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Donna cross



Pastoral Care

Pastoral Care



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  • Tried smokingSample of 15 year olds in 2008: 34.6% (i.e. approx 10 students out of 30)Used alcohol in the last monthSample of 15 year olds in 2008: 46.3% (i.e. approx 14 students out of 30)White, V. & Smith, G. (2009). Australian secondary school students’ use of tobacco, alcohol, and over-the-counter and illicit substances in 2008. Cancer Council VictoriaBinge DrinkingIn 2007, 12% of 12-17 year olds had risky or high-risk drinking at least once a monthIn 2007, 4% of 12-17 year olds had risk or high-risk drinking at least once a week(the consumption of 7 or more standard drinks on any one day for males, and 5 or more standard drinks on any one day for females) Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2011). Young Australians: Their health and wellbeing 2011. Canberra: AIHW.
  • Ever used marijuanaSample of 15 year olds in 2008: 17.7% (i.e. Approx 5 students out of 30)Used marijuana in past yearSample of 15 year olds in 2008: 15.5% (i.e. approx 5 students out of 30)Used marijuana in past monthSample of 15 year olds in 2008: 8.4% (i.e. approx 3 students out of 30)Used marijuana in past weekSample of 15 year olds in 2008: 5.1% (i.e. approx 2 students out of 30)White, V. & Smith, G. (2009). Australian secondary school students’ use of tobacco, alcohol, and over-the-counter and illicit substances in 2008. Cancer Council Victoria
  • Sunburnt on summer weekendsSample of 12-17 year olds re: summer 2006-07: 24% (i.e. Approx 7 students out of 30)(Cancer Council of Australia’s 2006-07 National Sun Protection Survey)Also – 1 in 5 (6 out of 30) intentionally tried to get a tan. Not sufficiently physically activeSample of 15-17 year olds in 2007-08: 23% (i.e. Approx 7 students out of 30)(Australian Bureau of Statistics 2007-08 National Health Survey)Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. 2011. Young Australians: Their health and wellbeing 2011. Canberra: AIHW.Seriously injured on the roadsSample of 15-24 year olds in 2008-09: 26.6% (i.e. Approx 8 students out of 30)(Serious injury resulting from road traffic crashes defined as being high threat to life)Henley, G. & Harrison, J. (2012). Serious injury due to land transport, Australia 2008-09. Injury research and statistics series no.67. Cat. no. INJCAT 143. Canberra: AIHW.
  • Moderate or severe psychological distressAmong 15-16 year olds (mean age 15.56) – 21.2% moderate, 1.7% severe level of general psychological distress (e.g. self-blame, feeling down, performance distress, somatic symptoms)Suicidal thoughts/plansAmong 15-16 year olds (mean age 15.56) – 8.3% moderate suicidal ideation (more than once a month or week), 2% critical (couple of times per week or almost daily). Wilson, C. J., Deane, F. P., Marshall, K. L., & Dalley, A. (2010). Adolescents’ suicidal thinking and reluctance to consult general medical practitioners. Journal of youth and adolescence, 39(4), 343-356. Self-harmAmong 15-19 year olds, 6.2% self-harmed in the previous four weeks (data collected in 2008)Martin, G (2010). "Self-injury in Australia: a community survey". Medical journal of Australia (0025-729X), 193 (9), 506-510
  • “A study of 9-11 year olds in the Netherlands found that, of those children who were bullied, only 53% told their teachers. According to the students who told their teachers they were being bullied, the majority of teachers tried to stop the bullying (88%). Students reported that teachers were successful in their attempts to stop the bullying in only 49% of cases, whereas in 34% of cases their teachers’ attempts to stop the bullying made no difference and in 16% of cases the bullying actually got worse” From ACBPS study
  • These are %’s

