Tried smokingSample of 15 year olds in 2008: 34.6% (i.e. approx 10 students out of 30)Used alcohol in the last monthSample of 15 year olds in 2008: 46.3% (i.e. approx 14 students out of 30)White, V. & Smith, G. (2009). Australian secondary school students’ use of tobacco, alcohol, and over-the-counter and illicit substances in 2008. Cancer Council VictoriaBinge DrinkingIn 2007, 12% of 12-17 year olds had risky or high-risk drinking at least once a monthIn 2007, 4% of 12-17 year olds had risk or high-risk drinking at least once a week(the consumption of 7 or more standard drinks on any one day for males, and 5 or more standard drinks on any one day for females) Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2011). Young Australians: Their health and wellbeing 2011. Canberra: AIHW.
Ever used marijuanaSample of 15 year olds in 2008: 17.7% (i.e. Approx 5 students out of 30)Used marijuana in past yearSample of 15 year olds in 2008: 15.5% (i.e. approx 5 students out of 30)Used marijuana in past monthSample of 15 year olds in 2008: 8.4% (i.e. approx 3 students out of 30)Used marijuana in past weekSample of 15 year olds in 2008: 5.1% (i.e. approx 2 students out of 30)White, V. & Smith, G. (2009). Australian secondary school students’ use of tobacco, alcohol, and over-the-counter and illicit substances in 2008. Cancer Council Victoria
Sunburnt on summer weekendsSample of 12-17 year olds re: summer 2006-07: 24% (i.e. Approx 7 students out of 30)(Cancer Council of Australia’s 2006-07 National Sun Protection Survey)Also – 1 in 5 (6 out of 30) intentionally tried to get a tan. Not sufficiently physically activeSample of 15-17 year olds in 2007-08: 23% (i.e. Approx 7 students out of 30)(Australian Bureau of Statistics 2007-08 National Health Survey)Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. 2011. Young Australians: Their health and wellbeing 2011. Canberra: AIHW.Seriously injured on the roadsSample of 15-24 year olds in 2008-09: 26.6% (i.e. Approx 8 students out of 30)(Serious injury resulting from road traffic crashes defined as being high threat to life)Henley, G. & Harrison, J. (2012). Serious injury due to land transport, Australia 2008-09. Injury research and statistics series no.67. Cat. no. INJCAT 143. Canberra: AIHW.
Moderate or severe psychological distressAmong 15-16 year olds (mean age 15.56) – 21.2% moderate, 1.7% severe level of general psychological distress (e.g. self-blame, feeling down, performance distress, somatic symptoms)Suicidal thoughts/plansAmong 15-16 year olds (mean age 15.56) – 8.3% moderate suicidal ideation (more than once a month or week), 2% critical (couple of times per week or almost daily). Wilson, C. J., Deane, F. P., Marshall, K. L., & Dalley, A. (2010). Adolescents’ suicidal thinking and reluctance to consult general medical practitioners. Journal of youth and adolescence, 39(4), 343-356. Self-harmAmong 15-19 year olds, 6.2% self-harmed in the previous four weeks (data collected in 2008)Martin, G (2010). "Self-injury in Australia: a community survey". Medical journal of Australia (0025-729X), 193 (9), 506-510
“A study of 9-11 year olds in the Netherlands found that, of those children who were bullied, only 53% told their teachers. According to the students who told their teachers they were being bullied, the majority of teachers tried to stop the bullying (88%). Students reported that teachers were successful in their attempts to stop the bullying in only 49% of cases, whereas in 34% of cases their teachers’ attempts to stop the bullying made no difference and in 16% of cases the bullying actually got worse” From ACBPS study
These are %’s
There is never ahero around when you need one… Mobilising action toenhance student social wellbeing Donna CrossProfessor, Child and Adolescent Health
Presentation overview• Links between pastoral care and academic outcomes• Major trends in pastoral care…(eg: Bully movie)• What‟s needed for success? Less is more…• Help seeking - help provision (First aid)• What does this mean for practice?
