International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) V...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) V...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) V...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) V...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) V...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) V...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) V...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) V...
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Experimental investigations and comparison of di diesel engine working

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Experimental investigations and comparison of di diesel engine working

  1. 1. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME24EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS AND COMPARISON OF DIDIESEL ENGINE WORKING ON JATROPHA BIO-DIESEL ANDJATROPHA CRUDE OILManu Ravuri 1, D.Harsha vardhan 2, V.Ajay3, M.Rajasekharreddy4Assistant Professor in Department of Mechanical Engineering,Madanapalle Institute of Technology & Science, Madanapalle-517325, A.P.ABSTRACTThe performance of diesel engine using jatropha bio-diesel and jatropha crude oilblended with diesel. Pure jatropha bio-diesel is used and jatropha bio-diesel is blended withdiesel in percentages of jatropha bio-diesel 20%, 30% and 40%. In the same way jatropha oilis also blended with diesel in percentages of jatropha oil 20%, 30%, and 40%. Theperformance test was conducted on twin cylinder stationary DI diesel engine coupled toswinging field dynamometer. The performance test consists of brake power, brake specificfuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and mechanical efficiency. This work showed notmuch difference in engine performance. Jatropha oil blend can be used as fuel for the nextgeneration fuel for diesel engine. Instead of going for transesterification of jatropha oil enginecan be operated with crude jatropha oil.Key words: jatropha bio-diesel, jatropha crude oil, pure jatropha bio-diesel.1. INTRODUCTIONOne of the most important elements to effect world economy and politics issustainability of petroleum resources, which is the main source of world energy supply.However, the world energy demand is increasing rapidly due to excessive use of the fuels butbecause of limited reservoirs and instabilities in petrol supplier countries makes difficult toalways provide oil. Also, world is presently confronted with the crisis of fossil fuel depletion.The increasing demand of petroleum in developing countries like China, Russia and India hasincreased oil prices [1]. Diesel engines are mainly used in many fields, including electricINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERINGAND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print)ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), pp. 24-31© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJMET© I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME25production, transport of passenger and cargo, industrial and agricultural activities.Petroleum fuels are being used in diesel engines, which has a wide range of use in allsectors. With a probable situation that oil demand cannot be met by petroleum basedfuels, all the sectors that contributed by oil based energy will negatively be effected. Withany probable petrol crises, for all the sectors the alternative fuel is vital to be developed[2].Vegetable oils present a very hopeful alternative fuel to diesel oil, since they arerenewable, biodegradable and clean burning, having properties analogous to that ofdiesel. They offer similar power output with slightly lesser thermal efficiency due to theirlesser energy content compared to diesel [3]. Bio diesel, produced from differentvegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed and sunflower etc.), have been used in internalcombustion engines without major modifications, with only slightly decreasedperformance [4].Nowadays, global warming caused by CO2 is the main climatic problem in theworld. Therefore, environmental protection is important for the future of the world.Because the biodiesel is made from renewable sources, it is more convenient to protectenvironment from unwanted emissions. Biodiesel is an ecological and non-hazardous fuelwith low emission values, and therefore it is environmentally useful.Biodiesel can be produced from various feedstocks. A chemical process calledtransesterification whereby glycerine is separated from the fat or vegetable oil is used toproduce biodiesel. After the chemical process, two products are left behind: methyl esters(the chemical name for biodiesel) and glycerine (a valuable by product usually sold to beused in soaps and other products). The usage of biodiesel does not require any changes inthe fuel distribution infrastructure, and it is competitive with petroleum-derived dieselfuel. Furthermore, it biodegrades much more rapidly than petroleum diesel fuel. Thus,considerable environmental benefits are provided [5].Many investigators [6-11] have studied biodiesel fuels as an alternative energysource for IC engines. Combustion emission levels for biodiesel are more suitedcompared with those for the petroleum-based diesel fuel. Biodiesel has low emissions ofcarbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM) and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC).Some investigators [12-13] have claimed that the photosynthesis recycles carbon dioxideproduced by combustion of biodiesel. Therefore, biodiesel usage may reduce thegreenhouse effect.Experimental SetupThe set up consists of 4 stroke twin cylinder stationary DI diesel engine coupled toswinging field dynamometer.The setup enables study of engine for brake power, indicated power, frictional power,BMEP, IMEP, brake thermal efficiency, indicated thermal efficiency, Mechanicalefficiency, volumetric efficiency, specific fuel consumption, A/F ratio and heat balance.The performance characteristics of the engine are evaluated in terms of brake thermalefficiency, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake thermal efficiency (BTH),mechanical efficiency.
