Project Undercurrent
Phase 1 Report

September 2007

  [Title]
Table of contents
         Introduction                                3
         ExecutiveSummary                        ...
Introduction
Introduction




     TheUndercurrentprojectaimstoimprovethetransportationandstorageofwaterforhouseholduse,inorder
     to...
Project scope




                                                                         (Reuse)



                    ...
Project timeline




                  Phase1                Phase2
                  Phase1                      Phase2  ...
Executive Summary
Executive summary

    Inourresearch,weidentifiedfivekeyinsightareasrelatedtothetransportandstorageof
    householdwater.E...
Executive summary

      2. Quality and convenience trade-off
      Insight: Qualityandconveniencearethemostimportantfacto...
Executive summary

      4. Spectrum of empowerment
      Insight:Manypeoplefeelasenseofresignationabouttheirwateroptions....
Research and design process
Research as a tool for design
 Observation and Empathy                                    Looking for Inspiration

 Human-...
Research goals

 Ourfieldresearchhadthefollowinggoals:

 To understand people’s needs behaviors,                  To under...
Process




  1.Conversationswith   2.Fieldnoteson   3.Insightsand              4.Keyinsights
  peopleabouttheir      each...
Process




  5.Designchallenges   6.Brainstorming    7.Opportunityarea         8.Illustrativeconcepts
                   ...
Field study locations




     TheteamvisitedruralcommunitiesaroundVijayawada,JodhpurandAurangabadaswellasurbanslums
     ...
Field study locations

                        Hyderabad

                        InHyderabadwevisitedbothanofficialandan
...
Field study locations

                        Vijayawada

                        WaterisabundantintheregionaroundVijayaw...
Field study locations

                        Delhi

                        DelhiisthepoliticalcapitalofIndia.Wevisitedt...
Field study locations

                        Jodhpur

                        TheregionofJodhpurhaswatershortagesevery
 ...
Field study locations

                        Mumbai

                        ThecityofMumbaiisthefinancialcapitalofIndia...
Field study locations

                        Aurangabad

                        TheregionaroundAurangabadisknownforits
...
Who we met
[Page Title]




     Sandredelisiugueminhenibheldoloreet,velditlorsi.Doloborperacillameu
     faciblafaccumali...
Who we met

 Ourresearchincludedconversationswithmanytypesofpeople.

 ·Partners,tolearnaboutthewaterservicethattheyprovide...
Key individuals: Susheela




 Susheela                                              Her Home
 Susheelalivesinthevillageof...
Key individuals: Susheela




 Water Collection                                        Drinking Water
 Susheelahadaprivate...
Key individuals: Jathi




  Jathi                                               Her finances
  Herfamilyisinthecarpentryp...
Key individuals: Jathi




  Water collection                                       Drinking Water
  Jathi’sfamilyhasastor...
Key individuals: Tarabai and Mirabai




 Tarabai and Mirabai                                        Water for life
 InanA...
Key individuals: Tarabai and Mirabai




 Accepting one’s role                                   Holding on to beauty
 Bot...
Insights and opportunities
Opportunity map




                                                        Insight


                                    ...
Opportunity map




                                                    Design
                                           ...
Opportunity map


                                                   Opportunity Opportunity
                             ...
Opportunity map




                  35
1. Hierarchy of use


     Insight: Hierarchy of use

     Wateristreateddifferentlydependingonitsintendeduse.Specificuses...
1. Hierarchy of use
     ThechoicesofonefamilyinVijayawadaarehighlightedingreen.This
     familyuseswaterfromthetreatmentp...
1. Hierarchy of use
     ThechoicesofonefamilyinJodhpurarehighlightedinyellow.Thisfamily
     useswaterfromthewellfordrink...
1. Hierarchy of use


     Why do people have these behaviors of segregation?

     Health - Peoplechoosewaterfromthebests...
1. Hierarchy of use


     Insight

     Wateristreateddifferentlydependingonitsintendeduse.Specificuses
     correspondto...
1. Hierarchy of use




     Guideline for action

     Designsolutionswhichenablepeopleto
     segregatewaterinasafeway.
...
2. Quality and convenience trade-off


     Insight: Quality and convenience trade-off

     Qualityandconveniencearethemo...
2. Quality and convenience trade-off

     Thewatersourceswesawonourfieldvisitcanbemappedsubjectively,byqualityandconvenie...
2. Quality and convenience trade-off
     InthevillageofDenduluru,threedifferentsourcesareavailable,allwithin200mofeachoth...
2. Quality and convenience trade-off


     Why do people choose quality over convenience?

     Immediate benefits - Ther...
2. Quality and convenience trade-off


     Insight

     Qualityandconveniencearethemostimportantfactorsinfluencingpeople...
2. Quality and convenience trade-off

Example opportunity: Pre-filled pots service
Createaservicewhichallowspeopletotradet...
2. Quality and convenience trade-off


                     Example opportunity: Pre-filled pots service

                ...
2. Quality and convenience trade-off

Example opportunity: Hauling
Supportlocalentrepreneurstodeveloplocally-made,wheeledd...
2. Quality and convenience trade-off

                     Example opportunity: Hauling

                     Key features...
2. Quality and convenience trade-off




     Guideline for action

     Improvetheconvenienceofqualitywater
     sources....
3. What is “clean”?


     Insight: What is “clean”?

     Therearefewreliableindicatorsofwatersafety*,soifitlooks“clean”,...
3. What is “clean”?


 Thedifficultyof
 distinguishingclean
 fromunclean,the
 multivariatecausesof
 healthproblems,and
 th...
3. What is “clean”?


     Why do people have a lack of understanding of “clean” water?

     Misleading cues - Thereareno...
3. What is “clean”?


     Insight

     Therearefewreliableindicatorsofwatersafety,soifitlooks“clean”,people
     assumei...
3. What is “clean”?

Example opportunity: What can’t you see?
Educatethecommunityaboutcontaminantsinthewaterthatcan’tbesee...
3. What is “clean”?

                      Example opportunity: What can’t you see?

                      Key features
  ...
3. What is “clean”?

Example opportunity: Cleaning stations
Offerdedicatedcleaningstationsatthetreatmentplant,whichallowpe...
3. What is “clean”?

                      Example opportunity: Cleaning stations

                      Key features
    ...
3. What is “clean”?




     Guideline for action

     Helppeopleevaluatewaterqualityand
     understandthenatureofcontam...
4. Spectrum of empowerment


    Insight: Spectrum of empowerment

    Manypeoplefeelasenseofresignationabouttheirwateropt...
4. Spectrum of empowerment




                                                                                           ...
4. Spectrum of empowerment


     Empowerment factors

     Caste - Lowercastesarenot
     encouragedtoaspiretoupwardmobil...
4. Spectrum of empowerment


     Community versus household empowerment

     Communityempowermentmaytaketheformofdigging...
4. Spectrum of empowerment


    Why are people resigned about water?

    Lack of understanding - Whenpeopledon’tundersta...
4. Spectrum of empowerment


    Insight

    Manypeoplefeelasenseofresignationabouttheirwateroptions.Particularly
    amo...
4. Spectrum of empowerment

Example opportunity: Safe water campaign
Involvelocalcommunitymembersinacampaigntospreadthemes...
4. Spectrum of empowerment

                  Example opportunity: Safe water campaign

                  Key features
   ...
4. Spectrum of empowerment




    Guideline for action

    Createwatertoolsandservicesthat
    empowerpeople.




      ...
5. Added value for water


     Insight: Added value for water

     Payingforwaterisapoliticallychargedproposition,andpeo...
5. Added value for water


     Waterisjudgedonseveralqualities,somesubjectiveandsomeobjective.
     Specificsourcesortrea...
5. Added value for water
                    Convenient                      High status
                    Themostconven...
5. Added value for water


     Why don’t people want to pay for water?

     Right to free water - Freewaterhaslongbeenpr...
5. Added value for water


     Insight

     Payingforwaterisapoliticallychargedproposition,butmanyhouseholdspayfor
     ...
5. Added value for water

Example opportunity: Brand extensions
Buildthebrandofawatertreatmentplant,bysellingbrandedwaterw...
5. Added value for water

                    Example opportunity: Brand extensions

                    Key features
    ...
5. Added value for water

Example opportunity: Water delivery
Createasystemtosupportthedeliveryentrepreneur,throughconnect...
5. Added value for water

                    Example opportunity: Water delivery

                    Key features
      ...
5. Added value for water

Example opportunity: Large scale storage
Createaservice,toprovideandmaintainlarge-scalehousehold...
5. Added value for water

                    Example opportunity: Large scale storage

                    Key features
 ...
5. Added value for water




     Guideline for action

     Leverageexistingwaterpreferencesto
     makesafewatermoresoug...
Analysis of opportunities
Prioritizing opportunities

   Ofalltheconceptsandopportunitieswehavethoughtabout,wehavechosenonlyasubsetto
   includeinth...
Revisiting the opportunity map
   Webrainstormedhundredsofopportunityareas,anddistilledthemostpromisinginto8scenarios,
   ...
Existing innovations
   Inourresearch,wesawseveralinnovationswhichanswerthedesignchallengesbrilliantly.
   Inthesecases,th...
Narrowing the scope
    Ourresearchhasexposedthegreatvarietyofpeoplewhowouldbenefitfrominnovations
    insafewatertranspor...
Opportunities which we did not pursue
   Thereareseveralopportunitieswhichwehavechosennottopursue.


