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Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india
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Waxup and investing/ dentistry course in india

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Indian Dental Academy: will be one of the most relevant and exciting training center with best faculty and flexible training programs for dental professionals who wish to advance in their dental practice,Offers certified courses in Dental implants,Orthodontics,Endodontics,Cosmetic Dentistry, Prosthetic Dentistry, Periodontics and General Dentistry.

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  • 1. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 2. The american dental association has haveThe american dental association has have categorized waxes into 2 types:categorized waxes into 2 types: Type 1- a medium wax (generally used for theType 1- a medium wax (generally used for the direct technique)direct technique) Type 2- softer wax (used in indirect fabricationType 2- softer wax (used in indirect fabrication technique)technique) www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 3. ARMAMENTARIUMARMAMENTARIUM Bunsen burnerBunsen burner Inlay waxInlay wax Waxing instrumentsWaxing instruments Cotton cleaning clothCotton cleaning cloth Sharp colored pencil (contrasting colour to wax)Sharp colored pencil (contrasting colour to wax) Separating liquidSeparating liquid Occlusal indicator powderOcclusal indicator powder Soft toothbrushSoft toothbrush Cotton ballsCotton balls Fine nylon hoseFine nylon hose Marking tapeMarking tape www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 4. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 5. WAXING INSTRUMENTSWAXING INSTRUMENTS Can be categorized by the intent of the design:Can be categorized by the intent of the design: Wax addition, carving, or burnishingWax addition, carving, or burnishing The popularThe popular PKT carversPKT carvers designed bydesigned by Dr. PeterDr. Peter K. ThomasK. Thomas are used:are used: No. 1 and 2 are wax addition instruments.No. 1 and 2 are wax addition instruments. No. 3 is a burnisher for refining occlusal anatomy.No. 3 is a burnisher for refining occlusal anatomy. No. 4 and 5 are wax carvers.No. 4 and 5 are wax carvers. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 6. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 7. Wax is added by heating the instrument in theWax is added by heating the instrument in the bunsen flame, touching it to the wax, andbunsen flame, touching it to the wax, and quickly reheating it shank in the flame.quickly reheating it shank in the flame. Wax flows away from the hottest part of theWax flows away from the hottest part of the instrument, so if the shank is heated, a bead ofinstrument, so if the shank is heated, a bead of wax will flow off the tip.wax will flow off the tip. However, if the tip is heated, the wax will flow upHowever, if the tip is heated, the wax will flow up the shank of the instrument.the shank of the instrument. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 8. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 9. The following sequence is recommended for waxThe following sequence is recommended for wax pattern fabrication:pattern fabrication: Internal surface.Internal surface. Wax pattern removal and evaluation.Wax pattern removal and evaluation. Proximal surfaces.Proximal surfaces. Axial surfaces.Axial surfaces. Incisal/occlusal surface.Incisal/occlusal surface. Margin finishing.Margin finishing. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 10. Internal surface: the wax must reproduce all theInternal surface: the wax must reproduce all the retentive features of the restoration.retentive features of the restoration. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 11. Wax pattern removal : Wax pattern should beWax pattern removal : Wax pattern should be allowed to cool thoroughly before the coping isallowed to cool thoroughly before the coping is removed from the die.removed from the die. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 12. Wax pattern evaluation: The objective of theWax pattern evaluation: The objective of the first waxing step is a perfectly adaptedfirst waxing step is a perfectly adapted reproduction of the prepared tooth surfaces.reproduction of the prepared tooth surfaces. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 13. Proximal surfaces: They are flat or slightlyProximal surfaces: They are flat or slightly concave from the contact area to theconcave from the contact area to the cementoenamel junction.cementoenamel junction. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 14. Contact areas: The size and location of theContact areas: The size and location of the contact areas should be established beforecontact areas should be established before waxing the remainder of the proximal surface.waxing the remainder of the proximal surface. Reference is made to contacts between theReference is made to contacts between the contralateral teeth and knowledge of anatomiccontralateral teeth and knowledge of anatomic form.form. