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Opportunities to improve the lives of
poor farmers through livestock
interventions in Africa
Presenter Name Line 1
Present...
How We Got Started
2
2000 2006
Bill and Melinda
read an article
about rotavirus
They officially
create the
foundation
Warr...
Our Core Belief:
All Lives Have Equal Value
3
Our Grantmaking Areas
4
25%
Global Development
Program50%
Global Health
Program
25%
United States
Program
Greater opportun...
Focus on Small Farmers
5
More than 1 billion people live on less than $1 a
day. What does that mean?
There’s a good chance...
Grantmaking Principles
6
There are many ways to address hunger and poverty.
We’ve focused on a limited set of areas with t...
Why Agricultural Development?
7
Agriculture is key to reducing
hunger and poverty
• Most people living on $1 a day
rely on...
The Green Revolution
8
• We know progress is possible.
From the 1960s to the 1980s,
crop improvements in Asia
and Latin Am...
Agriculture’s Impact Ignored
9
Despite its importance, agriculture has been neglected
over the last several decades by bot...
Address Areas of Greatest Need
10
Sub-Saharan Africa
South Asia
Legend
We focus on sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia,
wher...
© 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation |
• Livestock are widely held by small shareholders
• Increase income from livestoc...
Why Livestock ?
12
• In the last 30 years, access to livestock technology
and market access has decreased when compared to...
Why livestock?
13
Animal Source Foods – highly strategic in
nutritionally challenged populations (women &
children)
o Dens...
Livestock can be a key lever of change for
smallholders because the majority own livestock
Number of Poor by Daily Income
...
© 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 15
Case studies show that the rural poor obtains at
least a third of their income...
Stages of Progression Out of Poverty
16Source: Pathways Out Of Poverty in Western Kenya and the Role of Livestock (ILRI), ...
Major Reasons for Escaping Poverty
% of households that had escaped poverty mentioned
these reasons:
17Source: Pathways Ou...
Livestock Opportunities and Challenges
18
1. Regular income stream from livestock
acts as a hedge against inflation and
su...
Cattle, chickens and goats are the main livestock kept across SSA
and SA, with buffaloes also kept in large numbers in Ind...
© 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 20
Focusing on milk, beef, chicken meat and eggs will address the vast
majority o...
© 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 21
Cattle and poultry products are the largest contributors to household
income w...
© 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 22
Countries with the most number of poor livestock keepers and the
biggest poten...
Opportunity for Impact
Animals play a role in all farming systems
But productivity and consumption rates continue to lag
B...
© 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 24
Preliminary assessments indicate that addressing productivity constraints
and ...
© 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 25
Livestock Revolution: Countries took different paths to dramatically
increase ...
© 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 26
There are numerous potential areas for intervention along livestock
value chai...
Our Approach To Livestock
27
Focus
 Income generation for smallholders & nutrition
 Limited set of high leverage interve...
© 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation |
• CARE: Strengthening the dairy value chain in
Bangladesh by connecting smallhold...
© 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation |
• University of New England: To determine genotype
and phenotype of dairy cattle ...
© 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation |
• Diagnostics For All: To develop convenient, easy to
use, low-cost, point of car...
31
A Drop in the Bucket
32
Our resources, while significant, pale in comparison
to the need. Partnerships and advocacy are cr...
Reasons for Optimism
33
Developing countries are making
progress
• Poverty rates down
• Improved governance
Science and te...
Thank You
The Challenge
Much of increase will come from industrial sector for
poultry and swine
• Not as well developed where the po...
Success Is PossibleSuccess Is Possible
January 30, 2015
Millennium Development Goals
1. Poverty & hunger
2. Primary education
3. Gender equality
4. Child mortali...
© 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 38
Cattle and poultry products are the largest contributors to household
income w...
© 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 39
Since the early 1980s, many developing countries have experienced
dramatic inc...
© 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 40
Dairy and chicken products have the highest productivity
increase potential ba...
© 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 41
Although goats are widely kept by smallholder producers, opportunities
to incr...
© 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation |
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
120%
140%
160%
India
Bangledash
Nigeria
Ghana
BukinaFaso
...