   One-size-fits-all ...
Business analysis

Whileeachdesignopportunityimpliesuniquebusinessissues,therearegeneralissuesthatshouldbeconsidered
forde...
Business analysis


    Marketing Costs – Anewideaorinnovativetechnologymayhaveahigherperceivedvalue,butalso
    requiremo...
Design principles

     BasedonourresearchinIndiaandourpreviousexperiencewithdesigninthisspace,wehavecollected
     thefol...
Design principles


     Innovations for India should be...

          Equitable-designedwithasensitivitytothecastesystem
...
Design principles


     Household water storage and transport products in the Base of the Pyramid should be…

          D...
Design principles
     Behavior change cycle


                                                     believe



           ...
Next steps
Where are we now?




   Fieldresearch-InPhase1,wehaveimmersedourselvesintheneedsandchallengesofsafewater
   transportands...
Next steps


                            Phase1                 Phase2                    Phase3
                         ...
Appendix: Themes of exploration
Collection




     Collection key points

     Peoplechoosetheirwatersourcedbasedonseveralfactors,themostimportant
     o...
Collection

 Summary of Andhra Pradesh
 Waterwasmuchrelativelyaccessible,withmostpeoplehavingaccesstopipedwaterintheirhome...
Collection
             Slum community tap
             Rajeev Ghandi Nagar, Hyderabad

             RajeevGandhiNagarisas...
Collection
             Piped nonpotable water
             Ahdhra Pradesh

             AlmostallthevillagesinAndhraPrade...
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Undercurrent Phase1 Report