  3. 3. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME26Make KirloskarOut put 10 KW (14 bhp)Ac generator capacity 10 ka 440v 50 hz 3phaseBore and stroke 87.5mmx110mmspeed 1500rpmcompression ratio 17.5:1Torque arm distance 0.3starting hand cranking2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION2.1. Brake PowerTable 1 Brake Power developed by engine at increasing electrical loads by using blendsof jatropha bio-diesel and jatropha crude oil1 2 3 4 5 6 7 812345678910BP(%)E Load (KW)J D 100J D 20J D 30J D 40Figure 1 Brake Power VS Electrical Load plotted while operated engine with jatropha bio-diesel and jatropha bio-diesel blendsE LOAD J D 100 J D 20 J D 30 J D 40 J Oil 20 J Oil 30 J Oil 401.5 2.076 2.061 2.044 2.072 2.058 2.076 2.2973 3.435 3.396 3.372 3.430 3.642 3.437 3.6524.5 5.221 5.168 5.136 5.207 5.407 5.463 5.4416 7.166 7.136 7.092 7.175 7.374 7.430 7.187.5 9.503 8.791 8.748 8.840 9.048 9.124 9.093
  4. 4. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME271 2 3 4 5 6 7 812345678910BP(KW)E Load (KW)J Oil 20J Oil 30J Oil 40Figure 2 Brake Power VS Electrical Load plotted while operated engine with jatropha crudeoil blends.The brake power developed by the engine using Jatropha bio-diesel and jatrophacrude oil at different loads are presented in Table 1. It can be seen from the table that themaximum brake power of 9.503 KW. was developed by the engine while using with jatrophadiesel 100%. The corresponding engine speed was 1435 RPM.The brake power produced by the engine by using jatropha bio-diesel and jatrophacrude oil is all most the same amount of power is observed. Only jatropha bio-diesel isproducing little bit more power at full load that can be observed from figure 1 and figure 22.2. Brake Specific Fuel Consumption1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8300350400450500550600BSFC(g/KW-hr)Eload(KW)JD100JD20JD30JD40Figure 3 Brake specific fuel consumption VS Electrical Load plotted while operated enginewith jatropha bio-diesel and jatropha bio-diesel blends
  5. 5. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME281 2 3 4 5 6 7 8300350400450500550600BSFC(g/KW-hr)Eload(KW)JO20JO30JO40Figure 4 Brake specific fuel consumption VS Electrical Load plotted while operated enginewith jatropha crude oil blendsThe relation between engine load and brake specific fuel consumption for differentblends are shown in figure 3 and figure 4. The figures show that the brake specific fuelconsumption has decreased with an increase in engine load and increased. This is the fact thatbrake power of the engine increases with an increase in brake load, but after a certainpercentage of maximum load, any for their increase in brake load caused only a smallincrease in brake power. The difference in BSFC is reflection of the difference in fuel densityand calorific value of fuel used.2.3. Brake Thermal Efficiency1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8141618202224262830BTH(%)Eload(KW)JD100JD20JD30JD40Figure 5 Brake thermal efficiency VS Electrical Load plotted while operated engine withjatropha bio-diesel and jatropha bio-diesel blends.
  6. 6. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME291 2 3 4 5 6 7 81416182022242628BTH(%)Eload(KW)J0il 20J0il 30J0il 40Figure 6 Brake thermal efficiency VS Electrical Load plotted while operated engine withjatropha crude oil blends.The relation between engine load and brake thermal efficiency for the jatropha bio-diesel and jatropha oil are shown in figure 5 and figure 6. The figures show jatropha bio-diesel pure i.e. is not blended with diesel is giving better performance compared with allblends of jatropha bio-diesel and jatropha oil. The jatropha bio-diesel blends are giving lessbrake thermal efficiency compared with pure jatropha bio-diesel. When coming to 40%jatropha oil blend is giving batter brake thermal efficiency.It is very predominant that brake thermal efficiency is increasing according to theincrease in load but at particular load it started decreasing it’s because the increase in specificfuel consumption had increased at the same load. This indicates the fuel is not combustingtotally. That is the reason brake thermal efficiency is decreasing.2.4. Mechanical Efficiency1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8253035404550556065MechanicalEfficiency(%)Eload (KW)JD100JD20JD30JD40Figure 7 M efficiency VS Electrical Load plotted while operated engine with jatropha bio-diesel and jatropha bio-diesel blends.