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Opportunities to improve the lives of poor farmers through livestock interventions in Africa.

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Presentation by Gregg BeVier at the 5th All Africa conference on animal production, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 25-28 October 2010.

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Opportunities to improve the lives of poor farmers through livestock interventions in Africa.

  1. 1. Opportunities to improve the lives of poor farmers through livestock interventions in Africa Presenter Name Line 1 Presenter Name Line 2 Presenter Name Line 3All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture Oct 25, 2010 Gregg BeVier
  2. 2. How We Got Started 2 2000 2006 Bill and Melinda read an article about rotavirus They officially create the foundation Warren Buffett decides to give Berkshire Hathaway stock 1997 2000 20061997
  3. 3. Our Core Belief: All Lives Have Equal Value 3
  4. 4. Our Grantmaking Areas 4 25% Global Development Program50% Global Health Program 25% United States Program Greater opportunity for all Americans through the attainment of secondary and postsecondary education Increasing opportunities for people in developing countries to lift themselves out of hunger and povertyDiscover, develop, and deliver lifesaving health solutions to the people who need them most.
  5. 5. Focus on Small Farmers 5 More than 1 billion people live on less than $1 a day. What does that mean? There’s a good chance they: • Don’t have clean water or safe sanitation • Spend long hours doing backbreaking work • Eat only 1 or 2 meals a day • Aren’t able to send their kids to school • Lack basic financial services
  6. 6. Grantmaking Principles 6 There are many ways to address hunger and poverty. We’ve focused on a limited set of areas with the potential to be: • Effective in addressing a problem that has received insufficient attention and has potential for a significant breakthrough • Scalable so solutions can ultimately reach many of the people who need them most • Sustainable through long-term operations and financing
  7. 7. Why Agricultural Development? 7 Agriculture is key to reducing hunger and poverty • Most people living on $1 a day rely on agriculture for food and income. • In sub-Saharan Africa, farming accounts for 2/3 of labor and 1/3 of GDP Labor in sub-Saharan Africa Gross domestic product ratios in sub-Saharan Africa Other laborFarming Other laborFarming
  8. 8. The Green Revolution 8 • We know progress is possible. From the 1960s to the 1980s, crop improvements in Asia and Latin America helped: – Double food production – Save hundreds of millions of lives – Lay a foundation for growth in countries like India and China Rural poverty in India Poverty rate, % 60 50 40 1985 1980 1975 1970 1965Nearly 20% reduction in poverty in just two decades GREEN REVOLUTION PERIOD 20%
  9. 9. Agriculture’s Impact Ignored 9 Despite its importance, agriculture has been neglected over the last several decades by both developing and donor countries—especially in sub-Saharan Africa. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% Sub-Saharan African Gov’ts Average yield for a farmerDonors Tons of cereal per acre1985 2006 Agriculture as % of GDP Agricultural spending as % of gov’t budget 0 .5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 United States Sub-Saharan Africa India China
  10. 10. Address Areas of Greatest Need 10 Sub-Saharan Africa South Asia Legend We focus on sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, where nearly 80 percent of people making less than $1 a day live
  11. 11. © 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | • Livestock are widely held by small shareholders • Increase income from livestock is primary focus but • Reduce hunger & improve nutrition • Increase asset base • Improve farm productivity Focus on entire value chain: genetics, health, nutrition, market access, data and policy Consider environmental impact 11 Livestock Theory of Change Improving livestock productivity & market access will increase small shareholder income
  12. 12. Why Livestock ? 12 • In the last 30 years, access to livestock technology and market access has decreased when compared to the developed world • In the next 20 years the protein gap that is already an issue is set to expand in Africa and the Indian subcontinent • It is estimated that 25% of the animals of poor livestock keepers die each year 70% Of The People In The World’s Poorest 62 Countries Are Dependent Upon Livestock