  1. 1. Project Undercurrent Phase 1 Report September 2007 [Title]
  2. 2. Table of contents Introduction 3 ExecutiveSummary 7 Researchanddesignprocess 11 Researchasatoolfordesign 12 Fieldstudylocations 16 Whowemet 23 Insightsandopportunities 31 Opportunitymap 32 1.Hierarchyofuse 36 2.Qualityandconveniencetrade-off 42 3.Whatis“clean”? 52 4.Spectrumofempowerment 61 5.Addedvalueforwater 70 Analysisofopportunities 82 Prioritizingopportunities 83 Businessanalysis 88 Designprinciples 90 Nextsteps 94 Appendix:Themesofexploration 97 Collection 98 Treatment 110 Waterqualities 118 Vessels 124 Delivery 134 Vesselcleaning 140 Acknowledgements 143
  3. 3. Introduction
  4. 4. Introduction TheUndercurrentprojectaimstoimprovethetransportationandstorageofwaterforhouseholduse,inorder toimpactthehealthandqualityoflifeoflow-incomecommunitiesinthedevelopingworld. Webelievethatwecanachievethisgoalinseveralways: ·Improvethewaysinwhichpeoplegetandusewateratthehouseholdlevel ·Providechoicestopeoplebeyondwhatiscurrentlyavailable ·Enablelocalmarketsandprivatesectoractorstoimprovehowwaterisaccessedandusedbylow-income households. 4
  5. 5. Project scope (Reuse) Collect Transport Store Dispense Use Discard (Clean) (Deliver) Store Dispense Discard Thejourneyofwaterinthedevelopingworld. Thejourneyofwaterinthedevelopingworldisacomplicatedone,filledwithproblemsandworkarounds ateverystage,fromtreatmenttotransporttouse.Itisalsoincrediblydynamic,eachpersontailoringit tohisorherownneeds. FortheUndercurrentproject,wehavechosentofocusonthetransportandstorageofwaterfor householduse,assumingthatwateristreatedatthesource. Ourresearchnecessarilyincludestheentirejourney;inordertounderstandtransportandstoragewe mustunderstandthecontextthatitfitswithin. Theclean,deliver,andreusestagesinthejourneydonotalwaysoccur. 5
  6. 6. Project timeline Phase1 Phase2 Phase1 Phase2 Phase3 Createconcepts Developfinalproductsand Maptheopportunityspace andselectdirections solutions ·Identifyinsights ·Selectdesignchallengesfor ·Createimplementable ·Articulatedesignchallenges furtherinquiry solutions,productsand/or ·Illustratepreliminary ·Buildprototypes services opportunities ·Seekfeedbackfromthefield ·Refineopportunities 6
  7. 7. Executive Summary
  8. 8. Executive summary Inourresearch,weidentifiedfivekeyinsightareasrelatedtothetransportandstorageof householdwater.Eachoftheseinsightsprovidesdirectionforinnovationanddesign. 1. Hierarchy of use Insight: People’swaterbehaviorreflectsahierarchyofuse:wateristreateddifferently dependingonitsuse.Specificusescorrespondtodistinctbehaviorsaroundcollection, treatmentandstorage. Design challenge: Designsolutionswhichenablepeopletosegregatewaterinasafeway. -Acknowledgeandenablethenuancedbehaviorsofchoosingwatersourcesandvessels. -Considersolutionswhichmakewaterstoragenon-intrusiveinthehome. 8
  9. 9. Executive summary 2. Quality and convenience trade-off Insight: Qualityandconveniencearethemostimportantfactorsinfluencingpeople’s selectionofawatersource.Peopleareoftenforcedtotradeonefortheother,sacrificing cleanwaterforconvenientaccess. Design challenge: Improvetheconvenienceofqualitywatersources. -Improvetheexperienceofcollectingwateratacommunitytap. -Evaluatewaystoextendthephysicalreachofanexistingwatertreatmentplant. -Accommodatepeoplewhoarecarryingwateroverlongdistances. 3. What is “clean”? Insight: Therearefewreliableindicatorsofwatersafety,soifitlooks“clean”,people assumeitissafe. Design challenges: Helppeopleevaluatewaterqualityandunderstandthenatureofcontamination. -Provideindicationsandirrefutableevidenceofwaterquality. -Usemessagingwhichissimple,understandable,andconsistent. Leverageexistingbehaviorsandbeliefsaboutkeepingwaterclean. -Encouragecleaningbehavioratthesitewherewateriscollected. -Improveeffectivenessofcleaning. 9
  10. 10. Executive summary 4. Spectrum of empowerment Insight:Manypeoplefeelasenseofresignationabouttheirwateroptions.Particularly amonglowercastes,peoplearenotempoweredtoinitiatechange. Design challenges: Designwatertoolsandservicesthatempowerpeople. -Empowerpeoplethroughaccurateinformation. -Leverageexistingmechanismsforinformationsharing(e.g.schools,religion,health.) -Designsolutionsthatareavailabletodisempoweredpeople,becauseempoweredpeople willfindtheirwaytothesolutions. 5. Added value for water Insight: Payingforwaterisapoliticallychargedproposition,butmanyhouseholdspayfor addedvaluesuchcoolness,clarity,convenienceandhealthsafety. Design challenges: Leverageexistingwaterpreferencestomakesafewatermoresoughtafter. -Considerbrandingtoincreasetheperceivedvalueofwater. -Associatebrandswithqualitiesbesidessafety(e.g.coolness,flavor,status.) -Stimulatevalue-addedservices. -Designtoolsandsystemsfordeliveryentrepreneurs. 10
  11. 11. Research and design process
  12. 12. Research as a tool for design Observation and Empathy Looking for Inspiration Human-centereddesignstartswithpeople. Oneofthedistinguishingfeaturesofdesignresearch Understandingpeople’sbehaviors,choicesand istheemphasisoninspiration.Inthesearchfor needsguidesthedesignteamtowardsidentifying inspiration,thedesignteamseeksout“typical” newopportunitiesforinnovation.Allofourresearch contextsandstakeholdersaswellasmore“extreme” methodsfallintotwocategories:observationand contextsandstakeholders.Oftenmoreextreme empathy.Observationisfundamentallylookingfor casesareabletohighlightissuesandopportunities patternsinbehaviorsandtools,lookingforwhat thatarelessvisibleinthemainstream.Theresultsof iscurrentlyworkingwellandalsoareasthatcall ourresearchareinsightsinspiredbyhumanstories, outforimprovement.Observationvisitsinclude asopposedtostatisticaldatafrommorequantitative conversationswithpeople,allowingtheman approaches.Theseinsightsarethefoundational opportunitytodescribetheirchoicesandprocesses. elementsoftheideagenerationstageofthedesign Empathygoesbeyondthefacevalueofwhatpeople process. sayanddo.Throughempathizingwithpeople,the teamisabletorecognizethethoughtsandfeelings A Systems Approach thatleadtotheobservedbehaviors. Thestudyofwatertransportandstorageincludes manydifferentstakeholders:avarietyofpeople Being in Context inhouseholdswithdifferentaccesstowaterand First-handexperienceoftheatmosphereandtools behaviorsaroundwater,andavarietyofproviders usedintherealworldaddimmeasurablerichnessto whooffertreatedsources,waterdeliveryservices, thequalityofthelearningprocess.Visitingpeople andstorageandtransportsolutions.Inadditionto intheirhomesandatthewatersourceprovidesthe specificwater-focusedstudies,theteamwillexplore researchteamwithvaluableunderstandingabout theretailanddistributionofanalogousproducts, thelifeandday-to-dayactivitiesofthepersonbeing tounderstandthefactorswhichleadtosuccessful observed.Observationsatthepointofaccessand introductionofnewofferings. pointofusewillservetohighlightareasinthewater “journey”wheredesigninnovationcanhavean impact. 12
  13. 13. Research goals Ourfieldresearchhadthefollowinggoals: To understand people’s needs behaviors, To understand rural markets in India ·Understandingexistingsupplychainsforwater attitudes, perceptions and aspirations in a ·Understandingchallengesassociatedwith variety of water contexts ·Varietyofwatersources:surfacewater,community productionanddistributionofbulkgoods wells,municipalstandpipes,waterkiosks,NGO- ·Speakingtopeopleatmanydistributionpointsin providedbulksupply,andconditionsofscarcity. thesupplychainfornon-waterproducts ·Varietyofwaterquality:frombrackishgroundwater toimprovedsourcestocertifiedsafewater. ·Ruralandurbancontexts(withemphasisonrural) ·Communitywatersupplyandindividualhousehold supply To learn from existing solutions to the challenges of water access, transport, and storage ·Localorganizationsprovidingimprovedwaterina bulksupply ·Existingproductsfortransportandstorageof householdwater ·Understandinghowinstitutionsobtainandstore water(e.g.schools,medicalclinics) 13
  14. 14. Process 1.Conversationswith 2.Fieldnoteson 3.Insightsand 4.Keyinsights peopleabouttheir eachfamilywemet recurringthemes livesandwateruse Examplesfromfirstroundofinsights 14
  15. 15. Process 5.Designchallenges 6.Brainstorming 7.Opportunityarea 8.Illustrativeconcepts exploration Examplesfromfirstroundofconcepts 15
  16. 16. Field study locations TheteamvisitedruralcommunitiesaroundVijayawada,JodhpurandAurangabadaswellasurbanslums inHyderabad,DelhiandMumbai. Wechosesitesforourresearchbasedtwomainfactors. ·Localwaterconditionsandpractices,togetabroadunderstandingofthedifferentproblemsand solutionsinIndia. ·Partners,tobenefitfromtheexperienceandnetworkstheyhaveineachregionandtolearnfromtheir workinthewaterspace. 16
  17. 17. Field study locations Hyderabad InHyderabadwevisitedbothanofficialandan unofficialslum.Inbothcasesthesearesmall communitieswhoseprimaryconcernwaseviction. RajeevGandhiNagarisasmallslumof50families inthemiddleofthecity.Thefamilywemethas beenlivinginthesamehomefor40years.14family membersliveinverysmalllivingconditionslessthan 100squarefeet.Theadultsworkforthegovernment asstreetsweepersandcanaffordbasicthingsfor theirhomelikeelectricity. Theunofficialslumismadeupofconstruction workerslivingneartheirconstructionsitesintents. Thoughtheylookverytemporary,manyofthese familieshavebeenlivinghereforfouryears.The parentsworklonghourswhichoftenleavesthe childrenunsupervised. Governmentwaterisavailablejustashortwalkfrom mosthomes.Thiswaterisseenashighqualityasit isthesameaswhatthewealthierinhabitantsofthe cityuse. Localpartner:CAPFoundation 17
