Small livestock development towards the achievement of the UN Millennium Development Goals

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  • Distinguished Doctor Francisco Fernando Ramos de Carvalho (UFRPE) and Dr. Jean Paul Dubeuf (IGA President) Distinguished participants to this conference I am very grateful to the organizers of this conference, in particular Dr. Maria Norma Ribeiro for giving me the opportunity to talk in front of such high profile gathering of experts about the guiding objective of my day to day work: promoting livestock especially small livestock development as an effective tool for poverty reduction. For a fortunate coincidence tomorrow in New York, the United Nations will held a two day conference to assess how far we are from achieving the Millennium Development Goals and what it needs to be done in the next remaining years. My name is Antonio Rota and I work for the International Fund for Agriculture Development (IFAD) in Rome
  • IFAD is an organization of the United Nations dedicated to fighting rural poverty
  • During more than 30 years IFAD has implemented 829 projects in 115 countries Supporting 300 million rural poor For a total disbursement of 11,9 billion US dollars Only last year we started 33 new projects for 670.5 million US dollars
  • There are five hundred million smallholder farms worldwide supporting around two billion people, or one third of the world’s population. They: - Farm 80 % of the farmland in Asia and Africa. - Produce 80 % of the food consumed in the developing world - Feed one third of the global population. - Women are increasingly the farmers of the developing world, performing the vast majority of agricultural work and producing between 45 and 80 % of food crops. Women account for 65 per cent of household food production in Asia, 70-80 per cent in Sub-Saharan Africa and 45 per cent in Latin America and the Caribbean islands.
  • The world’s population is projected to grow from 6.8 billion to 9.1 billion by 2050. Production in the developing countries would need to almost double.
  • In this graphic you have summarized the main causes of poverty
  • Fighting poverty has become a priority By adopting the Millennium Declaration, 189 World Leaders committed themselves to address poverty in 2000 This resulted in the formulation of the Millennium Development Goals in 2000
  • These are the 8 Millennium Development Goals. All are important and interdependent .
  • Worldwide there is evidence of a direct linkage between improvement of livestock production and poverty reduction
  • The livestock sub-sector is essential to the livelihoods of about 1 billion of the world’s poorest people . For instance, livestock is essential for pastoral population livelihood. It accounts for 30% of the agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in developing countries; It grows faster than most other agricultural sub-sectors.
  • Few poultry, rabbits, guinea pigs, sheep, goats, pigs… are the animals of the poorest: Even landless can keep them (sometime they are their only asset) SL reproduce fast SL efficiently transform roughages, shrubs, kitchen waste… into highly valuable food Manure is often the only input for crop production No need for big starting capitals Easily sold or bartered Highly mobile in case of crisis/disaster Socio-cultural value
  • IFAD is investing on small livestock Opportunity in Brazil to learn from EMEPA - EMBRAPA - Dom Helder Camara and other institutions' experience and transfer this KNOWLEDGE to other part of the world through South South Cooperation
  • Halve , between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than 1 USD a day Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people Halve , between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
  • In developing country 1 out 4 children under five is underweight
  • Small Livestock: contribute to human nutrition providing food with high quality nutrients and micronutrients generate small income and provide the potential to ‘bank’ savings, which enhances the capacity to cope with shocks and reduces economic vulnerability In times of crises (i.e. drought, flooding, conflicts), play an important role as ‘mobile’ food asset
  • Smallholder farmers in Kenya are increasingly turning to dairy goat rearing due to lack of fodder and scarcity of land Goats milk fetches approximately twice the price of cow milk The cost of keeping 1 dairy cow is equivalent to that of six goats IFAD is replicating the successful model developed by NGOs such as FARM Africa dairy goat development model. Key elements of success are: Communities cross-breed hardy local goats with European dairy goats (i.e.Toggenburg, German Alpine) to get higher milk yields Training in fodder production and animal health is conducted with all recipients of livestock Farmer groups work with private and government organisations to collaborate in implementing support (inputs, health, credit, extension…) and marketing services ensuring sustainability in the long term The demand for improved dairy goats is very high which cannot be fulfilled by breeding stock in the region
