1) Marek : “[O]f these  two legal orders , that of the occupied State is the regular and ‘normal’, ...
Legal Continuity (Part 2) Crawford : “Even if the total lack of independence of a State over a period of time might lead t...
Legal Continuity (Part 3) Brownlie : “In some cases, where the basis for continuity is tenuous, estoppel, special agreemen...
Sovereignty: External & Internal <ul><li>External Sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Sovereignty </li></ul><ul><ul><ul...
Dominium & Imperium Bluntschli distinguishes between “the sovereign rights of the State in its territory (Gebietshoheit, i...
Diagram of  Dominium  &  Imperium Dominium  (Ultimate Land Title) Imperium  (Authority to Govern)
“ The King Never Dies” deSmith: “Upon the death or abdication of a monarch, the throne and the prerogatives of the Crown p...
Sovereignty under Occupation Marek: “[B]elligerent occupation effects no transfer of sovereignty.” Vitas: “[T]he military ...
International Law:  Articles 42 & 43, 1907 Hague Regulations Article 42.  Territory is considered occupied when it is actu...
Lithuanian Procedures for Reestablishing Legal Order <ul><li>6pm, 11 March 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Lithuanian Soviet Social...
3) Ending the Occupation Hawai‘i Questions First!
The Goal in Hawai‘i <ul><li>External Sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Sovereignty </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dominium...
Preamble to the  1840 Constitution of Hawaiian Kingdom “ The origin of the present government, and system of polity is as ...
3 Classes of Vested Rights <ul><ul><li>1.   The government (King [1]) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. The landlord (Chiefs,  Kon...
The Māhele & US Occupation:  Effect on  Dominium  &  Imperium <ul><li>Sai : The Māhele “did not effect the vested rights o...
Diagram: Changes in  Dominium  &  Imperium  in Hawai‘i Three Classes of Vested Rights King Konohiki (252) Native Tenants A...
Dominium  &  Imperium   in Hawai‘i Today <ul><li>Sai in 1995: “native tenants” still “possessed an undivided vested right ...
Voting Laws & Hawai‘i’s Continuity  <ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Jus Sanguinis </li></ul><ul><li>All   Non-Native, ...
What Phase is Hawai‘i in Today? <ul><li>Consolidation of Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of Mass Political Groups </li><...
Online Informational Resources <ul><li>“ Hawaiian Kingdom” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://hawaiiankingdom.org </li></ul></ul...
Ending the Occupation: Hawai‘i and  the Baltic States K ūhiō Vogeler, Ph.D. Political Science
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Ending the Occupation: Hawai‘i and the Baltic States

  1. 1. Ending the Occupation: Hawai‘i and the Baltic States K ūhiō Vogeler, Ph.D. Political Science
  2. 2. Theory in International Relations “ A theory sets forth a systematic view of phenomena by presenting a series of propositions or hypotheses that specify relations among variables in order to present explanations and make predictions about the phenomenon .” (Emphasis added.) Contending Theories of International Relations, Dougherty & Pfaltzgraff, p. 23
  3. 3. Historical Institutionalism <ul><li>“ The basic, and deceptively simple, idea [of historical institutionalism] is that the policy choices made when an institution is being formed, or when a policy is initiated, will have continuing and largely determinate influence over the policy far into the future.” Institutional Theory in Political Science , Second Edition, Guy Peters, 2005, p. 71. </li></ul>
  4. 4. “ Path Dependency” & “Critical Junctures” <ul><li>Path Dependency </li></ul><ul><li>“ When a government programme or organization embarks upon a path there is an inertial tendency for those initial policy choices to persist. That path may be altered, but it requires a good deal of political pressure to produce that change.” Institutional Theory , Peters, p. 71. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Junctures </li></ul><ul><li>“ [W]hen major institutional (evolutionary) change does occur, then, after the fact, it can be argued that there was a sufficient force available to produce a movement away from equilibrium and inertia affecting an institution. How do we know? The change did occur, did it not, so there must have been sufficient pressure to generate the observed shift.” Institutional Theory , Peters, p. 71. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sovereignty Defined <ul><li>“ The supreme, absolute, and uncontrollable power by which an independent state is governed.” </li></ul><ul><li>Black’s Law Dictionary, 4th ed ., p. 1568. </li></ul><ul><li>Sovereignty cannot be overthrown. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Attributes of Sovereignty in Public International Law <ul><li>“ To qualify as a state under international law, an entity must have a territory, a population, a government and the capacity to engage in diplomatic or foreign relations.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ States in federal unions, provinces or cantons usually lack the last attribute, which is a vital element of sovereignty.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See generally 1 Oppenheim’s International Law 121-23 (R. Jennings & A. Watts, eds 1992). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Buergenthal & Sean D. Murphy, Public International Law, in a Nutshell, Third Edition, p. 2. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Government Defined “ The machinery (agent) by which the sovereign power in a state expresses its will and exercises its functions.” Black’s Law Dictionary, 4th ed., p. 824. As the “agent” that exercises the sovereignty, governments can be overthrown.