  18. 18. Field study locations Vijayawada WaterisabundantintheregionaroundVijayawada. Mosthomeshavepipedwaterprovidedbythe governmentafewhourseachday.Thiswaterisnot highenoughqualityfordrinking,somosthouseholds collectdrinkingwaterfromothersources(localpond orwellorpaidaccesstoawatertreatmentplant). Theprimaryconcernaboutthedrinkingwaterinthis regionarehightotallydissolvedsolids(TDS)which areknowntocausejointpain.Greenalgaeisanother commonconcernandishighlyvisibleonthestorage vessels(particularlyplastic). Castedivisionshaveabigimpactonwateraccess aslowercastestypicallylivefurtherfromthetreated watersources. Localpartners:WaterHealthInternational,Naandi Foundation 18
  19. 19. Field study locations Delhi DelhiisthepoliticalcapitalofIndia.Wevisitedthe MolarBundslum,whichhas40,000inhabitants. Manyofthefamilieshavebeenlivinghereforover10 years.Mostofthehomeshaveelectricityandmany haverefrigeration. Mostfamilieslivewithafewstepsofamunicipal watertap.Thetapsthemselveshavebeenstolen sothewatercomesoutofabarepipe.Thewater comesonthreetimesadayandpeoplehavetowait theirturnbecausethewaterpressureissoslow.It cantakeupto5minutestofillonepotofwater. Localpartner:ArpanaTrust 19
  20. 20. Field study locations Jodhpur TheregionofJodhpurhaswatershortagesevery year.Theirprimaryconcernisaboutaccesstowater; waterqualityisasecondaryissue.Thebiginitiatives intheregioninvolverainwaterharvesting.Digging largerpondsorcatchments,andmaintainingthese sourcesthroughouttheyear. Mostcommunitieshavedevelopedworkaroundsfor thesehardconditionsthatincludedeliveryofwater (4000L)bytruckortractorthatfillseitheracommunity tankorahouseholdstoragetank. Thewaterqualityisquitepoor.Thetasteissalty whichmostpeopledislike.Theytalkalotabout “sweet”water.Thegovernmentprovidesbleach powderforfreeanditsuseisquitewidespread. Turbidityisabigconcernanddealtwithbypouring waterthroughaclothfilterandalsotheuseofalum. Localpartner:JalBhagirathiFoundation 20
  21. 21. Field study locations Mumbai ThecityofMumbaiisthefinancialcapitalofIndia, andhometothelargestslumsinAsia.Throughout Mumbaithereareinformalandformalslums,the largestofwhichisDharavi,withapopulation estimatedtobebetween600,000andamillion. Theslumsincludeagreatrangeoflivingconditions. WevisitedahomeinColabawhere15peoplelive inan8’x10’space,withnoaccesstoelectricityor runningwater;wevisiteda2-floorhouseinDharavi whichboastedTVandrefrigerator,andastoragetank toensure24-houraccesstopipedwater. Inthepoorerslums,collectionandstoragearequite difficult.Waterisavailableatcommunitytapsforonly 2-3hoursaday,onafixedschedule;inColabathe watercomesonat4ameachday.Waterstorageis constrainedbyincrediblespacelimitations,causing thesluminhabitantstospilloverintothesidewalks andstreetsoutside. 21
  22. 22. Field study locations Aurangabad TheregionaroundAurangabadisknownforits farming—thesoilisfertile,andthefarmingpractices areadvanced,soit’soneofIndia’smostproductive regions.Inrecentyears,themonsoonrainshave beengood,sofarmersareinvestingintechnologies toimproveagricultureandimprovementstotheir homes. Thetypicalfamilyfarms2-5acresonaplotpassed downfromtheirparents,withasurfacewellonthe propertytoprovideirrigationandhouseholdwater supply.Waterisabundantmostoftheyear,witha highwatertableuntilMay-June,whenmanyofthe pondsgodry. Forthefarmers,thedifferencebetweensubsistence farmingandsellingcropsinthemarketplaceis irrigation.Thewealthierfarmersuseelectricorfuel- poweredpumpstodistributethewatertotheirplots. Localpartner:IDE-India 22
  23. 23. Who we met [Page Title] Sandredelisiugueminhenibheldoloreet,velditlorsi.Doloborperacillameu faciblafaccumalitateetveniamquat.Dipet,quisimquamIduntinutat. Oboreconumnitutet,quipsusciblafacingetvelisseduisniscilipexerodolorti niamconsequissedendiamduisnosetnostrudtietat,conseconsequipitnim duntilisdoloremvelilitincillaatisdoloboreverat.Imeuiscilineugiatacc Sandredelisieugueminhenibheldoloreet,velditlorsi.Doloborperacillameu faciblafaccumalitateetveniamquat. Ourprojectisinspiredbyourinteractionsandconversationswiththepeoplewespenttimewith,intheir homes,businesses,andcommunities. 23
  24. 24. Who we met Ourresearchincludedconversationswithmanytypesofpeople. ·Partners,tolearnaboutthewaterservicethattheyprovide. ·Peopleinhouseholdsconnectedwiththepartnerorganization(menandwomen,parentsandchildren). ·Peopleinhouseholdsnotconnectedwiththepartnerorganization(menandwomen,parentsandchildren). ·Localentrepreneurs,vendors,andshopkeepers,tolearnaboutlocalmarketinganddistribution,andabout successfulproducts. ·Schools,tolookatthehandlingofwateronalargerscaleandtounderstandeducationaroundwater. 24
  25. 25. Key individuals: Susheela Susheela Her Home SusheelalivesinthevillageofDendulurunear Thoughshehasarelativelywellestablished Vijayawada,AndhraPradesh.Shehas2sons, homecomparedtosomeofherneighbors,she oneofwhichwhodiedinacaraccident.Her wouldliketorebuildit.Sheisconsideringtaking threegrandchildrenlivewithherandtheyareall outagovernmentloantodoconstruction.She supportedbyherremainingsonwholivesinthe haselectricitywhichisusedtorunalightanda city.Shespendsherdaydoinghousework. television. 25
  26. 26. Key individuals: Susheela Water Collection Drinking Water Susheelahadaprivatetapinstalledinheryardfor Sheissatisfiedwiththequalityofthemunicipal afeeofRs.3150($80)andpaysayearlyfeeof water.Someofherneighborspayfordrinking Rs.360($9)forthisconvenience.Herpersonal waterfromtheWaterHealthplant.Shedoesn’t tapisonly6feetawayfromthecommunity--there treatherwater,butkeepsdrinkingwaterinaclay isonlyabushbetweenthem.Theprivatetaps potforcoolingraisedoffthegroundbyatire.1 affordshertheluxuryofnothavingtowaitinline 1/2literplasticbottlesarekeptaroundthehouse withtheothersandtheuseofhosewhichreaches forconvenience.Metalpotsareusedforstorage toherhome. andcookingwater. 26
  27. 27. Key individuals: Jathi Jathi Her finances Herfamilyisinthecarpentryprofessionin Theirhouseisoneofthemoreestablishedinthe thevillageofNayaDungarpur,nearJodhpur, community.Theyhavesolarelectricitywhichthey Rajasthan.ShehastwosonswholiveinMumbai; gotthroughasubsidy.TheypaidRs.6000($150) herdaughtersinlawanddaughterandeight whichtheywereabletofinance.Theelectricity grandchildrenlivewithher.Theyareahealthy isenoughtopowerafan,twolights,aradioand familyandJathiattributestheirlucktoGod. aTV.“Godrechargeseveryday.”Thefamily’s “HealthisluckfromGod”. expensesareminimal(freeelectricity,freewater, nohealthcosts)thebiggestexpenseisschool feeswhichareRs.8000/yr($200). 27
  28. 28. Key individuals: Jathi Water collection Drinking Water Jathi’sfamilyhasastoragetankoutsidetheir Freshnessisimportant;theyonlydrinkwaterfresh homewhichcollectsrainwaterandiskeptas fromtoday.Yesterday’sleftoverwaterisusedfor reserveforwhenthepondrunsout(everyMay). washing.Thefamilyisconscientiousaboutwater Thecommunityundertookaprojecttoenlarge quality.Theyuseaclothfiltertwicebeforedrinking thepondtoholdwaterlonger.Jathi’sfamily water.Thecommunityaddschlorinebleachto contributedRs.1500($38)tothiseffort.Jathiis thepondduringtherainyseason.Whenthe primarilyresponsibleforcollectingwaterfromthe waterrunsoutthefamilyhastopayRs.400($10) pond(abouta10minutewalk).Shecarries10-20 forwatertobedelivered.Theyviewthistrucked potseachday.Thiswaterisusedforeverything- waterasverydirtyandrequiresbleaching. evenforcattle.Thereisalsoamunicipal standpipethatiscloserbutinfrequentlyflowing. 28
  29. 29. Key individuals: Tarabai and Mirabai Tarabai and Mirabai Water for life InanAurangabadvillage,Tarabailiveswith Bothwomencomplainedthattheirheadsget herhusband,twoteenagechildren,andher verytiredafteratransportingwaterfromthe husband’ssisterMirabai,whowasdivorcedbyher nearestpumpwelltothecementstoragetankat husbandlastyear.Itisunusualforvillagewomen thebackoftheirhouse.Theborewelliscloser, todivorce,andthewomenthoughtitwasunlikely butthewaterfromthiswellissalty,whereasthe thatshewouldremarryorhavechildren.“It’s waterfromthepumpwellis“sweet,fromGod.” muchhardertobeawomaninthevillage,”Mirabai Bothwellsweredugafteradivinerfromthenext said,becauseit’sdifficulttogetworkinthefields. village,whomayhavemysticalpowers,came Bothwomenhavebeenlaborerssincechildhood. andidentifiedthemostlikelywatersources.The familyhasawaterpump,butit’susedprimarilyfor farming,notforthehousehold. 29
  30. 30. Key individuals: Tarabai and Mirabai Accepting one’s role Holding on to beauty Bothwomenshowedrespectformembersof “Drinkingwaterandeatingfruitsandvegetables theircommunitywhohadacceptedGod’sgifts areimportantforkeepingbeautiful,”thewomen theirroleinlifewithoutstrivingtoofarbeyond explained,underscoringapotentialopportunityto theirhumbleroots.WhenweshowedTarabai linkwatersafetytobeauty.Mirabaiusesbeauty andMirabaithe“HippoRoller”prototype,they lotiontokeepherskinfresh,withthehopethat explainedthatthemenintheircommunity“would shemaystillre-marry.Tarabai’shusbandlaughs, notallowustousesuchafancytechnology”and acknowledgingthatshewantstospendfarming thattheywouldkeepitforthemselves.Mirabai, incomesonclothingandjewelrywhilehe’drather thedivorcee,saidthatshemightpossiblybeable investinagricultureandhouseholdimprovements. tofightforuseoftheinnovation,indicatingthat Thisyear,theyplantospendonboth. herliminalstatusmightallowhertoactoutsidea woman’straditionalrole. 30
  31. 31. Insights and opportunities
  32. 32. Opportunity map Insight Insight Insight Insight Insight OurresearchconsistedofmeetingapproximatelysixtyfamiliesandpractitionersinIndia,eachof whomrevealedinterestinginsightsaboutwaterusage. Inthisreport,wewilldiscussthe5mostcriticalinsightsfordesignersofwatertransportand storageinIndia. 32