  • Target: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling Inability of families to meet the costs of schooling is often the main reason why children cannot attend school or drop out at an early stage Selling SL and their products provides one of the few possibilities for poor households to generate cash income to meet yearly school fees Children with access to quality food (proteins and vitamins) have better health and take full advantage of the education they receive However, children often are responsible for taking care of SL resulting in low or no school attendance
  • More than 50,000 poor/destitute women access local goats through credit schemes Project supports the establishment of ‘improved buck stations’ to which female goats in heat are brought for mating (avg. income is USD 30 per month) During flooding (2009) it was easier to move around goats rather than dairy cattle Income generated was used mainly for school fees, medicine and to face emergencies
  • MDG 3 Women are the main caretakers of SL – especially where animals are kept near the house. They process livestock products The ownership of SL gives them control over this asset and contributes to their empowerment Income from livestock products helps women to meet their immediate family needs Keeping SL enhances their status/self-esteem at household and community level especially in conservative societies. However, the daily burdens increase: fetching water, herding, milking, processing and carrying the fodder.
  • Women assisted in improving mohair quality and accessing new markets Established community based breeding programme helping in increasing quality of mohair wool Women spinning 4 kg of yarn( coarse wool) for Russian market earn USD 24 per month or USD 288 per year Women spinning 4 kg of yarn (fine mohair) for US and European market earn USD 240 per month or USD 2,880 per year Goat farmers also earn higher incomes: USD 9 as opposed to USD 3.50 for 1 kg of kid mohair
  • MDG4 target is to reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate.
  • The consumption of even small quantities of milk, milk products, meat and eggs is essential for reducing child mortality and improving healthy child development Livestock products not only provide proteins, minerals and energy, but are also a key source of vitamin A Poor households can cover health expenses and purchase medicines with incomes generated from their livestock However, the close contact between badly managed livestock and children can result in illness
  • Child mortality in Afghanistan is among the highest in the world Dairy goats and improved bucks were distributed ( “pass-on the gift approach” promoted by e.g. Heifer International) Vaccination and health management reduced goat mortality from 50-60% to 5-10% Training ( women to women ) resulted in safer milk processed into better quality cheese Mulberry leaves and small plots of alfa-alfa and berseem around houses resulted in better quality forage Women could purchase medicine and clothes and reported that children were “healthier” Potential: cashmere business
  • Consumption of milk, milk products and occasionally meat contribute significantly to the nutritional status of women Goat milk is highly digestible for children and very often substitute maternal milk Income generation from livestock owned by women can also help to improve maternal health
  • Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS. Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases
  • 14 million children
  • In HIV/AIDS affected households: Keeping SL is very effective as a mitigation strategy Young people (orphans) can better handle SL rather than large animals Combining animal and human health using the same infrastructure and persons (i.e. extensionists) can be a cost effective strategy for developing countries to reach out to those groups that are often deprived of proper human health care Goats milk has been found to be beneficial to HIV/AIDS affected patient (*) However, livestock may also pose a threat to humans through the spread of zoonotic diseases
  • The NGO Send a Cow (SaC) has developed an effective approach to assist HIV affected families which combines the “keyhole gardens” technique for vegetable production, small plots of forage (Napier grass) and SL production Milk from dairy goats is considered particularly healthy for HIV/AIDS affected persons – around a quarter of Lesotho’s adult population Orphan children are the main beneficiaries from SaC project
  • Livestock (especially goats) are often held responsible for environmental degradation Overgrazing causing the loss of grass cover and invasion by bushy species also make rangelands increasingly suitable for browsing species Climate change effects are mitigated by pastoralists by diversifying the composition of herd, with a net increase of goats and camels Livestock contribute to environmental sustainability through enhancement of soil fertility, control of vegetative growth, and distribution and fortification of seeds Silvo-pastoral (i.e. rational management of the Caatinga) and crop-livestock production systems offer the opportunity for sustainable balance between livestock and crop productivity and preservation of natural resources Intensified animal production lead to lower stocking rates, and thus release pressure on the environment
  • Access to water is the key element in semi-arid areas (forage production with micro-irrigation systems) From extensive uncontrolled goat production to a semi-intensive managed system Forage banks and management of the natural forest result in higher production and reduced soil erosion Manure is generating income becoming essential for specialised crop production (potatoes) Development of value chains for milk, meat, cheese and other processed products (“dulces”), as a mean to better access to markets