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 15. Axial surfaces: The buccal and lingual surfacesAxial surfaces: The buccal and lingual surfaces should be shaped similarly to those of theshould be shaped similarly to those of the adjacent teeth.adjacent teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 16. Incisal/occlusal surface: Opposing incisorsIncisal/occlusal surface: Opposing incisors should make even contact during protrusiveshould make even contact during protrusive movements but not during lateral excursions.movements but not during lateral excursions. The cusps and ridges of the occlusal surfacesThe cusps and ridges of the occlusal surfaces should be shaped as to allow even contact withshould be shaped as to allow even contact with the opposing teeth while stabilizing the teeththe opposing teeth while stabilizing the teeth and directing the forces along the long axes ofand directing the forces along the long axes of the teeth.the teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 17. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 18. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 19. Margin finishing: For finalizing and adaptation,Margin finishing: For finalizing and adaptation, the margins should be reflowed and refinishedthe margins should be reflowed and refinished immediately prior to investing the wax pattern.immediately prior to investing the wax pattern. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 20. ““Invest the best to get casting free of pest”Invest the best to get casting free of pest” Prof D.R.DavisProf D.R.Davis www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 21. INVESTMENTS DEFINITIONS: Invest (GPT 8) : To surround, envelop, or embed in an investment material. Investing (GPT 8) : The process of covering or enveloping, wholly or in parts; an object such as a denture, tooth, wax form, crown etc. with a suitable investment material before processing, soldering or casting. Investment (K.J. Anusavice) refractory material used to form a mould casting for cast metals or hot pressed ceramics. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 22. Classification according to Binders used: GYPSUM BONDED INVESTMENT: - alloys that fuse below 1975°F (1080°c) - Casting of gold alloys inlays, onlays, crowns and fixed partial dentures. PHOSPHATE BONDED INVESTMENTS: - for higher fusing alloys - Designed primarily for alloys used to produce copings or frame works for metal ceramic prosthesis and for some base metal alloys. It can also be used for press able ceramics. ETHYL SILICATE- BONDED INVESTMENTS: - for casting of removable partial dentures with base metal alloys (cobalt based or nickel based alloys)www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 23. Gypsum bounded is further classified by ADA specification no 2 (casting investment) into two types depending upon the expansion required to compensate for the contraction of the molten gold alloys during solidification. TYPE I: THERMAL EXPANSION TYPE: For casting of inlays and crowns TYPE II: HYGROSCOPIC EXPANSION TYPE: For casting inlays , onlays and crowns TYPE III: ARE USED IN CONSTRUCTION OF PARTIAL DENTURES WITH GOLD ALLOY. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 24. TWO TYPES OF PHOSPHATE BONDEDTWO TYPES OF PHOSPHATE BONDED INVESTMENTSINVESTMENTS TYPE I: for inlays crowns and other fixedTYPE I: for inlays crowns and other fixed restoration.restoration. TYPE II: for partial dentures and other castTYPE II: for partial dentures and other cast removable restorationremovable restoration www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 25. IDEAL REQUIREMENTS An ideal investment should incorporate the following features: Controllable expansion to compensate precisely for shrinkage of the cast alloy during cooling The ability to produce smooth castings with accurate surface reproduction without nodules Chemical stability at high casting temperatures Adequate strength to resist casting forces Sufficient porosity to allow for gas escape Easy recovery of the castingwww.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 26. INVESTINGINVESTING Vacuum mixing of investment materials isVacuum mixing of investment materials is highly recommended for consistent results inhighly recommended for consistent results in casting with minimal surface defects,casting with minimal surface defects, especially when phosphate-bondedespecially when phosphate-bonded investments are used .investments are used . Good results are possible withGood results are possible with brush application of vacuum mixedbrush application of vacuum mixed investment or when the investment is pouredinvestment or when the investment is poured into the ring under vacuum.into the ring under vacuum. Vacuum mixing with brushVacuum mixing with brush application of the investment is theapplication of the investment is the suggested mode.suggested mode.