  33. 33. Opportunity map Design Challenge Design Challenge Design Insight Challenge Eachofthe5keyinsightsislinkedtoasetofdesignchallenges, whichframetheopportunityforimpact. 33
  34. 34. Opportunity map Opportunity Opportunity Area Area Opportunity Area Opportunity Area Design Challenge Opportunity Design Area Challenge Design Opportunity Insight Area Challenge Opportunity Area Theinsightsanddesignchallengesrevealpotentialopportunityareas, thatwewillbringtolifeinthenextphaseoftheproject. 34
  35. 35. Opportunity map 35
  36. 36. 1. Hierarchy of use Insight: Hierarchy of use Wateristreateddifferentlydependingonitsintendeduse.Specificuses correspondtodistinctbehaviorsaroundcollection,treatmentandstorage. Theintendeduseforwaterofteninfluencesthechoiceofsourceandstorage vessels.Higherqualitysourcesareoftenusedfordrinkingwater,andlower qualitysourcesforotheruses.Closedvesselsareoftenusedfordrinkingwater, andopenvesselsforotheruses. 36
  37. 37. 1. Hierarchy of use ThechoicesofonefamilyinVijayawadaarehighlightedingreen.This familyuseswaterfromthetreatmentplantfordrinking,andpipedwater forcookingandwashing.Drinkingwaterisoftenpouredfromtheplastic jugintoaclaypot,forcooling. SOURCE STORAGE USE Treatment SafeWater Drinking Plant PlasticJug Pipedto Plastic House Bottle Cooking StandPipe ClayPot Well MetalPot Washing Pond Bucket Truck Large Livestock Scale 37
  38. 38. 1. Hierarchy of use ThechoicesofonefamilyinJodhpurarehighlightedinyellow.Thisfamily useswaterfromthewellfordrinkingandcooking,andtrucked-inwater forwashingandlivestock.Allhouseholdwateriskeptinclaypots. SOURCE STORAGE USE Treatment SafeWater Drinking Plant PlasticJug Pipedto Plastic House Bottle Cooking StandPipe ClayPot Well MetalPot Washing Pond Bucket Truck Large Livestock Scale 38
  39. 39. 1. Hierarchy of use Why do people have these behaviors of segregation? Health - Peoplechoosewaterfromthebestsourcesfordrinking.Theytake specialcareofit,keepingitinthebestvessels,indoors,raisedfromtheground, andcovered. Conserving cost and effort - “Safer”waterrequiresmoretimeandcosttostore anduse.Peopledon’twanttospendextraeffort,collectinghighqualitywater (whichmightbefartheraway)andtakingspecialcareofthewater,forthatwhich won’tbeusedfordrinking. Vessel cost and availability - Thebesttypeofvesselsareoftenmorecostly, andhardertogetthanthebasicvesselswhichcanbeusedforlow-quality washingwater. 39
  40. 40. 1. Hierarchy of use Insight Wateristreateddifferentlydependingonitsintendeduse.Specificuses correspondtodistinctbehaviorsaroundcollection,treatmentandstorage. Design challenges Designsolutionswhichenablepeopletosegregatewaterinasafeway. -Acknowledgeandenablethenuancedbehaviorsofchoosingwatersources andvessels. -Considersolutionswhichmakewaterstoragenon-intrusiveinthehome. 40
  41. 41. 1. Hierarchy of use Guideline for action Designsolutionswhichenablepeopleto segregatewaterinasafeway. 41
  42. 42. 2. Quality and convenience trade-off Insight: Quality and convenience trade-off Qualityandconveniencearethemostimportantfactorsinfluencingpeople’s selectionofawatersource.Peopleareoftenforcedtotradeonefortheother, sacrificingcleanwaterforconvenientaccess. Whilequalityandconvenienceareparamount,costandstatusplayintothe equationaswell. 42
  43. 43. 2. Quality and convenience trade-off Thewatersourceswesawonourfieldvisitcanbemappedsubjectively,byqualityandconvenience. oHyderabad high oVijayawada convenience oDelhi openwellpumpedtohome oJodhpur pondpipedtohome oMumbai oAurangabad pond-fedwaterdeliverytruck municipalwaterdeliverytruck WaterHealthplant openwellonproperty JalBhagirathiplant low high quality quality pond-fedvillagestandpipe municipaltap municipaltap tubewellnearvillage municipaltap,lowwaterpressure tubewelloutsidevillage constructionsitetap pondoutsidevillage low convenience Themostconvenientwatersourcesarepipedordeliveredtothehome,eliminatingthedrudgery associatedwithwatertransport. Thehighestqualitywatersourcesaretreatmentplants,orwaterwhichisclosetothetreatmentstage (e.g.municipalwater.) 43
  44. 44. 2. Quality and convenience trade-off InthevillageofDenduluru,threedifferentsourcesareavailable,allwithin200mofeachother. Weinterviewedthreehouseholdswhichprioritizequalityandconveniencedifferently. Denduluru high convenience pondpipedtohome WaterHealthUVplant low high quality quality pond-fedvillagestandpipe low convenience G.Chantigets Susheelapays Theschoolmaster’s herwateratthe forapipedwater wifebuysWHIwater standpipe,because connection,even fordrinking,because she’snotwillingto thoughthestandpipe it’shighquality.She payeitherforquality iscloseby,because hasapipedwater orconvenience:she’d shevaluesthe connectionfor rathersaveforhome convenience. washing,becauseit’s improvements. convenient. 44
  45. 45. 2. Quality and convenience trade-off Why do people choose quality over convenience? Immediate benefits - There’sanimmediateunderstandingofthebenefitsof convenience.However,thebenefitsofqualityarehardtoquantify—duetolack ofunderstandingaboutconnectionsbetweenwaterqualityandhealth,anddue tothecomplexnatureofwatercontamination. Importance of proximity - Thereisastrongaversiontocarryingwaterfarther thannecessary;ifafamilyhasbeenusingaparticularsource,they’reunlikelyto switchtoonethat’sfartheraway.Thereisalsoafeelingembeddedintheculture thatwomenshouldnotventurefarfromthehome. 45
  46. 46. 2. Quality and convenience trade-off Insight Qualityandconveniencearethemostimportantfactorsinfluencingpeople’s selectionofawatersource.Peopleareoftenforcedtotradeonefortheother, sacrificingcleanwaterforconvenientaccess. Design challenges Improvetheconvenienceofqualitywatersources. -Improvetheexperienceofcollectingwateratacommunitytap. -Evaluatewaystoextendthephysicalreachofanexistingwatertreatmentplant. -Accommodatepeoplewhoarecarryingwateroverlongdistances. Improvethequalityofwateratconvenientsources. 46
  47. 47. 2. Quality and convenience trade-off Example opportunity: Pre-filled pots service Createaservicewhichallowspeopletotradetheiremptypotsforclean,pre-filledpots. Ankurbringsfouremptypotstothefilling Hepicksuptwofullpots,andgets Laterintheday,hiswifebringsthetokens station. tokensfortheothertwo. andtakestwomorepotshome. 47
  48. 48. 2. Quality and convenience trade-off Example opportunity: Pre-filled pots service Key features -Speedsupprocessofcollectingwater -Allowspeopletocollectwaterallday,evenifwaterisonlyavailablefora limitedtime -Allowsparticipantstocollectwaterinconvenientincrements,throughuse oftokens Business model questions -Whatisthewillingnesstopayforaservicethatcleanspotsandreduces waittime? -Howdocustomersverifythatthepotstheypickedupwereclean? -Aretheremarketingchallengesassociatedwithsharedpots? -Whataretheoperatingcosts(laborandconsumables),andcanthesebe offsetbyrevenues? -Whatlevelsofinventoryofpotsandwater(filledpots)areneeded? -Doesthereneedtobeasignificantbufferofinventoryofpotsofwater, andwouldthisbewastefulofscarcewaterorspace? 48
  49. 49. 2. Quality and convenience trade-off Example opportunity: Hauling Supportlocalentrepreneurstodeveloplocally-made,wheeleddevicesthattransport multiplevesselswithminimallabor. 49
  50. 50. 2. Quality and convenience trade-off Example opportunity: Hauling Key features -Easestransportoflargerquantitiesofwater,toreducethe“drudgery”of carryingpots -Canaccommodateexistingwatervessels -Canalsobeusedfortransportinggoodsotherthanwater Business model questions -Whatarepeoplewillingtopaytobuyahaulingdevice? -Whatarepeoplewillingtopaytorentahaulingdevice? -Willitrequiremaintenance,partreplacement? -Thisdevicemayrequireabehaviorchange(forexample,itmaymake itpossibleforwomentouselargercollectiondevices.)Isthisbehavior changeapositivething? -Ismanufacturinglocalorcentralized?(Centralizedtypicallymakesthe productcheaperandstandardized,butrequirestransportation/distribution. Localproductionallowsforcustomizationandmoredirectdistribution,but makesitdifficulttogeteconomiesofscale.) 50
  51. 51. 2. Quality and convenience trade-off Guideline for action Improvetheconvenienceofqualitywater sources. 51
  52. 52. 3. What is “clean”? Insight: What is “clean”? Therearefewreliableindicatorsofwatersafety*,soifitlooks“clean”,people assumeitissafe. *Wedefinesafe water aswaterthatmeetsWHOstandardsforsafety. 52
  53. 53. 3. What is “clean”? Thedifficultyof distinguishingclean fromunclean,the multivariatecausesof healthproblems,and thedelayedeffectsof Aslongasfishare Intheslumspeople Visiblyclearisthemost swimminginhispondthis areproudtodrinkthis importantfactorinjudging drinkingpoorwaterlead farmerisconfidentthatthe waterprovidedbythe ‘clean’.Peopleputgreat toamultitudeofbeliefs waterisdrinkable. municipality,becauseit’s effortintoreducing thesamewaterprovidedto turbidity. andpractices—some thewealthierpeople. ofwhichareeffective inpreventinghealth problemsandsome whicharenot. InMadPuriathereis InVishnuNagarthelarvae Peoplewhousebleachare atraditionofa‘solar’ swimminginthewaterare dosinginaninconsistent treatmentwherethe anobviousindicationof manner,withnofeedback (covered)potsitsinthesun ‘unclean’. thatthetreatmentis alldayasawaytotreatthe working. water. 53