Pastoral care and learning? • Pastoral care is the „oil of learning‟ • Pastoral care is not the destination but the nourishment for the learning journey … (Mann 2006)
Links between pastoral care andacademic outcomes? • Emotions can facilitate or impede children‟s: – Academic engagement – Work ethic – Commitment – Ultimately their school success • Relationships and emotional processes affect how and why we learn (Elias et al 1997)
Growing evidence…• Effective mastery of social and emotional competencies is associated with greater wellbeing and better school performance (Eisenberg, 2006;Guerra and Bradshaw, 2008)• Child development study found improvements in the psychosocial environment of the school mediated almost all of the positive student outcomes (Solomon et al, 2000)
Student wellbeing trends… What are the major trends in pastoral care in your school? How are these changing and within which groups?
In a Year 10 class of 30 students• used alcohol in last month… 14 (White & Smith, 2009)• binge drink weekly… 1 (AIHW, 2011)• binge drink monthly… 4 (AIHW, 2011)
In a Year 10 class of 30 students • tried smoking… 10 (White & Smith, 2009) • ever used marijuana… 5 (White & Smith, 2009) • used marijuana in past week… 2 (White & Smith, 2009)
In a Year 10 class of 30 students• sun-burnt on summer weekends… 7 (AIHW, 2011)• not sufficiently physically active… 7 (AIHW, 2011)• seriously injured on the roads… 8 (Henley & Harrison, 2012)
In a Year 10 class of 30 students• moderate or severe psychological distress… 7 (Wilson et al 2010)• suicidal thoughts/plans once a month+… 3 (Wilson et al 2010)• self-harmed in the last month… 2 (Martin et al 2010)
30% high school students engage inmultiple high risk behaviours thatinterfere with school performance andjeopardise their potential for life success (Eaton et al, 2008; Dryfoos, 1997)
Issues of Personal Concern% National Survey of Young Australians 2011, Mission Australia N= 45 916
Possible trends - help provision • „Resisting‟ traditional help • Technology help - support • Individual help seeking • Peer help - support • Delaying conversations… • Pastoral care warp and weft
Defining pastoral careIf poorly definedpastoral care canbe anything andeverything….
Defining pastoral care• Traditional definitions • Fostering children‟s moral development • Values of mutual respect through extra-curricular activities• Today, wellbeing is increasing attributed to: • School conditions • School relationships • Means of fulfilment • Health status
A Starting Point: Map the Gap Tool Six core strategy components: 1. Building capacity for action – committed leadership and organisational support 2. Proactive policies, plans and practices 3. Supportive school climate 4. Curriculum teaching and learning 5. Protective physical environment 6. School-family-community partnerships 7.More for less?
Whole of school approach Department of Education Pathways to Health and Well-Being (2001)
Delivery balance for healthand wellbeing Whole school environment promoting competence, health and wellbeing Prevention Students with high support needs 20-30% Intervention Students needing additional intervention 3-12% Treatment
Pastoral Care Process Pastoral care requires a multi-component approach, comprising 5 main school-level tasks: 1.Proactive, preventative pastoral care: Activities and educational processes that anticipate „critical incidents‟ in children‟s lives and aim to prevent and reduce the need for reactive casework. 2.Developmental pastoral curricula: Curricula developed to promote personal, social, moral, spiritual and cultural development and wellbeing through distinctive programmes, tutorial work and extracurricular activities.
Pastoral Care Process 3. The promotion and maintenance of an orderly and supportive / collaborative environment: building a community within the school, creating supportive systems and positive relations between all members of the community, and promoting a strong ethos of mutual care and concern. 4. Reactive pastoral casework: „Open door‟ guidance and counselling, peer support and mentoring, welfare network (link between school, home and external agencies such as social services). 5. The management and administration of pastoral care: the process of planning, resourcing, monitoring, evaluating, encouraging and facilitating all of the above.
What are the major outcomes for pastoral care in your school? Do students feel comfortable seeking help?