  • TARGET Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system. Address the special needs of the least developed countries
  • Specific actions and policies are required to reduce transaction costs and barriers to market access which presently hamper poor (producers and consumers) to benefit from global livestock trade and growing demand for livestock products
  • From what we have seen by keeping SMALL LIVESTOCK is it possible for poor resource persons to: Unfortunately despite progress has been, it is uneven and, without additional efforts, several of the MDGs are unlikely to be achieved in many countries
  • There is still reluctance from international/national donors and decision makers to support the development of SL sector Effective and consistent national pro-poor policies are crucial to capitalise on the opportunities offered by the increasing demand for livestock products and poverty-focused agendas of several countries Participatory adaptive research is needed to identify appropriate technologies/models which are pro-poor, sustainable, economically viable and environmentally sound to increase SL productivity Adapted Extension and Training for capacity building (e.g. Livestock Farmer Field School approach), not excluding women. Market led approach by SL producers supported by effective services (breeding, veterinary services, credit, processing, marketing, extension/training, etc.), infrastructures and strong SL producers institutions Personal commitment from “like minded” people to advocate for pro-poor development to achieve the MDGs through the promotion of the SL sector
  • IFAD is prepared to work together with national/international institutions committed to pro-poor livestock to: Develop a business-like approach to sensitise national policy, decision makers and donors about the effectiveness of SL development to reduce poverty. This entails: Identifying goat development projects , models and approaches (i.e. FARM Africa approach) that “work” and characterise their key success factors for up-scaling Gathering socio-economic data to demonstrate the return in terms of poverty reduction for each 1 USD invested in goat production Identifying examples of effective national policies like in Brazil enhancing food security and supporting smallholder goat farmers business Developing regional/national project proposals for substantial investments in the SL sector in partnership with the private sector

Transcript

  • 1. Small livestock development towards the achievement of the UN Millennium Development Goals Antonio Rota IFAD Senior Technical Adviser Livestock and Farming Systems Photo ICARDA 10th International Conference on Goats Recife, September 19-23, 2010
  • 2. International Fund for Agriculture Development - IFAD Enabling the rural poor to overcome poverty
  • 3.
    • 829 projects in 115 countries
    • Supported 300 million rural poor
    • Total IFAD disbursement: USD 11,9 billion
    • USD 670.5 million in 33 new projects in 2009
    IFAD at work From 1979 to 2009 :
  • 4. Smallholder farming
    • 500 million smallholder farms worldwide supporting around 2 billion people. They:
    • Farm 80% of the farmland in Asia and Africa
    • Produce 80% of the food consumed in the developing world
    • Feed 1/3 of the global population
    • Women are increasingly the farmers of the developing world, producing between 45% and 80% of household food
  • 5. Food Security and Production
    • The world’s population is projected to grow from 6.8 billion to 9.1 billion by 2050
    • Agriculture production in the developing countries would need to almost double
  • 6. Factors determining rural poverty Lack of assets, land and water Lack of access to financial services & technology Risk and vulnerability Lack of political representation for rural poor Conflicts and Crises Inappropriate government policy Poor integration with local, regional & international markets Lack of skills and weak organizations
  • 7. Fighting poverty
    • Fighting poverty has become a priority
    • 189 World Leaders committed themselves to address poverty in 2000
    • Millennium Development Goals
  • 8. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
    • Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    • Achieve universal primary education
    • Promote gender equality and empower women
    • Reduce child mortality
    • Improve maternal health
    • Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
    • Ensure environmental sustainability
    • Develop a global partnership for development
  • 9. Role of livestock
    • Worldwide there is evidence of a direct linkage between improvement of livestock production and poverty reduction
  • 10. Livestock Sector
    • The livestock sector is essential to the livelihoods of about 1 billion of the world’s poorest people
    • It accounts for 30% of the agricultural GDP in developing countries
    • It grows faster than most other agricultural sub-sectors
    (WB, 2009)
  • 11. Consumption of livestock products in developing countries
  • 12. Meat production in developing countries
  • 13. Milk production in developing countries
  • 14.