  8. 8. Merger of Sovereignty <ul><li>Merging of one sovereign State with another sovereign State by agreement </li></ul>Sovereignty Sovereignty Gov . Gov . Treaty of Cession Treaty of Conquest
  9. 9. Examples of Merger: US 1846 British Treaty 1803 French Treaty 1819 Spanish Treaty 1848 Mexican Treaty
  10. 10. Examples of Merger: USSR 1922 Treaty Forming USSR 1925 Uzbek Treaty 1944 Tuva Treaty No Treaty
  11. 11. Prolonged Occupations in this Study <ul><li>An occupation is “effective control of a power (be it one or more states or an international organization, such as the United Nations) over a territory to which that power has no sovereign title, without the violation of the sovereign territory.” </li></ul><ul><li>The International Law of Occupation , Eyal Benvenisti, p. 4. </li></ul><ul><li>A prolonged occupation includes all of the territory of the occupied State. </li></ul><ul><li>A prolonged occupation has a duration greater than 25 years. </li></ul>
  12. 12. U.S. Field Manual 27-10 and the Laws of Occupation 358. Occupation Does Not Transfer Sovereignty Being an incident of war, military occupation confers upon the invading force the means of exercising control for the period of occupation. It does not transfer the sovereignty to the occupant, but simply the authority or power to exercise some of the rights of sovereignty…. (See Geneva Convention , art. 47; paragraph 365 herein.) [ Emphasis Added. ] U.S. Field Manual 27-10, Chapter 6, “Occupation,” Article 358
  13. 13. Prolonged Occupations & Historical Institutionalism Path Dependency of Occupation Critical Juncture End of Occupation Continuity of State Sovereignty under Occupation Recognition of Sovereignty Occupation Begins
  14. 14. Historical Institutionalism: The Baltic States and Hawai‘i <ul><li>Because the Baltic States have been able to end their prolonged occupations ( developmental pathway ) and restore their independent governments, a tipping point ( critical juncture ) must exist. </li></ul><ul><li>By defining the factors that led to the tipping point, this information may offer insight into what is possible for Hawai‘i. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Three Features of Prolonged Occupations <ul><li>Recognition of Sovereignty. </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation Begins. </li></ul><ul><li>Ending the Occupation. </li></ul>
  16. 16. 1) Recognition of Sovereignty. The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania
  17. 17. Sovereignty of the Baltic States 1918 Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania proclaim independence. 1920 Baltic States sign peace treaties with Soviet Russia, in which Moscow recognizes their independence. 1921 Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia admitted to League of Nations.
  18. 18. 1) Recognition of Sovereignty. Hawai‘i
  19. 19. Sovereignty of Hawai‘i Nov. 28, 1843 Britain & France, in the Anglo-Franco Declaration, recognize the Hawaiian Islands “as an Independent State, and never to take possession, neither directly or under the title of Protectorate, or under any other form, of any part of the territory of which they are composed.”