  7. 7. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME301 2 3 4 5 6 7 8253035404550556065MechanicalEfficiency(%)E load (KW)JO 20JO 30JO 40Figure 8 Mechanical efficiency VS Electrical Load plotted while operated engine withjatropha crude oil blendsThe relation between engine load and mechanical efficiency for different blends ofjatropha bio-diesel, pure jatropha bio-diesel and jatropha oil are shown in figure 7 and figure8. The figures show mechanical efficiency of engine operated with jatropha bio-diesels are allmost the same efficiency coming to jatropha oil its showing 40% jatropha oil is giving battermechanical efficiency compared with jatropha oil blends and jatropha bio-diesel. The reasonfor increase of mechanical efficiency is decrease in heat input. Heat input is decreasedbecause calorific value is decreased and density is increased.3. CONCLUSIONS• The performance of jatropha oil blend compared with jatropha bio-diesel is givingmore or less the same values.• This represents that jatropha crude oil blend can be used for engines as the fuel.• This can say that cost, energy and time for transesterification are reduced.REFERENCES[1] Report of petroleum market. Energy market regulatory authority, <http://www.epdk.gov.tr>; 2007.[2] Cengiz Oner, S_ehmus Altun, Biodiesel production from inedible animal tallow and anexperimental investigation of its use as alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine.Applied Energy 2009;86;2114–2120.[3] Banapurmath NR, Tewari PG, Yaliwal VS, Kambalimath Satish, Basavarajappa YH.Combustion characteristics of a 4-stroke CI engine operated on Honge oil, Neem and Ricebran oils when directly injected and dual fuelled with producer gas induction. Renew Energy2009;34:1884–7.[4] Carraretto C, Macor A, Mirandola A, Stoppato A, Tonon S. Biodiesel as alternative fuel:Experimental analysis and energetic evaluations. Energy 2004;29:2195–211.[5] Duran, A., Lapuerta, M., & Rodriuez-Fernandez, J. (2005). Neural networks estimation ofdiesel particulate matter composition from transesterified waste oils blends. Fuel, 84(16),2080–2085.
  8. 8. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME31[6] Chang, Y. Z., Van Gerpen, J. H., Lee, I., Johnson, L. A., Hammond, E. G., & Marley, S.J. Fuel properties and emissions of soybean oil esters as diesel fuel. Journal of the AmericanOil Chemists’ Society, 1996, 73(11), 1549–1555.[7] Dorado, M. P., Ballesteros, E., Arnal, J. M., Gomez, J., & Lopez Gimenez, F. J. Testingwaste olive methyl ester as a fuel in a diesel engine. Energy and Fuels, 2003, 17(6), 1560–1565.[8] Ozsezen, A. N., Canakci, M., & Sayin, C. Effects of biodiesel from used frying palm oilon the performance, injection, and combustion characteristics of an indirect injection dieselengine. Energy and Fuels, 2008, 22(2), 1297–1305.[9] Schumacher, L. G., Marshall, W., Krahl, J., Wetherell, W. B., & Grabowski, M. S.Biodiesel emissions data from Series 60 DDC engines. Transactions of the ASAE, 2001,44(6), 1465–1468.[10] Ulusoy, Y., Tekin, Y., Cetinkaya, M., & Karaosmanog˘lu, F. The engine tests ofbiodiesel from used frying oils. Energy Sources, 2004, 26(10), 927–932.[11] Yoshimoto, Y., Onodera, M., & Tamaki, H. Reduction of NOx, smoke, and bsfc in adiesel engine fueled by biodiesel emulsion with used frying oil. SAE Paper, 1999, No. 1999-01-3598.[12] Agarwal, A. K., & Das, L. M. Biodiesel development and characterization for use as afuel in compression ignition engines. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines Power, 2001,123(2), 440–447.[13] Peterson, C. L., & Hustrulid, T. Carbon cycle for rapeseed oil biodiesel fuels. Biomassand Bioenergy, 1998, 14(2), 91–101.[14] Pundlik R. Ghodke and Dr. J. G. Suryawanshi, “Simulation and Optimization of HSDIDiesel Engine for Suv to Meet Bharat 4 Emission Norms in India”, International Journal ofMechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 494 - 510,ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.[15] Jagadale S.S. and Jugulkar L.M., “Performance Characteristics of Single Cylinder DieselEngine using Blend of Chicken Fat Based Biodiesel”, International Journal of MechanicalEngineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 754 - 768, ISSN Print:0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.[16] Prof. A.V.Mehta, M. G. Joshi, G. D. Patel and Saiyad M J.I., “Jatropha Oil with ExhaustHeat Recovery System in 4 Stroke Single Cylinder Diesel Engine”, International Journal ofMechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 512 - 520,ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.

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