  54. 54. 3. What is “clean”? Why do people have a lack of understanding of “clean” water? Misleading cues - Therearenovisualcues,orreliableindicators,thatwateris cleanandsafetodrink.Thecuesthatdoexistcanbemisleading:forexample, tasteisadistinguishingfactorwhichisnottiedtowatersafety. Mixed messages - Therearecountlessmessagesaboutwhatmakeswater clean,stemmingfromsourcessuchasreligion,schools,healthclinics, commercialmarketing,andlocaltradition.Everypersonmustchoosewhatto believefromthiscacophonyofopinions. 54
  55. 55. 3. What is “clean”? Insight Therearefewreliableindicatorsofwatersafety,soifitlooks“clean”,people assumeitissafe. Design challenges Helppeopleevaluatewaterqualityandunderstandthenatureofcontamination. -Provideindicationsandirrefutableevidenceofwaterquality. -Usemessagingwhichissimple,understandable,andconsistent. Leverageexistingbehaviorsandbeliefsaboutkeepingwaterclean. -Encouragecleaningbehavioratthesitewherewateriscollected. -Improveeffectivenessofcleaning. 55
  56. 56. 3. What is “clean”? Example opportunity: What can’t you see? Educatethecommunityaboutcontaminantsinthewaterthatcan’tbeseenbythe nakedeye. Nirjaiswalkingbytheplant,carrying Theplantoperatorinviteshertocome Withmagnification,she’ssurprisedtosee waterfromthevillagepond. insideandlearnaboutherwater. thatthereareactuallycontaminantsin herwater!Shecancomparethiswiththe plantwater. 56
  57. 57. 3. What is “clean”? Example opportunity: What can’t you see? Key features -Buildsonexistingbehaviorstoreducevisibleparticulateandturbidity -Becomesamarketingtoolforaspecifictreatmentorsource -Givesconfidenceinperceptibledifferencesbetweenwaterqualities Business model questions -Howmuchtrainingisrequiredbymicroscopeoperators,skilledlabor? -Howwilltheequipmentcostbecovered?(Thisconceptdoesnothave arevenuestream,andcouldbeconsideredamarketingeffort,socosts forthisshouldbeoffsetbyincreasedrevenuessomewhereelse.) -Cantheequipmentcostbesharedamongbusinessbranches? 57
  58. 58. 3. What is “clean”? Example opportunity: Cleaning stations Offerdedicatedcleaningstationsatthetreatmentplant,whichallowpeopletoclean inasafeway. Beforefillingtheirpots,everybodycomes Toolsareavailable,andplantworkers Poojaiscomfortable,knowingthatthe tothecleaningstation,wheretheycan provideadviceaboutcleaningpractices. potshe’susingisassafeasthewater cleanwithchlorinatedwater. she’spayingfor. 58
  59. 59. 3. What is “clean”? Example opportunity: Cleaning stations Key features -Raisesawarenessoftheimpactofcleaning -Canbeofferedseparatelyfromwatertreatment,orasavalue-addservice -Allowspeopletopayforaservice,ratherthanpayingforwater Business model questions -Whatiswillingnesstopay?Cantheservicebeoptional? -Whatareequipmentcosts? -Whatareconsumablescosts? -Whatarelaborcosts?(Levelandtypeofservice) -Whatbrandscanbeleveraged?(Nirmasoap,etc.) -Arerevenuesfromthecleaningstationandtheplantindependentor consolidated? 59
  60. 60. 3. What is “clean”? Guideline for action Helppeopleevaluatewaterqualityand understandthenatureofcontamination. 60
  61. 61. 4. Spectrum of empowerment Insight: Spectrum of empowerment Manypeoplefeelasenseofresignationabouttheirwateroptions. Particularlyamonglowercastes,peoplearenotempoweredtoinitiatechange. 61
  62. 62. 4. Spectrum of empowerment Empowered Resigned Dependent IntheHarijan(lowestcaste) Becauseshehasaninvalidhusband, ThisoldercoupleinMadPuriaadds neighborhoodoutsideofChinthapalli shereliesonhersontoforfinancial bleachtoeverypotofdrinkingwater. Padu,thepondisovergrownwithalgae supportandalsotoprovidewaterfroma Iftheydon’t,theywillgetsick.His andcontainshumanandanimalwaste. treatmentplantinKovali.Hersonisalso asthmaiseasilytriggered,sotheyare Thepeopleworkallday,andhave theonewhokeepsherwatercontainers verysensitivetotakingcareoftheir notime,money,orsupportforwater clean. health. maintenance. “Mysontoldmetogetridoftheclay “Ifweareoutinthefieldanddon’t “Itisuptothegovernmenttosolvethis pots,soIdid.” haveaclothfilter,wewillpourthe problem.Theyaredoingabadjob. drinkingwaterthroughasari.” Thingswillneverchange.” 62
  63. 63. 4. Spectrum of empowerment Empowerment factors Caste - Lowercastesarenot encouragedtoaspiretoupwardmobility. Gender -Women’srolesarestrictly prescribedinmanyhouseholds,and they’renotempoweredtoenactchange outsideofthehousehold.Menare Complexity of empowerment oftentheonesinchargeofhousehold purchasingdecisions. Jathi’sfamilystayshealthy andsheattributesthattoGod. “HealthisluckfromGod.” Choices - Notknowingthereisanother However,sheisactuallyoneof optionavailablelimitsimagination. themostactivepeoplewemet: shepoursdrinkingwaterthrough Education - Knowingtheconsequences aclothfiltertwiceandbleaches thecanalwaterthatistruckedin ofactionsandknowingwhat’spossible duringdroughts. allowspeopletotakechangeintotheir ownhands. 63
  64. 64. 4. Spectrum of empowerment Community versus household empowerment Communityempowermentmaytaketheformofdigginganewwell,cleaning thelocalpond,orputtingpressureonleaderstoimplementnewinfrastructure. Manyofthepeoplewemetaremoreempoweredatthehouseholdlevel (choosingonesourceoveranother,pouringwaterthroughaclothfilter), perhapsinfluencedbythefactorsabove.Inmanycases,womenhavemuch morecontroloverwhathappensintheirhouseholdthanwhathappensatthe communitylevel.Theobservedinstancesofcommunityempowermentwere oftenmotivatedbyoutsidesources:forexample,theJalBhagirathiFoundation offersgrantstocommunitiesinJodhpurtomotivateinvestmentandattention tocareforwaterquality. Using this spectrum Oneuseofthisspectrumistounderstandtheneedtodesigndistinctofferings topeopleatdifferentlevelsofempowerment.Anotherusetothinkabouthow wemightdesignanofferingthatinvitesanindividualorcommunitytotakea steptowardsmoreempowerment. 64
  65. 65. 4. Spectrum of empowerment Why are people resigned about water? Lack of understanding - Whenpeopledon’tunderstandtheproblemsofwater safety,theyarelessmotivatedtoworkforchange. Too many problems - ThepooranddisempoweredpeopleinIndiansociety tendtohaveadisproportionatenumberofchallengestodealwithintheirdaily lives(includingpoverty,landrights,scarcityofresources,etc.)Withsomany challenges,theproblemsrelatedtowatermaynotbethefirstpriority. Government responsibility - Manypeoplefeelthatit’sthegovernment’s responsibilitytofixtheproblemsofwateraccessandquality,nottheirown. Fatalism - Somepeoplehaveafatalisticattitudeabouttheirhealthandfutures, whichpreventsthemfromtakinginitiative.AsJathisaid,“Healthisluckfrom God.” 65
  66. 66. 4. Spectrum of empowerment Insight Manypeoplefeelasenseofresignationabouttheirwateroptions.Particularly amonglowercastes,peoplearenotempoweredtoinitiatechange. Design challenges Designwatertoolsandservicesthatempowerpeople. -Empowerpeoplethroughaccurateinformation. -Leverageexistingmechanismsforinformationsharing(e.g.schools,religion, health.) -Designsolutionsthatareavailabletodisempoweredpeople,becauseempowered peoplewillfindtheirwaytothesolutions. 66
  67. 67. 4. Spectrum of empowerment Example opportunity: Safe water campaign Involvelocalcommunitymembersinacampaigntospreadthemessageabout waterquality,sponsoredbylocalbusiness. Homesparticipatinginsafewater Kidsreceivebrandedsafewaterschool Communitymembersareencouraged practiceshangasignontheirhouse,to supplies,torewardlearningandto tosharetheirlearningswithothers,ina impartstatusandtoempowerthefamily encouragetheirpeers. communityforum. toshareknowledgewithneighbors. 67
  68. 68. 4. Spectrum of empowerment Example opportunity: Safe water campaign Key features -Empowerslocalpeopletoimpacttheircommunities -Creditspeopleforpositivebehaviors -Buildsloyaltyandbrandawarenessofaparticulartreatmentorsource Business model questions -Whopaysforthiscommunityempowerment?(Business,local government,schools,donors,etc.)Cancostsbesharedamonggroups? -Whatexistingchannelscouldbeleveragedforimplementation? (Schools,clinics,localNGOs,SHGs) -Whatbrandscanbeleveraged?(Nirmasoap,etc.) -Whatarethecostsinvolved?(Design,materials,distribution) 68
  69. 69. 4. Spectrum of empowerment Guideline for action Createwatertoolsandservicesthat empowerpeople. 69
  70. 70. 5. Added value for water Insight: Added value for water Payingforwaterisapoliticallychargedproposition,andpeopleexpectthatwater shouldbefree.However,manyhouseholdspayforaddedvaluesuchcoolness, clarity,convenienceandhealthsafety. 70
  71. 71. 5. Added value for water Waterisjudgedonseveralqualities,somesubjectiveandsomeobjective. Specificsourcesortreatmentsofwateraremoresoughtafterdependingon whattypesofqualitiestheyoffer. Water Qualities In the following areas, convenient American corporations clear have been exploring the cool boundaries of water with goodtaste additives like vitamins and electrolytes. healthy highstatus nutrientfilled quenching goodsmell hydrating fresh holy familiar 71
  72. 72. 5. Added value for water Convenient High status Themostconvenientwater Watercanbecome isavailableclosesttothe associatedwithstatuswhen pointofuse.Peoplewill itispaidfor,branded,and sacrificemanyqualitiesof usedbywealthypeople. water,togetwaterinless time,withlessdrudgery. Cool Good taste Coolnessisincredibly Tastevariesbysource valuedforwater,becauseit (waternaturallytastes makeswaterrefreshingto “sweet”or“salty”,basedon drink. itsmineralcontent).People improvetastebystoringitin aclayorcopperpot. Clear Fresh Clarityisoneoftheonly Waterisconsideredfreshat visiblesignsofclean itsnaturalsource,andwhen water,andusedasaproxy ithasbeencollectedfrom forotherindicatorsof itsnaturalsourcerecently. healthiness. Healthy Holy Healthywaterisvaluedby Waterisusedinmany peoplewhounderstand traditionalceremonies, itsbenefits,eitherthrough andisintegraltotheHindu personalexperienceor religion. throughhealtheducation. 72