  20. 20. Hawai‘i and the United States <ul><li>The Hawaiian Kingdom signs five treaties with the United States: </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaiian-American Treaty of Friendship, Commerce And Navigation, 1849 </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaiian-American Postal Convention, 1870 </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaiian-American Treaty of Commercial Reciprocity, 1875 </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaiian-American Postal Convention Concerning Money Orders, 1883 </li></ul><ul><li>Supplementary Convention to the 1875 Commercial Reciprocity Treaty, 1884 </li></ul>
  21. 21. Hawaiian Diplomatic Relations <ul><li>By 1893 Hawai‘i manned over 90 Embassies and Consulates throughout the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hawaiian Embassy in Washington, D.C., and Consul-Generals in the cities of New York and San Francisco </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Since January 1, 1881, Hawai‘i also became a member of the Universal Postal Union </li></ul>
  22. 22. 2) Occupation Begins. The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania
  23. 23. Article I. In the event of a territorial and political rearrangement in the areas belonging to the Baltic States (Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) , the northern boundary of Lithuania shall represent the boundary of the spheres of influence of Germany and U.S.S.R. [Emphasis added.] Article IV. This protocol shall be treated by both parties as strictly secret. August 23, 1939 . ---- The Secret Supplementary Protocol signed on August, 23, 1939, shall be amended in 1 item to the effect that the territory of the Lithuanian state falls under the influence of the USSR… Sept. 28, 1939 Secret Protocols of Molotov-Rippentrop Pact Adolf Hitler Joseph Stalin
  24. 24. Aftermath of World War II Soviet Troops Marching Through Latvia: 10/13/1944. 1940-1941 Soviets Occupy Baltic States; Then Germany forces Soviets to retreat. 1944-1945 Following World War II, Soviets begin prolonged occupation of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. 1944-1954 Partisan war against Soviet rule by ‘Forest Brothers.’ Tens of thousands are killed on both sides. 1941-1949 Mass Deportations. Gunārs Stefans former Forest Brother
  25. 25. 2) Occupation Begins. Hawai‘i
  26. 26. 1893 United States Intervention On January 16, 1893, the U.S. military illegally “ intervened ” in the internal affairs of the Hawaiian Kingdom in an attempt to annex the Hawaiian Islands
  27. 27. Investigation and Petitions On March 11, 1893, U.S. President Grover Cleveland investigated the overthrow of Queen Lili’uokalani’s government and concluded the overthrow was illegal under international law. Amidst political unrest, in 1897 anti-annexation petitions and Queen Lili‘uokalni’s protests help to defeat Treaty of Annexation in the US Senate.
  28. 28. 1898 Spanish-American War April 21, 1898, the United States of America declares war against the Kingdom of Spain and fights the Spanish in Caribbean and the Pacific Ocean. The Battle of Manila Bay, May 1, 1898
  29. 29. Congress to Unilaterally Annex Hawai‘i May 1, 1898, Representative Francis Newlands from Nevada, through the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, submits a joint resolution to “unilaterally” annex the Hawaiian Islands. Hawai’i Philippines Guam
  30. 30. Hawai‘i Occupied during Spanish-American War In order to secure the islands as a U.S. military outpost, President McKinley signs Newlands Resolution of annexation into U.S. Law. Camp McKinley, August 1898
  31. 31. Explosion of U.S. Migration between 1900-1950 (U.S. census reports) <ul><li>Migration from U.S. territories and continent from 1,928 in 1890 to 293,379 in 1950 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1890……….2% (alien population) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1950……….80% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Aboriginal Hawaiian (pure/part) from 40,622 in 1890 to 86,091 in 1950 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1890……….85% (national population) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1950……….20% </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. A Secret Debate Until 1969, the United States conceals the “Secret Debate on U.S. Seizure of Hawai‘i” In 1898 Congressional Record Rep. Ball describes the Newlands Resolution as “a deliberate attempt to do unlawfully that which cannot be lawfully done.”
  33. 33. Misdirection of “Annexation” Although a treaty was never ratified, the statue of President McKinley (in front of McKinley High School) holds a Treaty of Annexation. Every State of Hawai‘i social studies textbook claims that Hawai‘i was “annexed.”
