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Comparative performance and emission charactristics of 4 cylinder 4- stroke


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  • 1. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME 367 COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTRISTICS OF 4-CYLINDER 4- STROKE CI ENGINE FUELED WITH COCONUT OIL-DIESEL FUEL BLEND Mohsin M Jujara Government engineering college, Godhra ABSTRACT The objective of the present study is to reveal the effects of pure diesel fuel and coconut oil-diesel fuel blends with indirectly heating of coconut-oil at 60 before blending with diesel on the performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine. Operation of the test engine with pure diesel fuel and coconut oil-diesel fuel blends for a wide range of engine speed and 50%load conditions will be shown to be successful even without engine modifications. It will be also shown that increasing the amount of coconut oil-diesel fuel blend resulted in lower CO, CO2, and NOx emissions and increasing the specific fuel consumption of the engine. Keywords: Diesel engine; Engine performance; Exhaust emissions; Coconut oil-diesel fuel blend. INTRODUCTION The idea of using biomass-based fuels specifically, vegetable oil fuels as diesel fuel alternatives, is not new. Rudolf Diesel demonstrated that his engine would run on peanut oil fuel. Since then, various vegetable oils have been tested as diesel fuel alternatives with the increased availability of petroleum-based fuels, studies on vegetable fuels decreased. During the oil shock period of the 1970s, interest in vegetable oils as alternative fuels again resurfaced. Recently, the non-oil producing countries increasing concern over their energy security coupled with their growing awareness of the environmental problems has led to the renewed interest on biomass-based fuels. Why vegetable oil? The reasons can be enumerated INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), pp. 367-372 © IAEME: Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) IJMET © I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME 368 in terms of the environmental impact and the economic benefits of using vegetable oils. It is known that petroleum or fossil-based fuels are not infinite, although how long the world's oil supply lasts is still debatable. Vegetable oils are non-toxic, renewable sources of energy, which do not contribute to the global CO2 buildup. In terms of the economic benefits, vegetable fuels could be used as an emergency energy source in the event of another petroleum fuel shortage. For countries like the Philippines, which heavily rely on imported oil for their energy needs, but which have an abundant supply of vegetable oil (the Philip- pines is a major coconut oil producing country), the use of vegetable oils could save much needed foreign reserves. Their use could also revitalize the rural and farming economies, since a growing demand for vegetable oils will certainly result in their increased production. With these incentives, the need for further research on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of coconut oil-based fuels exists. In the present study, the use of vegetable oils as diesel fuel alternatives is approached in two ways, first in its pure form of diesel, and second, as blends with diesel fuel. Future work will involve tests on the esteried form of coconut oil. ENGINE SELECTION There is no difference of opinion that India is going to face a severe fuel crisis in future because fuel consumption has increased in all the vital sectors specially transportation and agricultural sector. As diesel engines plays an indispensable role in transportation and agriculture sector and as such diesel consumption will increase multifold in time to come. The diesel engine continues to dominate the agriculture sector in our country in comparison to spark ignition engine and have always been preferred widely because of power developed, specific fuel consumption and durability. A through description of combustion mechanism in diesel engine is beyond the scope of this study. However, it would be worthwhile to inform that the fuel is burnt in diesel engine by self ignition at higher temperature and pressure conditions of the order of 600°C and 40 bar, respectively. Diesel as a fuel is injected into the combustion chamber at the end of compression stroke and after certain ignition delay; it burns to give the motive power. In India, almost all irrigation pump sets, tractors, mechanized farm machinery and heavy transportation vehicle are powered by direct injection diesel engines. Keeping the specific features of diesel engine in mind, a typical engine system, This is actually used widely in mahindra automobile engine Table .1 Technical Specification of Engine Engine Four Cylinder 4- Stroke Engine, Water Cooled Bore 90.9 mm Stroke `92.4 mm Power 40 B.H.P Speed 3000 Rpm Compression ratio 16:1
  • 3. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME 369 Table.2 Comparative properties of diesel fuel and coconut oil Properties diesel Coconut oil Density(kg/m3) 828 890 Viscosity(pa.s) 0.00361 0.0365 Flashpoint(c˚) 55 210 Calorific value(KJ/kg) 43200 37800 Molecular weight 148.6 198 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP 1. Four Cylinder Four Stroke Engine 5.Exhaust Manifold 2.Dynamometer 6.Fuel Tank 3. Resistant Load 7.Inlet Manifold 4.Gas Analyser 8.Air Drum MEASUREMENT METHODS The main components of the experimental setup are fuel tanks (Diesel and Coconut- oil), Fuel consumption measuring unit, loading arrangement, rpm meter, Temperature indicator and emissions measurement equipments. The engine is started with diesel for at least 30 minutes and once the engine warms up, it is switched over to coconut oil. For switching the engine from diesel to coconut oil, a two way valve is provided on the control panel. Both the fuels from the tanks can be feed to the engine through this valve continuously. The fuel from the valve enters into the engine through this fuel measuring unit. With the help of this fuel measuring unit, the volumetric flow of the fuel can be easily measured. The fuel from the fuel measuring unit than enters in to the fuel filter before entering to the engine. In case of indirect heating of the coconut oil flows into the fuel pump