  13. 13. Why livestock? 13 Animal Source Foods – highly strategic in nutritionally challenged populations (women & children) o Dense sources of protein, energy o Delivers essential, highly available micronutrients more effectively than plant-based food o Associated with  Better growth, cognitive function and physical activity of children  Better pregnancy outcomes  Reduced morbidity from illness Source: ILRI
  14. 14. Livestock can be a key lever of change for smallholders because the majority own livestock Number of Poor by Daily Income Grouping (millions) Sub-Saharan Africa Source: ILRI 2008 based on World Bank (2001) and LID (1999) (61%) (60%)
  15. 15. © 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 15 Case studies show that the rural poor obtains at least a third of their income from livestock Percent of income derived from Livestock Source: ILRI 2008; Listening to the Voices of the Poor, LDG 2007 47% 34% 32% 37% East Africa South Asia Southern Africa WestAfrica
  16. 16. Stages of Progression Out of Poverty 16Source: Pathways Out Of Poverty in Western Kenya and the Role of Livestock (ILRI), 2004 1. Food 2. Clothing 3. Repairs to house 4. Primary education for children 5. Purchase a chicken 6. Purchase a sheep or goat 7. Purchase a local cattle 8. Improvements to housing, furniture 9. Secondary education for children 10.Buy or lease land 11.Purchasing a dairy cow 12.Buying land/plots 13.Constructing permanent houses 14.Investing in a business
  17. 17. Major Reasons for Escaping Poverty % of households that had escaped poverty mentioned these reasons: 17Source: Pathways Out Of Poverty in Western Kenya and the Role of Livestock (ILRI), 2004 9 18 33 36 40 42 57 73 0 20 40 60 80 Employment in private or public sector Cash income from crop farming Diversification into livestock farming Help from relatives or friends Petty trade / business Small family size Education Bride wealth
  18. 18. Livestock Opportunities and Challenges 18 1. Regular income stream from livestock acts as a hedge against inflation and supplements smallholders’ seasonal crop income. 2. One of the most widely held assets, livestock is also a large cash source when critical. 3. Livestock is a key source of food, especially for women and children in the household, reducing hunger and improving nutrition in areas with high under-nourishment rates 4. Livestock can enhance farm productivity through draught power and nutrient recycling. 1. Negative environmental consequences can result from intensification of livestock production. 2. Livestock production is less efficient use of energy with high conversion rates compared with crop production. 3. Under-investment by public and private organizations in the sector results in a data-poor environment with limited success stories. 4. Pastoralists are the poor livestock keepers most dependent on livestock; however, comprehensive interventions are challenging due to environmental, socio-cultural and political contexts. Opportunities Challenges
  19. 19. Cattle, chickens and goats are the main livestock kept across SSA and SA, with buffaloes also kept in large numbers in India Species Number of Animals in SSA and SA (millions) Livestock Unit (LU) Conversion Ratio (# of animals/LU) Livestock Units (millions) Cows 473 1 473 Chickens 16,987 125 136 Goats 460 4 115 Sheep 291 4 73 Buffaloes 130 1 130* Camels 18 1 18 Pigs 39 5 8 *Almost all buffaloes are in India Source: FAOSTAT Oct 2008, Team analysis Note: Analysis does not include smaller livestock such as bees, other birds, rabbits and silk worms 19
  20. 20. © 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 20 Focusing on milk, beef, chicken meat and eggs will address the vast majority of the opportunity TOTAL: $13.5 Billion Annual Impact Milk $2.7B $4.4B South Asia West Africa East Africa Central Africa Beef $0.3B Chicken Meat $0.2B Eggs $0.4B Goat Meat $0.3B Sheep Meat Sheep Milk $0.8BGoat Milk $1.7B $7.2B $0.1B Milk $0.3B Beef $0.3B Eggs $0.8B Chicken Meat Milk $5.4B Beef $0.7B Eggs $0.1B Livestock Income Increase Potential by Region and Product ESTIMATES Goat Milk $0.5B $18.9B $3.5B $11.3B $0.5BCurrent Producer Income: Goat Meat Source data : FAOSTAT August 2008, ILRI (2008) based on FAOSTAT and India Livestock Census (2003), Team analysis