    • Poultry, rabbits, guinea pigs, sheep, goats , pigs… are the animals of the poorest. Why?:
      • Even landless can keep them (sometime they are their only asset)
      • SL reproduce fast
      • SL efficiently transform roughages, shrubs, kitchen waste… into highly valuable food
      • Produce manure which is often the only input for crop production
      • No need for big starting capitals
      • Easily sold or bartered
      • Highly mobile in case of crisis/disaster
      • Socio-cultural value
    Small Livestock (SL)
  • 15. IFAD Projects with small ruminant development component Project with a Goat Development component - ready to start Project with a Small Ruminants Development component – on going Project with a Goat Development component – on going Project completed
  • 16. MDG 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    • Halve , between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than 1 USD a day
    • Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people
    • Halve , between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
    TARGET
  • 17. Source: World Bank 2009 Living with $ 1.25 a day
  • 18. Child malnutrition Source: World Bank 2009
  • 19. MDG 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    • Small Livestock:
    • contribute to human nutrition providing food with high quality nutrients and micronutrients
    • generate small income and provide the potential to ‘bank’ savings, which enhances the capacity to cope with shocks and reduces economic vulnerability
    • In times of crises (i.e. drought, flooding, conflicts), play an important role as ‘mobile’ food asset
  • 20. MDG 1. IFAD experience in Eastern Africa
    • Smallholder farmers in Kenya are increasingly turning to dairy goat rearing due to lack of fodder and scarcity of land
    • Goats milk fetches approximately twice the price of cow milk
    • The cost of keeping 1 dairy cow is equivalent to that of six goats
    • IFAD is replicating the successful dairy goat production model developed by NGOs such as FARM Africa. Key elements of success are:
      • Communities cross-breed hardy local goats with European dairy goats (i.e.Toggenburg, German Alpine) to get higher milk yields
      • Training in fodder production and animal health is conducted with all recipients of livestock
      • Farmer groups work with private and government organisations to collaborate in implementing support (inputs, health, credit, extension…) and marketing services ensuring sustainability in the long term
    • The demand for improved dairy goats is very high which cannot be fulfilled by breeding stock in the region
  • 21. MDG 2. Achieve universal primary education
    • Inability of families to meet the costs of schooling is often the main reason why children cannot attend school or drop out at an early stage
    • Selling SL and their products provides one of the few possibilities for poor households to generate cash income to meet yearly school fees
    • Children with access to quality food (proteins and vitamins) have better health and take full advantage of the education they receive
    • However, children often are responsible for taking care of SL resulting in low or no school attendance
  • 22. MDG 2. IFAD experience in Bangladesh
    • More than 50,000 poor/destitute women access local goats (double purpose) through credit schemes
    • Project supports the establishment of “improved buck stations” to which female goats in heat are brought for mating (avg. income is USD 30 per month)
    • During flooding (2009) it was easier to move around goats rather than dairy cattle
    • Income generated was used mainly for school fees, medicine and emergencies
  • 23. MDG 3. Promote gender equality and empower women
    • Women are the main caretakers of SL – especially where animals are kept near the house.