Donna cross Donna cross Presentation Transcript

  • There is never ahero around when you need one… Mobilising action toenhance student social wellbeing Donna CrossProfessor, Child and Adolescent Health
  • Presentation overview• Links between pastoral care and academic outcomes• Major trends in pastoral care…(eg: Bully movie)• What‟s needed for success? Less is more…• Help seeking - help provision (First aid)• What does this mean for practice?
  • Bystanders providing help• Tomatoes…
  • Pastoral care and learning? • Pastoral care is the „oil of learning‟ • Pastoral care is not the destination but the nourishment for the learning journey … (Mann 2006)
  • Links between pastoral care andacademic outcomes? • Emotions can facilitate or impede children‟s: – Academic engagement – Work ethic – Commitment – Ultimately their school success • Relationships and emotional processes affect how and why we learn (Elias et al 1997)
  • Growing evidence…• Effective mastery of social and emotional competencies is associated with greater wellbeing and better school performance (Eisenberg, 2006;Guerra and Bradshaw, 2008)• Child development study found improvements in the psychosocial environment of the school mediated almost all of the positive student outcomes (Solomon et al, 2000)
  • Student wellbeing trends… What are the major trends in pastoral care in your school? How are these changing and within which groups?
  • In a Year 10 class of 30 students• used alcohol in last month… 14 (White & Smith, 2009)• binge drink weekly… 1 (AIHW, 2011)• binge drink monthly… 4 (AIHW, 2011)
  • In a Year 10 class of 30 students • tried smoking… 10 (White & Smith, 2009) • ever used marijuana… 5 (White & Smith, 2009) • used marijuana in past week… 2 (White & Smith, 2009)
  • In a Year 10 class of 30 students• sun-burnt on summer weekends… 7 (AIHW, 2011)• not sufficiently physically active… 7 (AIHW, 2011)• seriously injured on the roads… 8 (Henley & Harrison, 2012)
  • In a Year 10 class of 30 students• moderate or severe psychological distress… 7 (Wilson et al 2010)• suicidal thoughts/plans once a month+… 3 (Wilson et al 2010)• self-harmed in the last month… 2 (Martin et al 2010)
  • 30% high school students engage inmultiple high risk behaviours thatinterfere with school performance andjeopardise their potential for life success (Eaton et al, 2008; Dryfoos, 1997)
  • Issues of Personal Concern% National Survey of Young Australians 2011, Mission Australia N= 45 916
  • Possible trends - help provision • „Resisting‟ traditional help • Technology help - support • Individual help seeking • Peer help - support • Delaying conversations… • Pastoral care warp and weft
  • Defining pastoral careIf poorly definedpastoral care canbe anything andeverything….
  • Defining pastoral care• Traditional definitions • Fostering children‟s moral development • Values of mutual respect through extra-curricular activities• Today, wellbeing is increasing attributed to: • School conditions • School relationships • Means of fulfilment • Health status
  • A review process…
  • A Starting Point: Map the Gap Tool Six core strategy components: 1. Building capacity for action – committed leadership and organisational support 2. Proactive policies, plans and practices 3. Supportive school climate 4. Curriculum teaching and learning 5. Protective physical environment 6. School-family-community partnerships 7.More for less?
  • Whole of school approach Department of Education Pathways to Health and Well-Being (2001)
  • Delivery balance for healthand wellbeing Whole school environment promoting competence, health and wellbeing Prevention Students with high support needs 20-30% Intervention Students needing additional intervention 3-12% Treatment
  • Pastoral Care Process Pastoral care requires a multi-component approach, comprising 5 main school-level tasks: 1.Proactive, preventative pastoral care: Activities and educational processes that anticipate „critical incidents‟ in children‟s lives and aim to prevent and reduce the need for reactive casework. 2.Developmental pastoral curricula: Curricula developed to promote personal, social, moral, spiritual and cultural development and wellbeing through distinctive programmes, tutorial work and extracurricular activities.
  • Pastoral Care Process 3. The promotion and maintenance of an orderly and supportive / collaborative environment: building a community within the school, creating supportive systems and positive relations between all members of the community, and promoting a strong ethos of mutual care and concern. 4. Reactive pastoral casework: „Open door‟ guidance and counselling, peer support and mentoring, welfare network (link between school, home and external agencies such as social services). 5. The management and administration of pastoral care: the process of planning, resourcing, monitoring, evaluating, encouraging and facilitating all of the above.
  • What are the major outcomes for pastoral care in your school? Do students feel comfortable seeking help?
  • Help seeking 25% Not bullied Bullied told someone Bullied told someone (Fekkes, Pljpers & Verloove-Vanhorick, 2005)
  • Asking an adult for help
  • Who helps?
  • Who helps?100 90 86 85 85 86 80 70 Friends 74 74 73 75 60 Parents 50 40 Teacher / Counsellor / 30 26 Youth worker 23 19 20 Internet 20 10 11 11 11 11 0 2007 2008 2009 2010