Help seeking 25% Not bullied Bullied told someone Bullied told someone (Fekkes, Pljpers & Verloove-Vanhorick, 2005)
THE BYSTANDER Social Responsibility BYSTANDERS POTENTIAL VICTIMSCOLLABORATORSTHE INCIDENT Rigby, K (2001) Stop the Bullying: a Handbook for Schools ACER
Consequences ofbystander actionsBystanders who witness repetitive abuse such as bullying: – Experience considerable distress that continues into adulthood (Janson et al, 2004) – Elevated mental health risks among 12-16 yr olds - over above that experienced by those involved in the bullying (Rivers et al, 2009)Bystanders can escalate bullying by: – Being present (silent approval) (O‟Connell et al, 1999) – Their actions – especially reinforcing behaviours (Salmivalli et al, 2011)
BystandersPeers are present as onlookers in 85% of bullying interactions, and play a central role in the bullying process (Hawkins et al, 2001) Bystanders “can be part of the problem or part of the solution”
Students taking action 20-30% ofstudents aretaking thesupporter actionload…
Behaviours of bystanders – Assisting (20-30%) – Reinforcing (20-30%) – Defending / supporting (20%) – Reporting / No action (26-30%) (Salmivalli et al 1999; Salmivalli et al1998) 30%) girls younger
Actions as bystanders• Students who: – See and hear bullying most likely to tell another student (66%) – Tell the person bullying to stop (53%) – Help the person being bullied at time (42%) – Get someone to help stop bullying (40%)• Witnessed and action… – 39% told parent – 37% helped the person later on – 29% told an adult at school – 40% did nothing – 29% ignored (Cross et al, 2009)
Motivation to intervene• Students‟ motivation to intervene is related to: – Normative perceptions (Sandstrom et al, 2012) – Perceived harm to target (Thornberg et al, 2012) – Social status of person bullying relative to their own (Thornberg et al, 2012) – Perceive it is none of their business/ not their moral responsibility – Outcomes they expect from intervening and if they value these outcomes (Poyhonen et al, 2012) – Their popularity (Poyhonen et al, 2012) – Relationship to the target – „caretaker role‟ (Bellmore et al, 2012) – A strong sense of social justice (Cappadocia et al, 2012)
Bystander norms • You shouldn‟t pick on someone weaker 81.5% - Year 4 83% - Year 6 • I feel uncomfortable watching bullying 72% - Year 4 63% - Year 6 • I like it when someone stands up for bullied students 81% - Year 4 88% - Year 6
When peers intervene positivelystudents: – Stop the bullying within 10 seconds (Hawkins et al., 2001) – Are less likely to assign blame to victimised students (Davis, 2010) – Have a more positive perception of school climate (Davis, 2010) – Have a greater sense of safety at school (Davis, 2010) – Reconciliation occurred more quickly when bystanders (Fujisawa et al, 2005) – Have less social and mental health problems (Sainio, Veenstra, Huitsing, & Salmivalli, 2009)
When peers intervene positivelystudents: – Reduce repeated victimisation one year later (Sianio et al, 2009) – Perceive action more helpful than help from adults and their own actions (Davis et al, 2010) – Provide pro-social support that is less confrontational than adults (Hazler, 1996)
Bystander behaviour may be the easiest to change…• Interventions to address bystanders most effective in secondary schools 20% increase in bystander intervention behaviour (Polanin et al, 2012)• Reduced negative peer perceptions and increased empathy and self efficacy for constructive bystander behaviours (Salmivalli et al, 2012)
Changing the way we think about helping… • Dobbing – Is getting someone into trouble • Seeking help for someone being bullied – Is getting someone out of trouble
What do students need?AS BYSTANDERS…• Clear ethos of behavioural expectations – social norms (included in policy)• Practise, practise… social inoculation theory … with socially credible peers• Pro-social modelling• Diffusion of responsibility - Peer supporter threshold• Practical, well publicised, consistently delivered policies (involving students)• Hot spots help
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EA5 C-1N_r1w DVD Anti-bullyingLearning and Teaching Resource ALTER “Fix It” Catholic Diocese of Wollongong, 2012
What does this all mean for practice? • Location of office • Online counselling • Self help support eg: websites helplines • School psychologists known to students • Prevention versus management / case load • Student perception of control • First aid training for mental health • „Approachable‟ teachers training / referal
Next practice?• Peers as pastoral carers• Online help provision and advice…• Social information processing• Pastoral care of staff / parents• Diffusion of responsibility? Peer supporter threshold• Prepared for „chaos‟ / first aid
“In the end we will remembernot the words of our enemies,but the silence of our friends.” Martin Luther King Jr
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