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 27. ArmamentariumArmamentarium Vacuum mixer andVacuum mixer and bowlbowl VibratorVibrator Investment powderInvestment powder (gypsum or phosphate(gypsum or phosphate bonded)bonded) Water or colloidalWater or colloidal silicasilica SpatulaSpatula BrushBrush SurfactantSurfactant Casting ring and linerCasting ring and linerwww.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 28. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 29. Brush technique: In this technique, pattern is first painted with surface tension reducer; the surface must be wet completely. The procedures is as follows: Add investment powder to the liquid in the mixing bowl and quickly incorporate it by hand. Attach the vacuum hose to the bowl, evacuate the bowl, and mechanically spatulate. The mixing should be carefully timed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 30. Coat the entire pattern with investment, pushing the material ahead of the brush from a single point. Gently vibrate through out the application of investment, being especially careful to coat the internal surface and the margin of the pattern. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 31. A finger positioned underA finger positioned under the crucible former on thethe crucible former on the table of the vibratortable of the vibrator minimizes the risk ofminimizes the risk of excessive vibration andexcessive vibration and possible breaking of thepossible breaking of the pattern from the sprue.pattern from the sprue. After the pattern hasAfter the pattern has been completely coated,been completely coated, the ring is immediatelythe ring is immediately filled by vibrating thefilled by vibrating the remaining investment outremaining investment out of the bowl.of the bowl. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 32. When the investment reaches the level of theWhen the investment reaches the level of the pattern, tilt the ring several times to cover andpattern, tilt the ring several times to cover and uncover the pattern, thereby minimizing theuncover the pattern, thereby minimizing the possible entrapment of air. Investing must bepossible entrapment of air. Investing must be performed quickly within the working time of theperformed quickly within the working time of the investment. If the investment begins to set tooinvestment. If the investment begins to set too soon, rinse it off quickly with cold water.soon, rinse it off quickly with cold water. After the ring is filled to the rim, allow theAfter the ring is filled to the rim, allow the investment to set.investment to set. If the hygroscopic technique is used, the ring isIf the hygroscopic technique is used, the ring is placed in a 37placed in a 37°°C (100C (100°°F) water bath for 1 hourF) water bath for 1 hour www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 33. VACUUM TECHNIQUE 1. First, hand spatulate the mix 2. With the crucible former and pattern in place attach the ring to the mixing bowl 3. Attach the vacuum hose and mix according to the manufacturer’s recommendations 4. Invert the bowl and fill the ring under vibration 5. Remove the vacuum hose before shutting of the mixer 6. Remove the filled ring and crucible former from the bowl 7. Immediately clean the bowl and mixing blade under running water. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 34. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 35. Investing ProceduresInvesting Procedures • Small ring: 1Small ring: 1 packagepackage • Large ring: 2Large ring: 2 packagespackages • Hand mix for 15Hand mix for 15 secondsseconds • Vacuum mix for 60Vacuum mix for 60 secondsseconds • Working time: 2-3Working time: 2-3 minutesminutes www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 36. Mixing RatiosMixing Ratios • GeneralGeneral:: • More investment liquid,More investment liquid, less water =less water = more expansionmore expansion • Less investment liquid,Less investment liquid, more water =more water = less expansionless expansion • Begin with a dry bowlBegin with a dry bowl • Use a maximum of 27mlUse a maximum of 27ml of liquidof liquid Using more liquid resultsUsing more liquid results in ain a weak moldweak mold www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 37. Mixing RatiosMixing Ratios • For 100gms ofFor 100gms of investmentinvestment:: • Crowns/veneers: 22mlCrowns/veneers: 22ml liquid, 5ml distilled waterliquid, 5ml distilled water • Inlays/Onlays: 16mlInlays/Onlays: 16ml liquid, 11ml distilled waterliquid, 11ml distilled water • Two year shelf life on theTwo year shelf life on the investment from theinvestment from the manufacturing datemanufacturing date • Follow instructions onFollow instructions on investment packetinvestment packet www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 38. CLINICAL CASECLINICAL CASE www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 39. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 40. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 41. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 42. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 43. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com

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