  • With whom did cyber bulliedstudents talk? %45 424035 32 31 32 3130 2925 2020 Boys15 14 12 Girls10 9 5 0 No-one Friend (not Brother/sister Parent/other Teacher adult) adult
  • Peers who provide help?
  • Impact of technology on social skills? Social information processing… 30
  • Behavioural expectations… “You can’t pull up your socks if you don’t know what your socks are” From The Football Wisdom of Guru Bob 1998
  • Friendly Schools Plus
  • THE BYSTANDER Social Responsibility BYSTANDERS POTENTIAL VICTIMSCOLLABORATORSTHE INCIDENT Rigby, K (2001) Stop the Bullying: a Handbook for Schools ACER
  • Consequences ofbystander actionsBystanders who witness repetitive abuse such as bullying: – Experience considerable distress that continues into adulthood (Janson et al, 2004) – Elevated mental health risks among 12-16 yr olds - over above that experienced by those involved in the bullying (Rivers et al, 2009)Bystanders can escalate bullying by: – Being present (silent approval) (O‟Connell et al, 1999) – Their actions – especially reinforcing behaviours (Salmivalli et al, 2011)
  • BystandersPeers are present as onlookers in 85% of bullying interactions, and play a central role in the bullying process (Hawkins et al, 2001) Bystanders “can be part of the problem or part of the solution”
  • Students taking action 20-30% ofstudents aretaking thesupporter actionload…
  • Behaviours of bystanders – Assisting (20-30%) – Reinforcing (20-30%) – Defending / supporting (20%) – Reporting / No action (26-30%) (Salmivalli et al 1999; Salmivalli et al1998) 30%) girls younger
  • Actions as bystanders• Students who: – See and hear bullying most likely to tell another student (66%) – Tell the person bullying to stop (53%) – Help the person being bullied at time (42%) – Get someone to help stop bullying (40%)• Witnessed and action… – 39% told parent – 37% helped the person later on – 29% told an adult at school – 40% did nothing – 29% ignored (Cross et al, 2009)
  • Motivation to intervene• Students‟ motivation to intervene is related to: – Normative perceptions (Sandstrom et al, 2012) – Perceived harm to target (Thornberg et al, 2012) – Social status of person bullying relative to their own (Thornberg et al, 2012) – Perceive it is none of their business/ not their moral responsibility – Outcomes they expect from intervening and if they value these outcomes (Poyhonen et al, 2012) – Their popularity (Poyhonen et al, 2012) – Relationship to the target – „caretaker role‟ (Bellmore et al, 2012) – A strong sense of social justice (Cappadocia et al, 2012)
  • Bystander norms • You shouldn‟t pick on someone weaker 81.5% - Year 4 83% - Year 6 • I feel uncomfortable watching bullying 72% - Year 4 63% - Year 6 • I like it when someone stands up for bullied students 81% - Year 4 88% - Year 6
  • When peers intervene positivelystudents: – Stop the bullying within 10 seconds (Hawkins et al., 2001) – Are less likely to assign blame to victimised students (Davis, 2010) – Have a more positive perception of school climate (Davis, 2010) – Have a greater sense of safety at school (Davis, 2010) – Reconciliation occurred more quickly when bystanders (Fujisawa et al, 2005) – Have less social and mental health problems (Sainio, Veenstra, Huitsing, & Salmivalli, 2009)
  • When peers intervene positivelystudents: – Reduce repeated victimisation one year later (Sianio et al, 2009) – Perceive action more helpful than help from adults and their own actions (Davis et al, 2010) – Provide pro-social support that is less confrontational than adults (Hazler, 1996)
  • Bystander behaviour may be the easiest to change…• Interventions to address bystanders most effective in secondary schools 20% increase in bystander intervention behaviour (Polanin et al, 2012)• Reduced negative peer perceptions and increased empathy and self efficacy for constructive bystander behaviours (Salmivalli et al, 2012)
  • Changing the way we think about helping… • Dobbing – Is getting someone into trouble • Seeking help for someone being bullied – Is getting someone out of trouble
  • What do students need?AS BYSTANDERS…• Clear ethos of behavioural expectations – social norms (included in policy)• Practise, practise… social inoculation theory … with socially credible peers• Pro-social modelling• Diffusion of responsibility - Peer supporter threshold• Practical, well publicised, consistently delivered policies (involving students)• Hot spots help
  • C-1N_r1w DVD Anti-bullyingLearning and Teaching Resource ALTER “Fix It” Catholic Diocese of Wollongong, 2012
  • What does this all mean for practice? • Location of office • Online counselling • Self help support eg: websites helplines • School psychologists known to students • Prevention versus management / case load • Student perception of control • First aid training for mental health • „Approachable‟ teachers training / referal
  • Next practice?• Peers as pastoral carers• Online help provision and advice…• Social information processing• Pastoral care of staff / parents• Diffusion of responsibility? Peer supporter threshold• Prepared for „chaos‟ / first aid
  • “In the end we will remembernot the words of our enemies,but the silence of our friends.” Martin Luther King Jr