    • They are often responsible for processing livestock products
    • The ownership of SL gives them control over this asset and contributes to their empowerment
    • Keeping SL enhances their status/self-esteem at household and community level
    • However, the daily burdens increase: fetching water, herding, milking, processing and carrying the fodder.
  • 24. MDG 3. IFAD experience in Tajikistan
    • Women were assisted in improving mohair quality and accessing new markets
    • Community based breeding programme helping in increasing quality of mohair wool were established
    • Women spinning 4 kg of yarn( coarse wool) for Russian market earn USD 24 per month or USD 288 per year
    • Women spinning 4 kg of yarn (fine mohair) for US and European market earn USD 240 per month or USD 2,880 per year
    • Goat farmers also earn higher incomes: USD 9 as opposed to USD 3.50 for 1 kg of kid mohair
  • 25. MDG 4. Reduce child mortality UN MDG Report 2010
  • 26. MDG 4. Reduce child mortality
    • The consumption of even small quantities of milk, milk products, meat and eggs is essential for reducing child mortality and improving healthy child development
    • Livestock products not only provide proteins, minerals and energy, but are also a key source of vitamin A
    • Poor households can cover health expenses and purchase medicines with incomes generated from their livestock
    • However, the close contact between badly managed livestock and children can result in illness
  • 27. MDG 4. IFAD experience in Afghanistan
    • Child mortality in Afghanistan is among the highest in the world
    • Dairy goats and improved bucks were distributed ( “pass-on the gift approach” promoted by e.g. Heifer International)
    • Vaccination and health management reduced goat mortality from 50-60% to 5-10%
    • Training ( women to women ) resulted in safer milk processed into better quality cheese
    • Mulberry leaves and small plots of alfa-alfa and berseem around houses resulted in better quality forage
    • Women could purchase medicine and clothes and reported that children were “healthier/stronger”
    • Potential: cashmere business
  • 28. MDG 5. Improve maternal health
    • Consumption of milk, milk products and occasionally meat contribute significantly to the nutritional status of women
    • Goat milk is highly digestible for children and very often substitute maternal milk
    • Income generation from livestock owned by women can also help to improve maternal health
  • 29. MDG 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
  • 30. MDG 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
  • 31.
    • In HIV/AIDS affected household, young people (orphans) can better handle SL rather than large animals
    • Combining animal and human health using the same infrastructure and persons (i.e. extensionists) can be a cost effective strategy for developing countries to reach out to those groups that are often deprived of proper human health care
    • Goats milk has been found to be beneficial to HIV/AIDS affected patient (*)
    • However, livestock may also pose a threat to humans through the spread of zoonotic diseases
    MDG 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases * FARM Africa, WP series 2 (C. Peacock )
  • 32. MDG 6. Lesotho
    • 25% of Lesotho’s adult population are HIV/AIDS affected persons
    • The NGO Send a Cow (SaC) has developed an effective approach to assist HIV affected families which combines the “keyhole gardens” technique for vegetable production, small plots of forage (Napier grass) and SL production
    • 1,500 orphan children are the main beneficiaries from SaC project
    http:// www.sendacow.org.uk /farming-and-animals
  • 33. MDG 7. Ensure environmental sustainability
    • Livestock (especially goats) is often held responsible for environmental degradation
    • Overgrazing causing the loss of grass cover and invasion by bushy species also make rangelands increasingly suitable for browsing species
    • Climate change effects are mitigated by pastoralists by diversifying the composition of herd, with a net increase of goats and camels
    • Livestock contribute to environmental sustainability through enhancement of soil fertility, control of vegetative growth, and distribution and fortification of seeds
    • Silvo-pastoral (i.e. rational management of the Caatinga) and crop-livestock production systems offer the opportunity for sustainable balance between livestock and crop productivity and preservation of natural resources
    • Intensified animal production lead to lower stocking rates, and thus release pressure on the environment
  • 34. MDG 7. IFAD experience in Venezuela
    • Access to water is the key element in semi-arid areas (forage production with micro-irrigation systems)
    • From extensive uncontrolled goat production to a semi-intensive managed system
    • Forage production, fodder banks and management of the natural forest result in higher production and reduced soil erosion
    • Manure generates income and is becoming essential for specialised crop production (potatoes)
    • Increased safety/quality of milk, meat, cheese and other processed products (“dulces”) as a mean to better access to market
  • 35. MDG 8. Develop a global partnership for development
    • Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system.