  21. 21. © 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 21 Cattle and poultry products are the largest contributors to household income with the most significant opportunities for improvement Prioritized Species/ Livestock Products • Cow Milk • Beef • Chicken Eggs • Chicken Meat Source data : FAOSTAT August 2008, ILRI (2008) based on FAOSTAT and India Livestock Census (2003), Team analysis Cow Milk (49% of livestock income, 45% productivity gap) Note: Productivity gap calculated by comparing output per animal against Average of top quartile among Least Developed Countries. For India, productivity gap is calculated by comparing regions to top quartile of most productive producers in India. Includes only prioritized countries High priority Low priority No. of poor livestock keepers Goat Milk (6% of income, 27% gap) Chicken Meat (14% income, 8% gap) 0 20 40 60 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Sheep Milk (2% income, 126% gap) Beef (12% income, 31% gap) Goat Meat (4% income, 27% gap) Sheep Meat (3% income, 12% gap) % of Total Livestock Producer Income in top 20 countries % Output increase opportunity by closing productivity gap Chicken Eggs (10% income, 33% gap) 275M 345M 269M 420M420M 336M 336M 269M
  22. 22. © 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 22 Countries with the most number of poor livestock keepers and the biggest potential impact on household income India Pakistan Bangladesh Ghana Nigeria Burkina Faso Mali Niger (6M, 13%) Ethiopia Sudan Zambia Cameroon DRC Kenya Somalia Tanzania Mozambique (overlapped) Madagascar (7M, 13%) (overlapped) Uganda (10M, 11%) 30% 60% 0% ImpactonHouseholdIncome PercentIncrease Number of Livestock Farmers (Million) 367M 0 35 70 South Asia East Africa West Africa Central Africa Source data : FAOSTAT August 2008, ILRI (2008) based on FAOSTAT and India Livestock Census (2003), Team analysis *Countries to be confirmed pending post-conflict country strategy development Livestock Product
  23. 23. Opportunity for Impact Animals play a role in all farming systems But productivity and consumption rates continue to lag Beef (kg output/kg biomass/yr) Milk (kg/cow/yr) Year: 1980 2005 1980 2005 Sub-Saharan Africa 0.06 0.06 411 397 Latin America 0.08 0.11 1021 1380 West Asia/N Africa 0.07 0.10 998 1735 South Asia 0.03 0.04 517 904 Industrialized countries 0.17 0.20 4226 6350 FAO 2009 SOFA Report
  24. 24. © 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 24 Preliminary assessments indicate that addressing productivity constraints and linking farmers to markets could add significant value for smallholders Genetics Husbandry Total Impact Beef $0.5 $0.8 Health Nutrition Other Genetics Husbandry Total Impact Hen Eggs $0.1 $1.2 Health Nutrition Other Genetics Husbandry Total Impact Chicken Meat Health Nutrition Other Full Potential Value Creation Opportunity Billion Dollars Full Potential Value Creation Opportunity Billion Dollars Full Potential Value Creation Opportunity Billion Dollars Genetics Husbandry Total Impact Full Potential Value Creation Opportunity Billion Dollars Milk $4.3 $4.1 Health Nutrition Other $8.5 $1.3 $1.3 $0.02 $0.4 $0.4
  25. 25. © 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 25 Livestock Revolution: Countries took different paths to dramatically increase output 20051980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Production Output (million tons) 4% Case Example: India Average Annual GDP Growth: (1980-2006) 6.4% Key Enablers and impact on smallholder farmers Dairy • Rapid GDP growth and urbanization created demand for dairy and meat • Large holdings and foreign investment into dairy sector • Cooperative movements, such as the National Dairy Development Board, successfully links smallholder farmers to formal sector, and providing access to essential feed and animal health inputs, as well as knowhow for intensification of production Poultry • Discontinuous development in poultry with “bursts” of intensification through industrial investors stepping in as urbanization and demand increases • Smallholder farmers becoming competitively disadvantaged vs. large scale producers 12% Source: FAOSTAT August 2008, World Development Report Output Per Animal CAGR (1980-2007) Total Output 2.8% 0.0%
  26. 26. © 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 26 There are numerous potential areas for intervention along livestock value chains, ranging from science and technology to market linkages Improve genetic material of animals Managing quality and quantity of feed Prevent and treat animal diseases to reduce mortality rates Managing other farm inputs and management practices to maximize benefit from breed, feed and health initiatives Connecting smallholder farmers to the formal sector and increasing benefits from the informal sector Processing raw products – ranging from minimal and major value addition Enabling access to local, regional and global markets Processing Con- sumers Markets • Local • Regional • Global Storage, aggregation, transportation and agro- enterprise R&D and Delivery Genetics Nutrition Health On farm maintenance Value Chains