  • 4. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME 370 and injectors to minimize their resistance to flow and for good atomization. The desired level of fuel inlet temperature of coconut- oil can be obtained by controlling the amount of exhaust gases passing through the bypass arrangement. Significant improvement in the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with coconut oil-diesel fuel blend in four cylinder four stroke engine with indirectly heating of coconut oil for reducing the viscosity of coconut oil and better atomization quality for improving the combustion engine. Finally, the result obtained by pure diesel fuel result and blending of coconut oil –diesel are compared in difference speed &50% load of the engine. The blends tested were 0-100, 10-90, 20-80, 30-70and 40-60 coconut oil- diesel fuel volume ratios Fig. 1. Effect of the amount of brake power Fig.2 Effect of the amount of brake power vs. brake thermal efficiency vs. specific fuel consumption Fig. 3 Effect of the amount of brake power Fig. 4 Effect of the amount of Brake in Kw Vs. Exaust temperature in ̊c Power Vs.CO2
  • 5. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME 371 Fig. 5 Effect of the amount of Brake Fig. 6 Effect of the amount of Brake Power Vs.CO Power vs. NOx CONCLUSION In this study, it was shown that coconut oil as alter-native diesel engine fuels can be used successfully to operate a direct injection diesel engine without modifications to the engine or the injector system. Coconut oil engine operation resulted in better emissions, and lower NOx emissions compared with standard diesel fuel. increasing the amount of diesel fuel blend increasing the value of bsfc, and decreasing break thermal efficiency. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Permission to use the Hydraulic Dynamometer, Mahindra engine and all testing equipments at Department of Mechanical Engineering (DME) for our measurements by Prof. D.S. kanetkar and the extensive efforts of the staff of DME are highly appreciated. The support offered by Institute of anand Agriculture University by providing knowledge of produce ester for the research is also greatly cherished. REFERENCES 1. Aksoy, (2011) “The effect of opium poppy oil diesel fuel mixture on engine performance and emissions”, int. j. environs. sci. tech., 8 (1), 57-62, Issn: 1735-1472. 2. Jhoni Alison,(2011) “Comparative performance and emissions study of direct injection single cylinder diesel engine using vegetable oil”, journal of applied sciences research, 7(8): 1346-1350, issn 1819-544x. 3. Manorathna-Nanayakkara,(2011)“Experimental investigation of operating characteristics of bio-diesel on a conventional diesel engine”, international journal of innovation, management and technology, vol. 2, no. 3. 4. Prasad-Reddy,(2009)“Performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine with castor oil”, Indian journal of science and technology, vol.2 no.10 Issn: 0974- 6846.
  • 6. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME 372 5. Sahoo-Das,(2009) “Combustion analysis of jatropha, karanja and polanga based biodiesel as fuel in a diesel engine”, fuel 88 (2009) 994–999. 6. Hakan Bayraktar,(2008)“An experimental study on the performance parameters of an experimental ci engine fueled with diesel–methanol–dodecanol blends”, Fuel 87 (2008) 158–164. 7. Bhattacharya-Singh,(2007)“Emission characteristics of methyl ester of rice bran oil as fuel in compression ignition engine”, proceedings of world academy of science, engineering and technology volume 26 December 2007 issn 1307-6884, 8. SENTHIL-RAMESH,(2003)“An experimental comparison of methods to use methanol and jatropha oil in a compression ignition engine”, biomass and bioenergy 25,309 – 318. 9. Liaquat-Jayed; “engine performance and emissions analysis using “envo diesel” and coconut biodiesel blended fuel as alternative fuels. 10. jilin lei-lizhong shen,(2011) “Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with ethanol-diesel blends in different altitude regions”, Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology Volume 2011, Article ID 417421, 10 pages doi:10.1155/2011/417421. 11. Singh -Saswat Rath ,(2011) “ performance analysis of blends of karanja methyl esterin a compression ignition engine,international conference on biomedical engineering and technology. 12. Ramchandra-Eknath,(2011)“performance characterization of single cylinder di diesel engine fueled with karanja biodiesel, wce 2011, july 6 - 8, 2011, london, u.k. 13. Reddy-Swatib,(2009) “Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics of Direct Injection Diesel Engine Running on Rice Bran Oil / Diesel Fuel Blend, International Journal of Chemical and Biological Engineering 2:3 2009. 14. Patil-Jahagirdar,(2010)“Performance Test of IC Engine Using Blends of Ethanol and Kerosene with Diesel”, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(8), 2010, 3503-3509. 15. A. P. Patil and H.M.Dange, “Experimental Investigations of Performance Evaluation of Single Cylinder, Four Stroke, Diesel Engine, using Diesel, Blended with Maize Oil”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 653 - 664, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. 16. Prof. A.V.Mehta, M. G. Joshi, G. D. Patel and Saiyad M J. I., “Jatropha Oil with Exhaust Heat Recovery System in 4 Stroke Single Cylinder Diesel Engine”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 512 - 520, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. 17. A. Swarna Kumari, Ch.Penchalayya, A.V. Sita Rama Raju and D.Vinay Kumar, “Performance Characteristics for the use of Blended Safflower Oil in Diesel Engine”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 26 - 32, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499. 18. Mahesh P. Joshi and Dr. Abhay A. Pawar, “Experimental Study of Performance- Emission Characteristics of CI Engine Fuelled with Cotton Seed Oil Methyl Ester Biodiesel and Optimization of Engine Operating Parameters”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 185 - 202, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.