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Livestock and human nutrition

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Presented by Lora L. Iannotti (Washington University) at the Expert panel: Sustainable solutions for the livestock sector: the time is ripe! 10th Global Forum for Food and Agriculture, Berlin, 19 January 2018

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Livestock and human nutrition

  1. 1. Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis Livestock and human nutrition Lora L. Iannotti Expert panel: Sustainable solutions for the livestock sector: The time is ripe! 10th Global Forum for Food and Agriculture, Berlin, 19 January 2018
  2. 2. Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis 1) Globally, 156 million young children have stunted growth and development. Animal source foods (ASF) can play a crucial role in meeting the World Health Assembly nutrition target (2025) to reduce stunting by 40%. 2) Biological and evolutionary rationale underpin the need for ASF in human nutrition. ASF provide limiting nutrients (vitamins A, B12, choline, iron, zinc) in highly bioavailable matrices enabling more efficient absorption and metabolism in human nutrition. 3) Eggs and animal milk, among nature’s first foods, may provide a sustainable solution for confronting critical nutrient deficiencies. Strong evidence is emerging for egg nutrition in stunting reduction and biomarkers of brain development. Key messages
  3. 3. Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis Undernutrition in first 1,000 days… • Undernutrition in young children < 5 yrs – 156 million stunted (22.9%) – 50 million wasted (8%) • Hidden hunger – particular nutrient deficiencies – 33% children vitamin A deficient – 42.6% children and 29.4% women anemic – 17.3% world zinc deficient; 28% world iodine deficient 3.1 million (45%) of deaths to children <5 yr
  4. 4. Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis … the next 3,000 days • Brain development: prefrontal cortex for higher cognitive functions; synaptogenesis and pruning; and neurogenesis in hippocampus • Micronutrient deficiencies: 20-30% of school-aged children have deficiencies in iron, iodine, zinc, and vitamin A • School feeding programs: largest investment in public food programs globally – Potential for local livestock development & nutrition impacts
  5. 5. Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis Food matrices: the importance of packaging Limiting nutrient Vit A → Iron → Zinc → Choline → ASF vs. plant absorption rate 12-24x (ug) 2x (mg) 2x (mg) ? ASF matrix
  6. 6. Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis Evolutionary basis for ASF: anthropology of anthropometry • Hominid diet included more ASF – Shore-based paradigm - freshwater fish, crustaceans, shellfish, amphibians, spawning fish, sea bird nestlings/eggs, and plants – Homo erectus (2.6 mya) - differed from Australopithecus garhi & Homo habilis; bigger brain & body. “Meat made us human” • Genome-nutrition divergence – Discordance theory - human genome evolved to adapt to conditions that no longer exist – Agriculture (10,000 ya) & Industrial Revolution (200 ya) https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Common_Gallinule/id http://www.writeopinions.com/evolution
  7. 7. Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis Nature’s First Nutrients Seeds, Eggs, Milk • Designed to sustain and support early life, entirely • Complete set of nutrients and other bioactive factors • Economically affordable and renewable
  8. 8. Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis Eggs: provides >50% of nutrients (++); 20-50% (+) for breastfed infants 7-12 mo Iannotti et al. Nutrition Reviews 2014
  9. 9. Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis LULUN PROJECT – ECUADOR G. Reinhart photo
  10. 10. Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis Lulun Project • RCT – Cotopaxi: mixed indigenous, high baseline stunting – Intervention: 1 egg/day for 6 mo, eggs purchased locally – Longitudinal follow-up: baseline (6-9 mo), endline (12-15 mo) – Social marketing: ownership, participation, compliance • Mixed methods – Quantitative: caregiver surveys, anthropometry, GPS – Biomarkers: LC/MS/MS at Wash U, ELISA at NETLAB – Qualitative: grounded theory, structured observations, focus groups, and in-depth interviews
  11. 11. Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis Egg increased linear growth by 0.63 LAZ, reduced stunting 47% Control group 0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2-6 Length-for-age Z score (LAZ) Egg group 0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 Kernaldensityestimate -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 Length-for-age Z score (LAZ) (Iannotti et al. Pediatrics 2017)baseline (dashed); endline (solid)
  12. 12. Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis • Choline → 0.35 (95% CI: 0.12, 0.57) – cell membrane (phosphatidylcholine); neurotransmission (acetylcholine); memory & learning (hippocampus); gene expression (betaine to methionine) • Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) → 0.43 (95%CI: 0.13, 0.73) – predominant n-3 fatty acid in the brain – neurogenesis, neurotransmission, myelination, synaptic plasticity • Methionine, betaine, TMAO, DMA, histidine, aspartic acid – microbiome effects Egg increased biomarkers of brain development and growth
  13. 13. Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis ASF Research – next steps • East Africa – Milk nutrition in Samburu pastoralists – Fish nutrition in Sustainable Aquaculture and Fisheries Zones • Ecuador Lulun Project – Sustainability and scalability of egg nutrition: poultry production; household economics; environment • Malawi Mazira Study – Replication study: egg effects on growth, biomarkers, and child development
  14. 14. Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis Global Nutrition Targets 2025 – ASF Contribution 1) Stunting → 2) Anemia → 3) Low birthweight→
  15. 15. Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis 1) Globally, 156 million young children have stunted growth and development. Animal source foods (ASF) can play a crucial role in meeting the World Health Assembly nutrition target (2025) to reduce stunting by 40%. 2) Biological and evolutionary rationale underpin the need for ASF in human nutrition. ASF provide limiting nutrients (vitamins A, B12, choline, iron, zinc) in highly bioavailable matrices enabling more efficient absorption and metabolism in human nutrition. 3) Eggs and animal milk, among nature’s first foods, may provide a sustainable solution for confronting critical nutrient deficiencies. Strong evidence is emerging for egg nutrition in stunting reduction and biomarkers of brain development. Key messages

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