  34. 34. Intermission!!! Two Minute Break
  35. 35. The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania 3) Ending the Occupation
  36. 36. 5 Phases of Restoration in Baltic States <ul><li>Consolidation of Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of Mass Political Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Infiltration of Political System </li></ul><ul><li>Registration of Electorate </li></ul><ul><li>Election of “New” Parliament </li></ul>
  37. 37. 1. Consolidation of Issues <ul><li>Occupation Identified </li></ul><ul><li>Dissidents/ Activists Seek Disclosure of Occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Freely Speak of “Occupation” </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidation of Issues </li></ul>Lagle Parek
  38. 38. 2. Creation of Mass Political Groups E. Widespread Academic Acceptance of “Oc cupation ” F. Involvement of Political Groups and Public Organizations G. Opposition Movement H. Mass Rallies, Concerts and Calendar Demonstrations I. Traditional Emblems Marju Lauristin
  39. 39. ‘ Singing Revolution’ 11 September 1988, 300,000 attend “Songs of Estonia” rally.
  40. 40. The Baltic Way <ul><li>1989, August “Baltic Way”; Supreme Soviet accepts existence of “Secret Protocols.” </li></ul><ul><li>1989, November Gorbachev later acknowledges “Secret Protocols.” </li></ul>“ Baltic Way”
  41. 41. 3. Infiltration of Political System <ul><li>J. Infiltration of the Occupant’s Political System </li></ul><ul><li>K. Denunciation of Historical Documents and Activities </li></ul><ul><li>L. Independence Platform </li></ul>President Rüütel and his Wife
  42. 42. 4. Registration of Electorate M. Identification of Legitimate Electorate N. Registration of Electorate O. Public Acceptance of “Oc cupation ” Eve Parnaste
  43. 43. 5. Election of “New” Parliament P. Election of “Ne w ” Parliament from Electorate Q. Name Changed of Occupant Legislature R. Restoration of Country Name S. Declare Restored Independence T. Aspects of Pre-Occupation Constitution Restored President Vytautas Landsbergis
  44. 44. The Goal in the Baltic States Expressing the Sovereign Right of the Will of the People Legitimacy
  45. 45. State Continuity <ul><ul><ul><li>Kelsen , in 1945: “A state exists … not only in space but also in time, and if we regard territory as an element of the State, then we have to regard the period of its existence as an element of the State too. ” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crawford : “[W ]e assume continuity of our States even as their governments, constitutions, territories and population change. International law is based on this assumption. ” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marek : “[A ] State’s identity and continuity are not effected by belligerent occupation. ” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Establishing Continuity <ul><li>Crawford : “A State may be said to continue as such so long as an identified polity exists with respect to a significant part of a given territory and people. Its constitutional system need not be the same, as long as it is independent and proclaims continuity.” </li></ul><ul><li>Marek : A State continues, unless there is “disappearance of one of its so-called ‘elements’,— territory, population, legal order.” </li></ul>
  47. 47. Baltic States: Population & Legal Order <ul><li>1. Jus Sanguinis (Parentage) </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutions </li></ul><ul><li>No Major Territorial Changes </li></ul>
  48. 48. Review of the Process in the Baltic States <ul><li>5 Phases of Restoration </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidation of Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of Mass Political Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Infiltration of Political System </li></ul><ul><li>Registration of Electorate </li></ul><ul><li>Election of “New” Parliament </li></ul>
  49. 49. Legal Continuity (Part 1) Marek : “[O]f these two legal orders , that of the occupied State is the regular and ‘normal’, while that of the occupying power is exceptional and limited. At the same time, the legal order of the occupant is… strictly subject to the principle of effectiveness, while the legal order of the occupied State continues notwithstanding the absence of effectiveness.”
  50. 50. Legal Continuity (Part 2) Crawford : “Even if the total lack of independence of a State over a period of time might lead to its extinction as a State, that result is neither inevitable nor automatic. A State can continue to exist even if its government is reduced to relative impotence .”
  51. 51. Legal Continuity (Part 3) Brownlie : “In some cases, where the basis for continuity is tenuous, estoppel, special agreement, and the principles of validation and effectiveness may provide elements of legal continuity.”
  52. 52. Sovereignty: External & Internal <ul><li>External Sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Sovereignty </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dominium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imperium </li></ul></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Dominium & Imperium Bluntschli distinguishes between “the sovereign rights of the State in its territory (Gebietshoheit, imperium) from the property (dominium) of the State. Property is a matter of private law, even when it belongs to the State: sovereignty is essentially political, and can only belong to the State, or the head of the State.