  27. 27. Our Approach To Livestock 27 Focus  Income generation for smallholders & nutrition  Limited set of high leverage interventions: sustainability & scale • Areas of interest: Animal breeding and genetics, animal health, animal nutrition, husbandry, market linkages • Species: cattle (dairy & beef), small ruminants, chicken • Geographies: Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia • Current grants: EADD, Care Bangladesh, GALVmed, BAIF, African Cattle Genetics, Disease Resistance Research • Grants under review: Animal Health Delivery & Livestock Point-of- Care Diagnostic tests
  28. 28. © 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | • CARE: Strengthening the dairy value chain in Bangladesh by connecting smallholder dairy farmers to the formal market sector ($5.3M over 4 yrs.) • East Africa Dairy Development Project, Heifer International: To demonstrate dairy chilling hubs can sustain delivery of technology and services to poor farmers ($42.9 over 4 yrs.) • BAIF: To develop alternate models for up-scaling artificial insemination delivery ($6M over 5 yrs.) 28 Livestock Grants
  29. 29. © 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | • University of New England: To determine genotype and phenotype of dairy cattle using DNA testing and household enumeration ($3M over 2 yrs.) • University of Georgia: To develop disease resistant chickens using stem cell technology ($1.4 M over 4 yrs.) • Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicine (GALVmed): The project aims to bring to market affordable and accessible vaccines addressing critical needs of smallholders through public-private partnerships ($22.5 over 3 yrs.) Livestock Grants
  30. 30. © 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | • Diagnostics For All: To develop convenient, easy to use, low-cost, point of care diagnostic tests for livestock. ($3M over 2 years) • FARM-Africa: To establish 150 animal health franchises in Kenya to deliver veterinary products and services to the poor ($5.1M over 4.5 yrs.) • 2011: we have a strategy refresh in process; our initial plans were to target poultry & small ruminants as well as greater investment in genetics and health R&D. Livestock Grants in process
  31. 31. 31
  32. 32. A Drop in the Bucket 32 Our resources, while significant, pale in comparison to the need. Partnerships and advocacy are critical to success. Global agricultural spending for sub-Saharan Africa ~$9B* $445M Our agricultural grantmaking commitments in 2008 * Latest figures available are 2006 ~5% of total Ag spending in SSA
  33. 33. Reasons for Optimism 33 Developing countries are making progress • Poverty rates down • Improved governance Science and technology • Applying technology to small farmers’ challenges • Mobile phone revolution Renewed attention to hunger, poverty and agriculture • The MDGs and CAADP • Increased media coverage and financial commitments to agriculture
  34. 34. Thank You
  35. 35. The Challenge Much of increase will come from industrial sector for poultry and swine • Not as well developed where the poor are Poor will need to depend on local systems • Limited capacity to respond • Offers opportunity for broad-based income generation from high-value Animal Source Foods • Transition strategy
  36. 36. Success Is PossibleSuccess Is Possible
  37. 37. January 30, 2015 Millennium Development Goals 1. Poverty & hunger 2. Primary education 3. Gender equality 4. Child mortality 5. Maternal health 6. Combat diseases 7. Env’t sustainability 8. Partnerships www.un.org/millenniumgoals
  38. 38. © 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 38 Cattle and poultry products are the largest contributors to household income with the most significant opportunities for improvement Prioritized Species/ Livestock Products • Cow Milk • Beef • Chicken Eggs • Chicken Meat ESTIMATES Source data : FAOSTAT August 2008, ILRI (2008) based on FAOSTAT and India Livestock Census (2003), Team analysis Cow Milk (49% of livestock income, 45% productivity gap) High priority Low priority No. of poor livestock keepers Goat Milk (6% of income, 27% gap) Chicken Meat (14% income, 8% gap) 0 20 40 60 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Sheep Milk (2% income, 126% gap) Beef (12% income, 31% gap) Goat Meat (4% income, 27% gap) Sheep Meat (3% income, 12% gap) % of Total Livestock Producer Income in top 20 countries % Output increase opportunity by closing productivity gap Chicken Eggs (10% income, 33% gap) 275M 345M 269M 420M420M 336M 336M 269M