    • Address the special needs of the least developed countries
    TARGET
  • 36. Net Export Net Import 2015: -2,360 2030: -3,520 2015: -2,950 2030: -4,000 2015: -80 2030: -410 2015: 1,770 2030: 2,770 2015: -280 2030: -740 North America Latin America Sub-Saharan Africa European Union (15) Transition Countries South Asia East Asia Oceania Near East / North Africa 2015: -1,900 2030: -1,090 Source: FAO 2002 Projected Net Trade In Meat (thousand MTs)
  • 37. Projected Net Trade in Milk (thousand MTs) Net Export Net Import 2015: - 8,900 2030: -12,500 2015: -9,550 2030: -13,000 2015: -1,200 2030: -1,500 2015: -6,350 2030: -6,700 2015: -3,600 2030: -5,200 North America Latin America Sub-Saharan Africa European Union (15) Transition Countries South Asia East Asia Oceania Near East / North Africa 2015: 3,500 2030: 5,200 Source: FAO 2002
  • 38. MDG 8. Develop a global partnership for development
    • Specific actions and policies are required to reduce transaction costs and barriers to market access which presently hamper poor (producers and consumers) to benefit from global livestock trade and growing demand for livestock products
  • 39. Conclusions Double the daily income of USD 1? Generate employment? QUESTION: By keeping SMALL LIVESTOCK is it possible for poor resource persons to: Improve (child) nutrition? Contribute empowering women? Improve (child) health?
    • YES
    • YES
    • YES
    • YES
    • YES
    Ensure environmental sustainability?
    • YES
    Unfortunately without additional efforts, several of the MDGs are unlikely to be achieved in many countries
  • 40.
    • International and national institutions, policy and decision makers are still reluctant to support the development of the SL sector
    • WHAT DO WE NEED TO MAKE A REAL CHANGE?
      • Effective and consistent national pro-poor policies are crucial to capitalise on the opportunities offered by the increasing demand for livestock products and poverty-focused agendas of several countries
      • Participatory adaptive research is needed to identify appropriate technologies/models which are pro-poor, sustainable, economically viable and environmentally sound to increase SL productivity
      • Adapted Extension and Training for capacity building (e.g. Livestock Farmer Field School approach), not excluding women.
      • Market led approach by SL producers supported by effective services (breeding, veterinary services, credit, processing, marketing, extension/training, etc.), by infrastructures and strong SL producers institutions
      • Personal commitment from “like minded” people to advocate for pro-poor development to achieve the MDGs through the promotion of the SL sector
    Conclusions
  • 41. Proposed Actions
    • IFAD is prepared to work together with national/international institutions committed to pro-poor livestock to:
    • Develop a business-like approach to sensitise national policy, decision makers and donors about the effectiveness of SL development to reduce poverty. This entails:
      • Identifying goat development projects , models and approaches (i.e. FARM Africa approach) that “work” and characterise their key success factors for up-scaling
      • Gathering socio-economic data to demonstrate the return in terms of poverty reduction for each 1 USD invested in goat production
      • Identifying examples of effective national policies enhancing food security and supporting smallholder goat farmers business
      • Developing regional/national project proposals for substantial investments in the SL sector in partnership with the private sector
  • 42. Thank you Antonio Rota ( [email_address] ) IFAD, Senior Technical Adviser Livestock and Farming Systems Policy and Technical Advisory Division Via Paolo di Dono 44 00142 Rome, Italy Tel. +39  06 5459 2680 Fax + 39 06 5459 3680