  54. 54. Diagram of Dominium & Imperium Dominium (Ultimate Land Title) Imperium (Authority to Govern)
  55. 55. “ The King Never Dies” deSmith: “Upon the death or abdication of a monarch, the throne and the prerogatives of the Crown pass at once—there is no interregnum… to the person in succession.” F.E. Oppenheimer: “The imperium yields to the dominium.”
  56. 56. Sovereignty under Occupation Marek: “[B]elligerent occupation effects no transfer of sovereignty.” Vitas: “[T]he military occupation of Lithuania did not confer any title of territory to the Soviet Union.”
  57. 57. International Law: Articles 42 & 43, 1907 Hague Regulations Article 42. Territory is considered occupied when it is actually placed under the authority of the hostile army. The occupation extends only to the territory where such authority has been established and can be exercised. Article 43. The authority of the legitimate power having in fact passed into the hands of the occupant, the latter shall take all measures in his power to restore, and ensure, as far as possible, public order and safety, while respecting, unless absolutely prevented, the laws in force in the country.
  58. 58. Lithuanian Procedures for Reestablishing Legal Order <ul><li>6pm, 11 March 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic’ declared itself the ‘Supreme Council of Lithuania’. </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Council changed the name of the country from Lithuania SRR to the Republic of Lithuania. </li></ul><ul><li>Declared their restored independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Removed the Soviet constitution and reinstalled the 1938 Lithuanian constitution (to emphasize never legally superceded). </li></ul><ul><li>Immediately suspended that constitution, in order to adopt what we termed the Temporary Basic Law. </li></ul>
  59. 59. 3) Ending the Occupation Hawai‘i Questions First!
  60. 60. The Goal in Hawai‘i <ul><li>External Sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Sovereignty </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dominium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imperium </li></ul></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Preamble to the 1840 Constitution of Hawaiian Kingdom “ The origin of the present government, and system of polity is as follows: Kamehameha I, was the founder of the kingdom, and to him belonged all the land from one end of the Islands to the other, though it was not his own private property. It belonged to the people and the chiefs in common, of whom Kamehameha I was the head , and had the management of the landed property.”
  62. 62. 3 Classes of Vested Rights <ul><ul><li>1. The government (King [1]) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. The landlord (Chiefs, Konohiki [252]) </li></ul><ul><li>3. The tenant (native tenants [Many]) </li></ul><ul><li>(Vested rights cannot “be defeated or canceled by act of any other private person.”) Blacks Law Dictionary </li></ul>
  63. 63. The Māhele & US Occupation: Effect on Dominium & Imperium <ul><li>Sai : The Māhele “did not effect the vested rights of native tenants who did not divide…” </li></ul><ul><li>When Queen Lili‘uokalani died on 11 November 1917 without a designated heir, the office of the monarch became vacant. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Diagram: Changes in Dominium & Imperium in Hawai‘i Three Classes of Vested Rights King Konohiki (252) Native Tenants After 1917 After 1848 Māhele In 1840
  65. 65. Dominium & Imperium in Hawai‘i Today <ul><li>Sai in 1995: “native tenants” still “possessed an undivided vested right in the dominium” of the Hawaiian Islands. </li></ul><ul><li>Every land title in Hawai‘i today possesses the phrase, &quot; Subject to the Rights of Native Tenants&quot;  (koe nae ke kuleana o na kanaka). </li></ul>
  66. 66. Voting Laws & Hawai‘i’s Continuity <ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Jus Sanguinis </li></ul><ul><li>All Non-Native, Hawaiian Kingdom Subjects </li></ul>
  67. 67. What Phase is Hawai‘i in Today? <ul><li>Consolidation of Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of Mass Political Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Infiltration of Political System </li></ul><ul><li>Registration of Electorate </li></ul><ul><li>Election of “New” Parliament (with some old laws) </li></ul>
  68. 68. Online Informational Resources <ul><li>“ Hawaiian Kingdom” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://hawaiiankingdom.org </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Larsen v. Hawaiian Kingdom Arbitration” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://alohaquest.com/arbitration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://pca-cpa.org/ENGLISH/RPC/#Larsen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Hawaiian Journal of Law & Politics” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www2.hawaii.edu/~hslp/journal </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Ending the Occupation: Hawai‘i and the Baltic States K ūhiō Vogeler, Ph.D. Political Science

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