  73. 73. 5. Added value for water Why don’t people want to pay for water? Right to free water - Freewaterhaslongbeenpromisedtopoorpeopleduring politicalcampaigns,sopeoplefeelthattheyshouldn’thavetopayforwateritself. Other sources of free water - Inareaswheretherearemanyexistingsourcesof freewater(ponds,wells,governmentstandpipes,etc.),thereislittleincentiveto switchtoasystemofpayingforwater. 73
  74. 74. 5. Added value for water Insight Payingforwaterisapoliticallychargedproposition,butmanyhouseholdspayfor addedvaluesuchcoolness,clarity,convenienceandhealthsafety. Design challenges Leverageexistingwaterpreferencestomakesafewatermoresoughtafter. -Considerbrandingtoincreasetheperceivedvalueofwater. -Associatebrandswithqualitiesbesidessafety(e.g.coolness,flavor,status.) -Stimulatevalue-addedservices. -Designtoolsandsystemsfordeliveryentrepreneurs. 74
  75. 75. 5. Added value for water Example opportunity: Brand extensions Buildthebrandofawatertreatmentplant,bysellingbrandedwaterwhichhasbeen enhancedthroughavarietyofmethods(chilled,flavored,carbonated). Aswellaschilledwater,thereareflavored Heheadsovertotheplantandbuys Inshopsandkiosksaroundthevillage, andcarbonatedversions. enoughforhiswholefamily. brandedwaterfromtheplantissoldasa premiumwater—PaniPlus. 75
  76. 76. 5. Added value for water Example opportunity: Brand extensions Key features -Extendsthebrandofthetreatmentfacility -Elevatesthestatusoftreatedwater -Attractscustomerswhoarenotprimarilyhealthfocused Business model questions -Whatisthedemandforpackagedchilledwater,invillageareasaround waterplants? -Isthereoverlapbetweencustomersofpackagedwaterandofbulk water?Wouldconsumersofbulkwaterbeinspiredbytrendsinpackaged water? -Whowouldmanageproductionofthebottledwater? -Ifpackagedwaterisnotbottledlocally,howdoesthecompanymanage differentwatersourcesunderthesamebrand,withoutriskingcustomer backlash? 76
  77. 77. 5. Added value for water Example opportunity: Water delivery Createasystemtosupportthedeliveryentrepreneur,throughconnectiontoalarger infrastructure. Sunil,thevillagedeliveryman,fillswater Hecyclesthroughthevillage,delivering Thesystemcanbeexpanded,withlarger- jugsathisfillingpoint. toallhiscustomersandmeetingothers scaledeliverysupplyingwatertomany alongtheway. entrepreneurslikeSunil. 77
  78. 78. 5. Added value for water Example opportunity: Water delivery Key features -Increasesvalueofwaterthroughabrandeddeliveryexperience -Createsjobandcareerpathsthroughconnectiontoalargerinfrastructure -Businesseasesstartupeffortandcostsforindividualentrepreneurs Business model questions -Whatdeliveryrevenueispossible?Canthiscovervehicleamortization, laborcosts,andpotentialfuelcosts? -Whatarethequalitycontrolissuesassociatedwithdelivery? -Whatareotherpotentialsourcesofincomeforthedeliveryvehicle? (Advertising,goingfullbothways) -Howcanthereachofdeliverybeexpanded?(Forexample,withmultiple distributionpointsandsomelocalcollection,oradeliverysupplychainwith differenttypesofvehicles) 78
  79. 79. 5. Added value for water Example opportunity: Large scale storage Createaservice,toprovideandmaintainlarge-scalehouseholdwatertanks. Kamal’sfamilyordersanewwaterstorage Aspartoftheserviceplan,theTank-U Andonceamonth,aTank-Uservice tankfortheirhome.They’repleasedwith truckcomeseveryweektorefillthetank personcleansgivesthetankathorough the“Tank-U”installationservice. withsafewater. cleaning. 79
  80. 80. 5. Added value for water Example opportunity: Large scale storage Key features -Ensurescleanandsafestorage -Providesamenuofdeliveryoptions,tobuildcustomerloyalty -Createsasysteminwhichasinglesourcecantakeresponsibilityfor watersafety. Business model questions -Canthebusinessmodelofferflexibilityinwhichoftheservices customerschoosetoparticipatein?(Tankinstallation,tankcleaning,water delivery) -Couldtankcleaningbeanadd-onserviceforprovidersofwaterdelivery, housebuilders,othercleaningservices,pesticideproviders? -Whatarethecostsinvolvedinaservicetobuildingorinstallstorage tanks?(Labor,materials) -Thiscouldbeaveryfragmentedmarket.Whatarethebenefitsof centralizedsupportforhouseholdstoragecleaning?(Buyingconsumables inbulk,buyingcleaningequipmentinbulk,sharedmarketing,quality control) -Cantheunitcostofstoragetanksbefinanced?Wherewouldthis financingcomefrom? -Whatarethecostsofacleaninganddeliveryservice? -Whattrainingandsupportwillserviceprovidersneed? 80
  81. 81. 5. Added value for water Guideline for action Leverageexistingwaterpreferencesto makesafewatermoresoughtafter. 81
  82. 82. Analysis of opportunities
  83. 83. Prioritizing opportunities Ofalltheconceptsandopportunitieswehavethoughtabout,wehavechosenonlyasubsetto includeinthisreport. We’veprioritizedtheopportunitieswhichare: -Areasinwhichanewproductorservicecanmakeanimpact -Newideas,ornewapproachestoexistingofferings -Economicallysustainablesolutions -Solutionswhichareappropriatetoourtargetmarket(low-income,rural,waterfromtreated communitysupply) 83
  84. 84. Revisiting the opportunity map Webrainstormedhundredsofopportunityareas,anddistilledthemostpromisinginto8scenarios, illustratedinthepreviouspages.Whenwemapthesescenariosagainsttheoverallopportunity map,weseethatsomeoftheinsightareasareespeciallyrichforinnovation. Insight Hierarchyofuse DesignChallenge OpportunityArea Addedvalueforwater Qualityandconvenience trade-off Spectrumofempowerment Whatis“clean”? 84
  85. 85. Existing innovations Inourresearch,wesawseveralinnovationswhichanswerthedesignchallengesbrilliantly. Inthesecases,thebigopportunityisforbuildingbusinesseswhichcouldspreadthesolutions. Delivery service financing Pot-in-pot cooler (WaterHealth International) (M. Abba, Nigeria) WaterHealthfinancesa Achamberiscooledthrough deliveryentrepreneurby claypotevaporativecooling. providingacycle-rickshaw, Bythesameprinciple,plastic whichtheentrepreneurcan watervesselscouldbe payoffovertime. placedinapottocool. Mesh top Vehicle rental Ascreenpreventspeople (Molar Bund, Delhi) fromdippinghandsintothe AserviceinDelhirents watersupply.Thescreen rickshaws,forRs.10per canberemoved,forcleaning. hour. Ladle in lid Improved clay pot (Traditional) (CDC Safe water system) Aladlebuiltintothelid Thetraditionalclaypot allowspeopletoservewater, ismodifiedtoprevent withoutdippinghandsinthe contamination:ithasa pot. narrow-mouthopening,anda stainlesssteeltapdispenser. 85
  86. 86. Narrowing the scope Ourresearchhasexposedthegreatvarietyofpeoplewhowouldbenefitfrominnovations insafewatertransportandstorage.Whilewehopethatourinnovationswillbe appropriateforbroadgroupofusers,werecommendnarrowingthescopeinthefollowing ways. Factor Recommendation Comments Sourcequality Watercomesfroman Acknowledgethat“improved”watersourcesarenot “improved”source. always100%.Takewaterqualityoutcomesintoaccount. Waterdistance Waterisavailable Therearedistinctsetsofneedsforpeoplecollecting outsidethehome. within1km,andgreaterthan1km. Age Adult Acknowledgethedifferentrolesthathouseholdmembers playinrelationtocollectingandstoringwater. Gender Bothwomenandmen Acknowledgethedifferentrolesthatmenandwomen have,relatedtowater. Caste Allcastes Beawareofthechallengesspecifictopeopleoflow castes. Incomelevel Earning$1-4perday Ourfocusisthepoor,whocanparticipatein entrepreneurialsolutions.Somesubsidiesarepossible. Ruralorurban Rural Whilewehopeourdesignswillbenefitbothruraland urbanpopulations,ourdesignfocusisonruralbecause that’swheremostofourtargetmarketlives. Educationlevel Low Theleasteducatedaremostlikelytobeaffectedbyour work. Region India Wehopetoexpandthegeographicalscopeofourwork inthefuture,butourcurrentknowledgeisbasedinIndia. 86
  87. 87. Opportunities which we did not pursue Thereareseveralopportunitieswhichwehavechosennottopursue. One-size-fits-all vessel Opportunity: A“one-size-fits-all”vessel,suitedforbothtransportandstorage,wouldreducethe needtotransferwater. Reason: Peoplehaveverystrongopinionsaboutvesselmaterialandshape,tiedtouseand togenerallocalpreferences.Ratherthancreatingaone-size-fits-allvessel,we’ve focusedonvesselcleaning. Built-in water storage Opportunity: Wehaveseveralinterestingconceptsofwaterstoragevesselsashousehold constructionelements. Reason: Built-inwaterstorageismostappropriateforurbanslums,wherespaceistheprimary constraint,peoplearerelativelylesspricesensitive,andinnovativepracticesata householdlevelaremoreprevalent.Urbanareasarenotthemainfocusofourwork. Household treatment Opportunity: Thedesignchallenge,“Howmightweimprovethequalityofwateratconvenient sources?”yieldsmanyrichopportunitiesforhouseholdtreatment. Reason: Whilethesesolutionsarecompelling,they’rebeyondthescopethatwehave definedforthisproject. 87
  88. 88. Business analysis Whileeachdesignopportunityimpliesuniquebusinessissues,therearegeneralissuesthatshouldbeconsidered fordeployinganyoftheopportunitiesidentified. Start-up costs –Significantcapitalcoststostartabusinesscouldbeabarriertoentryforlocal entrepreneurswholackaccesstocapitalorfinancing. Working capital –Ifthecostoftheproductwillresultinaneedforsignificantworkingcapitalforthe entrepreneurthiscouldagainposeachallengeforstartingupanewenterprise. Operating costs –Costsassociatedwithlabor,consumablesandmaintenanceneedtobeoffsetby revenuesandshouldbekeptlow. Supply chain –Theavailabilityofinputsthroughexistingsupplychainsshouldbeconsidered,aswell asthepotentialneedforcomplimentarysupplychainstobedeveloped.Forexample,ifaninputsuch aschlorineisneeded,thereshouldbechlorinereadilyavailableinthemarket.Ifnot,asupplychainfor chlorinewouldbeneededoranalternativesuchaslocalproduction. 88