  39. 39. © 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 39 Since the early 1980s, many developing countries have experienced dramatic increases in livestock output production, while Africa stagnated Production in million Tonnes Production in million Tonnes 1970 20051975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 1970 20051975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 1970 20051975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Europe N. America S. America Asia Africa Europe N. America S. America Asia Africa Europe N. America S. America Asia Africa Europe N. America Asia 1970 20051975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Beef Cow Milk Production in million Tonnes Chicken Meat Production in million Tonnes Eggs Africa S. America Source: FAOSTAT August 2008
  40. 40. © 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 40 Dairy and chicken products have the highest productivity increase potential based on current technology Source: FAOSTAT August 2008, Team analysis Productivity Increase Opportunity 98% Cow’s Milk – Output per animal per year (tonnes) 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.31.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.5 6.7 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 ¹Productivity Increase Opportunity (Least Developed and Developing Countries)=Total Output increase from raising productivity in low performing countries to meet top quartile averages within the grouping ² Least Developed Countries (stretch) = Total Output Increase from raising productivity in Least Developed Countries to meet top quartile levels among Developing Countries Beef – Output per animal (tonnes) 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.10.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Hen Eggs – Output per thousand animal (tonnes) 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.5 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.5 15.3 15.4 15.4 15.5 15.1 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Chicken Meat – Output per thousand animals (tonnes) 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.01.3 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.41.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Least Developed Countries World Developing Countries World Developed Countries Least Developed Countries¹ Developing Countries¹ Least Developed Countries (stretch)² 125% 450% 50% 33% 67% 65% 49% 201% 114% 22% 137%
  41. 41. © 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 41 Although goats are widely kept by smallholder producers, opportunities to increase the productivity of goats are much more limited than cattle and poultry Source: FAOSTAT August 2008, Team analysis Productivity Increase Opportunity 13% Goat Milk – Output per animal per year (tonnes) 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.060.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Goat Meat – Output per animal (tonnes) 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.010.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.010.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Least Developed Countries World Developing Countries World Developed Countries Least Developed Countries¹ Developing Countries¹ Least Developed Countries (stretch)² 39% 77% 39% 234% 41% ¹Productivity Increase Opportunity (Least Developed and Developing Countries)=Total Output increase from raising productivity in low performing countries to meet top quartile averages within the grouping ² Least Developed Countries (stretch) = Total Output Increase from raising productivity in Least Developed Countries to meet top quartile levels among Developing Countries *Small sample size *Small sample size
  42. 42. © 2009 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 140% 160% India Bangledash Nigeria Ghana BukinaFaso Mali Niger Ethiopia Sudan Tanzania Kenya Uganda Mozambique Madagascar Somalia Zambia DRC Cameroon Milk Beef Chicken Meat Eggs Goat Meat Goat Milk Sheep Meat Sheep Milk 42 Potential income impact from livestock interventions vary significantly across countries with milk as the most frequent major driver Livestock Income Increase Potential by Country* by Product Source data : FAOSTAT August 2008, ILRI (2008) based on FAOSTAT and India Livestock Census (2003), Team analysis 24% 105% 42% 53% 99% 42% 35% 145% 62% 114% 22% 44% 37% 29% 27% 16% 41% 30% Biggest potential sources of productivity increase given current animal numbers: • Milk • Beef • Eggs Note: Methodology assumes (1) current livestock product prices remains unchanged, and (2) productivity increase on current animal count South Asia West Africa East Africa Central Africa *Countries with each region prioritized by number of poor livestock keepers

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