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  • 1. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET) ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October, 2013, pp. 214-217 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJECET ©IAEME IMPLEMENTATION OF RAINBOW TECHNOLOGY USING GRAY SCALE Vismay Pandit, Devansh Sanghvi, Bhargav Mehta, Jinesh Doshi B.E (EXTC.), D. J Sanghvi college of Engineering, Mumbai ABSTRACT Storing audio, video, text, image etc. Data on a piece of paper instead of using CD’s & DVD’s. With the advent in the techniques of compression and encryption it will become possible to store data equivalent to CD’s or DVD’s on a piece of paper in near future. After reading data we need to scale down their sampling values between 0 and 1. We will construct gray scale image from this values. So now data in the form of image can be distributed using measures like printouts. The paper can then be read through a normal scanning and the contents are decoded from matrix to reconstruct the sampled values which can be viewed or played. Though we are not able completely reconstruct noise free original data, we firmly believe that this will be important for future advancement of this idea. This extremely low cost technology will drastically reduce the cost of the storage and will provide high-speed storage as well. There are many advantages of storing data on paper such as biodegradability, cost, duplication, data transfer, speed, size, and security. Keywords: Compression, Encryption, Gray Scale, Biodegradability. 1. INTRODUCTION When entire world is busy in inventing how to store more and more data on small size of silicon chips, idea to store data on paper has opened new directions in the horizon of data storage. Rainbow technology, a breakthrough in digital data storage enables us to store up to a massive 450GB on just a piece of paper. Rainbow Storage is a group of techniques to store digital data in some colors, color combinations and some symbols known as rainbow format, and therefore a rainbow picture will be generated. The technique is used to achieve high-density storage. With the help of Rainbow system we would be watching full-length high-definition videos from a piece of paper! The main attraction is the cheap paper. The Rainbow technology is feasible because printed text, readable by the human eye is a very wasteful use of the potential capacity of paper to store data. By printing the data encoded in a denser way much higher capacities can be achieved. Paper is, of course, bio-degradable, unlike CDs or DVDs. And sheets of paper also cost a fraction of the cost of a CD or DVD. 214
  • 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME Why to use paper? 1] Biodegradable-The biggest advantage of this technology would be the biodegradable nature of this storage device which would do away with the e-waste pollution. 2] Cost-This is also one of the big advantages since cost of paper is very low compared to current data storage devices. 3] Duplication-It is not quite as easy to copy an optical disk. This draw back can be resolved by paper storage which can easily duplicate data using Xeroxes etc. 4] Data transfer-Data stored on paper can be send to remote places easily via fax. 5] Speed-These devices are faster than current storage devices. 6] Size-size is smaller than that of actual data. 7] Security-Security of signal can be increased. 2. WORKING PRINCIPLE Software Implementation Storing an audio file and text file on paper in a form of image. We will take print out of this paper and by scanning it we can retrieve the data stored on paper back. Representing data in the form of black and white image is basic step, but here we have discussed conversion in to gray scale image directly as it leads to smaller image size and more compression. Encoding from audio signal in to gray scale image We will initially read ‘audio’ file to get sampled values of audio file which will be between 1 and 1. Now convert this value between 0 to 1. To overcome limitations of normal printer and scanner we replicated each sampled value two times, this will control error till some extent. To obtain proper image we will convert this array into matrix with aspect ratio 4:3. Like this we have successfully created image whose pixel values are between 0 to 255 which corresponds to range 0 to 1. After that print out of this image is taken. The first image shown below represents image obtained after conversion of audio file and second image represents scanned image which can be used to reconstruct audio file. Encoded Audio data- Grayscaleimage.bmp 215
  • 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME Scanned Image- Scannedgrayscaleimage.bmp Decoding from gray scale image to audio signal In decoding part scanned gray scale image is converted back in to audio file. We will select desired area of paper and read content of selected area. These values are between 0 to 255 we will convert this to values between 0 to1. This matrix of aspect ratio 4:3 is converted in to array. Now take average of two successive pixels to get actual value of pixel. Convert this value between -1 to 1. This is the reconstructed audio file now play this audio file. Block Diagram ENCODING DECODING 216
  • 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME ADVANTAGES • • • • • • Data can be stored on an ordinary paper. Larger amount of data can be had on lesser space. The extremely low-cost technology will drastically reduce the cost of storage and provide for high speed storage too. Files in any format like movie files, songs, images, text can be stored using this technology. The biodegradable nature of the storage devices would do away with the e-waste pollution. With the help of disposable storage, a high density data storage is made possible even on paper or plastic sheets, any type of computer files can be stored and distributed this way, so instead of giving CD’s with the computer magazines, its content can be printed in a page, video albums, software etc. Can be distributed at a very low cost with the help disposable storage APPLICATION • • • • • • • It can be used for faster audio transfer over the internet with much less interference. Morphing can be implemented to modify vocal information. It can be used in identification systems. As it is said earlier that we are going to implement it for audio and text file, it can also Be developed for storing video files, images and any other data. It can be used for faster audio transfer over the internet with much less interference. It is more confidential then any other storage device. It can be used in identification systems. REFERENCES 1. "Data Can Now Be Stored on Paper" by M. A. Siraj, Arab News (published November 18, 2006; accessed November 29, 2006). 2. Paper storage man misunderstood — The Inquirer article, 12 December 2006 (retrieved 15 December 2006. 3. "Store 256GB on an A4 sheet" by Chris Mellor, Techworld (published November 24, 2006; accessed November 29, 2006). 4. http://news.techworld.com/storage/7424/store-256gb-on-an-a4-sheet/. 5. http://jalaj.net/2007/01/20/90gb-to-450gb-of-data-on-a4-paper/http://lwn.net/Articles/242735/. 6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainbow_Storage. 7. http://www.theinquirer.net/inquirer/news/1013362/paper-storage-misunderstood. 8. Gopal Thapa, Kalpana Sharma and M.K.Ghose, “Multi Resolution Motion Estimation Techniques for Video Compression: A Survey”, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 399 - 406, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375. 9. Tushar Sawant, Prof. Sanjay Deshmukh, Shilen Jhaveri and Siddharth Bhatt, “Implementation of Usb to Usb Bridge for Computer Independent Data Transfer”, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 300 - 308, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375. 10. Soamil Vora, Monil Shah, Jigar Kapadia and Gautami Nadkarni, “Computer Independent Device for Usb Data Transfer”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp. 56 - 62, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499. 217