  89. 89. Business analysis Marketing Costs – Anewideaorinnovativetechnologymayhaveahigherperceivedvalue,butalso requiremoremarketing,whichcanbecostly,whileamoretraditionalapproachmaybelesscompelling, butrequirelittlepromotion.Thetrade-offsbetweencostandmarketingneedtobewellunderstood, perhapsthroughmarkettesting. Marketing – Messagingwillneedtocommunicatelifestylebenefitsaswellashealthbenefits,tapping intopeople’saspirationsandlifegoalsbeyondpersonalhealth. Positioning – Conceptswillneedtodemonstrateaclear‘reasontobelieve’,demonstratingvisualor otherfeedbackinordertoensurerepeatuseafterinitialtrial.New-to-marketproductsandservices willincreasepenetrationthroughwordofmouth,whichmakesitessentialthatentrepreneurssupplya simpleandcompellingproductbenefitstorythatcanbepassedfrompersontoperson. Demand – Consumerdesireforgoodsandservicesmustexist,andpeoplemustbewillingtopayfor them.Forexample,people’sassumptionthatcleanwatershouldbeprovidedbythegovernmentand accesstoitshouldbefreecouldbeabarriertopenetrationthatshouldbeevaluatedwithtestmarkets amongtargetconsumers. Market size – Theexistingmarketsizeneedstobeunderstoodbasedonpeople’spresentabilityto pay,butthismarketcouldbeexpandedthroughdemandcreation. Pricing and willingness to pay – Potentialconsumersshouldhavethewillingnessandabilitytopayfor aproductorserviceconcept.Willingnesstopaycouldbetestedatdifferentpricinglevels,andcreative pricingmodels,suchaspaymentincreditorcross-subsidiescouldbedeployedtoaddressinabilityto paybylow-incomeconsumers. 89
  90. 90. Design principles BasedonourresearchinIndiaandourpreviousexperiencewithdesigninthisspace,wehavecollected thefollowingsetofdesignprinciples.Theseprinciplesareintendedtoinspireandguidedesign,with theunderstandingthataninnovationisunlikelytomeetalloftheseideals. Design for the Base of the Pyramid should be… Affordable-abletobepurchasedbypeopleearninglessthan$4/day Humanity-centered-designedwithanunderstandingoftheneedsandaspirationsofthe individualaswellasthecommunity Scalable-abletospreadwidelytoreachmorepeople Modular-abletobepurchasedinincrements Systems-based-coveringthetruecostsofthesystem,includingsupplychain,education, andrepairservices Useful-abletoprovidedemonstrablevaluetotheenduser Locally serviceable-replacementpartsandserviceavailableforlocalrepair Economically sustainable-usingcontext-specificbusinessmodelswhichharnessmarket forces Environmentally sustainable-accountingfortheenvironmentalimpactsofmaterials, processes,andbehaviors 90
  91. 91. Design principles Innovations for India should be... Equitable-designedwithasensitivitytothecastesystem Compatible with religious beliefs -integratingculturalbeliefs,suchasbeliefthathealthis thedomainofahigherpower Empowering -designedtomotivatepeoplewhomightotherwisebelimitedbywhatis providedforthem Household products for the Base of the Pyramid should be… Made with culturally appropriate materials-integratingtraditionandpreferencesfor materialsthatfitinthehome Accessible-availablethroughlocalavailabledistributionchannels Low operating cost-abletofunctionwithoutsignificantinputssuchasenergyand replaceableparts 91
  92. 92. Design principles Household water storage and transport products in the Base of the Pyramid should be… Designed for aesthetics of water-abletomaintainorenhancetheaestheticsofwater, suchastaste,smell,appearance Safe-resistanttobacteriologicalcontamination Clean-designedwithaccessforcleaning,andmaterialswhichenablecleaning Fresh-designedtoencourageshort-termstorageofwater Ergonomic-designedwithappropriatelysizeandshapeforwomentocarry Able to be transported-designedwithfeaturesfortransportbyfoot,bycart,bybicycle,by motorbike 92
  93. 93. Design principles Behavior change cycle believe reinforce frame act know prompt IDEO’sbehaviorchangecycleisanevaluativetool,forinnovationswhichincludebehaviorchangeasa component.Behaviorchangemaybesuccessfulifincludesthefollowingsixelements. Believe-Peopleneedtobelievethattheinnovationwillmatter. Frame-Theyneedtobuildamentalmodelofhowtheinnovationwillwork. Know-Theyneedtoknowtherulesofhowtousetheinnovation. Prompt-Knowingwhattodoisoftennotenough.Peopleneedcuesandreminderstopromptaction. Act-Actionrequiresresources:physical,cognitive,emotional,social,andfinancial. Reinforce-Feedbackreinforcesbelieftostrengthenanddrivebehaviorchange. 93
  94. 94. Next steps
  95. 95. Where are we now? Fieldresearch-InPhase1,wehaveimmersedourselvesintheneedsandchallengesofsafewater transportandstorageinIndia,learningfromexpertsinthesectorandthepeoplewhoknowthese challengesbest,facingthemdailyinIndia. Synthesis-Wesynthesizedourlearnings,pickingoutthehighestlevelinsights,anddevelopedaset ofdesignchallengestoguideourdesignmovingforward. 95
  96. 96. Next steps Phase1 Phase2 Phase3 Phase1 Phase2 Createconcepts Developfinalproducts Maptheopportunity andselectdirections andsolutions space ·refinedconcepts ·implementable ·fieldresearch ·prototypes solutions,products ·synthesis ·fieldfeedback and/orservices ·initialconcepts Thenextstepsfortheprojectaretoselectanopportunityspaceforfurtherexploration,andtodevelop asystemofsolutionsforadditionalfieldfeedback. InPhase2,thepartnershipsweformwillbecriticallyimportanttothesuccessoftheproject,justas theyhavebeeninPhase1. 96
  97. 97. Appendix: Themes of exploration
  98. 98. Collection Collection key points Peoplechoosetheirwatersourcedbasedonseveralfactors,themostimportant ofwhicharequalityandconvenience. Peopleoftenuseseveraldifferentsources,dependingontheenduseofthe water(e.g.drinking,cooking,washing.) Womenareprimarilyresponsibleforwatercollection,butmenareinvolvedwhen thedistancerequirestransportationorifmoneyisinvolved. Formanyhouseholds,collectionisnotasarduousaswehadexpected.If communitysourcesarenotashortwalkaway,peopleoftenpayfordelivery. 98
  99. 99. Collection Summary of Andhra Pradesh Waterwasmuchrelativelyaccessible,withmostpeoplehavingaccesstopipedwaterintheirhomes,and drinkingwaterwithinafewstepsfromtheirhome.Womenareprimarilyresponsibleforwaterinthehome,but insituationswherewaterisfurtherfromthehomemenareresponsiblefortransport.Thecollectionprocess wasnotconvenientandofteninvolvedwaitinginlineorwaitingforthewatertoturnon,butitwasnotseenasa particularhardship.Theonevillagewefoundthattraveled2kmtotheirdrinkingwellwasananomaly;wehadto beveryintentionalinoursearchtofindtheseconditions. Summary of Jodhpur region Jodhpurhaswatershortageseveryyear.Localpondsdryupandpeoplehavetotravellongdistancesforwater. Mostvillageshavedevelopedwork-aroundsfortheseconditionsthatincludedeliveryofwaterbytruckortractor, tofilleitheracommunitytankorahouseholdstoragetank.Thedeliverybringslargevolumesofwater(4000 liters)whichmakescarryingonepotatatimeoverlongdistancesseeminsufficient;mostofthesecommunities payfordeliverytrucksregularlyratherthanwalktoadistantsource.Insituationswherethepondisclose,women areprimarilyresponsibleforretrievingwaterfromthepondorstoragetank.Inseveredrought,thegovernment providestrucksofwaterforfree. Summary of slums Mostslumdwellerslivewithinafewstepsofamunicipalwatersource.Thewatercomesonatscheduled intervals,twoorthreetimeseachday.Oftenwholefamiliesareinvolvedinthecollectionprocesswiththemother ofthehouseholdmanagingtheeffort.Wateriscollectedinmultiplevesselsofanykindandbroughthometofill largervesselsforstorage. Summary of Aurangabad region Mostfarmershaveopenwellsontheirproperties.Forthefamiliesthatliveonthefarm,womencollectwaterfrom thewellinmetalpots,orinrarecasespeoplepumpdirectlyfromthewelltothehouseholds.Forfamiliesthatlive invillages,womencollectwaterfromavarietyofcommunitysources,alsocarryingthewaterinmetalpots. 99
  100. 100. Collection Slum community tap Rajeev Ghandi Nagar, Hyderabad RajeevGandhiNagarisasmallslumof50families inthemiddleofthelargecityofHyderabad.The familywespokewithcollectswatereveryotherday, enoughforthe14peopleinhousehold.Theywalkto themunicipalwatertap,approximately20feetfrom thehome.Themotherfillsthepotsatthetap;the wholefamilyhelpscarrypotsbacktohouse.Drinking waterisstoredinmetalpotsandplasticbottles,and washingwaterisstoredinlargedrum(100Lorlarger) outsideofthedoorway. Waterisavailablefromtapafewhourseveryday.On dayswhenthetapisn’tworkingthecommunitycan orderatrucktocomefillaSintextankforfree.Some neighborshavewaterpipedtohouseforRs.100/ month($2.50)+Rs.1000($25)installationfee. 100
  101. 101. Collection Piped nonpotable water Ahdhra Pradesh AlmostallthevillagesinAndhraPradeshhave pipedwaterdirectlytotheirhouseholds.Generally speaking,thewaterissurfacewaterwhichhasbeen treatedwithasandfilter,andpumpedtoanoverhead tanktocreatewaterpressure.Thecommunities recognizethatthiswaterisveryunsafe.Theyusethis waterforwashing,butuseothersourcesfordrinking. WaterHealth International (WHI) treatment plants Andhra Pradesh WHIcustomersbringtheiremptyjugs(purchased fromWHI)andpay1Rupeefor12L.and1.5Rupee for20L.Womendon’tridebikesormotorbikessoit fallstothementocollectthedrinkingwater(either fromthepondinthenextvillageortheWHIplant). Thelargervesselsaretooheavyforwomentocarry, soitmostlymenwhocometoWHIplant.The majorityofhouseholdstakeone20Ljugeachday. Thefamilywespokewithacrossthestreetfromthe planttakestwo12Ljugssothatthechildrencan carryit.Theyputthejugsintotheirfridge.Orwhen thefridgeisbroken,transferthewaterintoclaypots forcooling. 101

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