Gcg 2009 P Dawe T Hootman

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Gcg 2009 P Dawe T Hootman

  1. 1. Positive Zero Using Urban Design and Architecture to Get to Zero Gulf Coast Green Pat Dawe, AIA, AICP, LEED AP Tom Hootman, AIA, LEED AP
  2. 2. The Melting Earth Theory
  3. 3. Carbon Dioxide
  4. 4. Keeling Curve
  5. 5. Environmental Wedges Rate of increase in carbon emissions What if every economic sector took responsibility… Source: Princeton University
  6. 6. Carbon Dioxide Emissions per Sector
  7. 7. Carbon Dioxide Emissions per Sector
  8. 8. Carbon Dioxide Emissions per Sector
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>1950 Interstate Highway System—suburbs/sprawl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1973 US Gas “Crisis”—followed by US solar design era </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1992 Earth Summit Rio de Janiero </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1990’s LEED introduced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1997 Kyoto Protocol signing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2001 UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2007 LEED ND Pilot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2009 LEED ND rollout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2020 Scientists: reduction of GHG to 1990 levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2050 Scientists: reduction GHG to 80% below 1990 levels </li></ul></ul>Last 60 Years Next 40 Years 100 Years of Climate Change We are here
  10. 10. A Fork in the Road GHG’s                                                                                     U.S. Building Sector CO2 Emissions Mazria Inc.Odems Dzurec, 2005. (Generated from U.S. Energy Information Administration statistics)
  11. 11. do some of the “right things” and hope they work … well enough to solve the problem … in time measure the effects later revise the strategy -- catchup Two Ways to Create the Future Reactive Pro-active predict the effectiveness … and cost strategy based on what’s cost effective … and will solve the problem measure the effects refine the strategy—stay ahead of the curve
  12. 12. How do we know how where the leverage for climate change is in our projects? LEED-NC—building-oriented, some site LEED-ND—only accounts indirectly for CO 2 emissions 2030 Challenge—doesn’t consider site or external context Sustainable Sites—landscape-oriented
  13. 13. Nation City Neighborhood & Development Building Effects of Scale + + + + + Region Scale of Development Leverage on Climate Change
  14. 14. Building ENERGY STAR 2030 Challenge LEED ZEB (Zero Energy Building)
  15. 15. Building ENERGY STAR EPA and DOE program Building label for energy efficiency Measures energy use intensity Based on Utility Bills Score between 1-100 Benchmark based on “average” existing building stock ENERGY STAR Target Finder
  16. 16. Building 2030 Challenge Architecture 2030 Measures carbon Carbon neutral by 2030 Phased reduction in consumption of fossil fuel in buildings Benchmark based on “average” existing building stock (CBECS) Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey
  17. 17. Building 2030 Challenge Existing and New buildings 50% NOW New Buildings 60% in 2010 70% in 2015 80% in 2020 90% in 2025 Carbon Neutral in 2030
  18. 18. Building LEED Green Building Rating System Credits for energy performance and renewable energy Measures energy cost savings Energy & Atmosphere credits are 25% of the available in LEED-NC 2.2 and 35% in LEED-NC 2009 ASHRAE 90.1
  19. 19. Building <ul><li>Zero Energy Buildings </li></ul><ul><li>National Renewable Energy Lab </li></ul><ul><li>NREL’s Four Definitions: </li></ul><ul><li>Source Energy ZEB </li></ul><ul><li>Site Energy ZEB </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions ZEB </li></ul><ul><li>Cost ZEB </li></ul>
  20. 20. Neighborhood Mixed Uses Site Design Street Connectivity Density
  21. 21. City Climate Action Plan Smart Grid Development Regulations & Review Land Use & Transportation City Operations
  22. 22. Region Integration of Land Use & Transportation Reduction of VMT Large Scale Systems
  23. 23. Nation National Energy Goals Electrical Grid Tax Policy
  24. 24. US Can Tackle Big Problems: WW II 1940 1945 Federal Spending % of GDP 9% 42% Defense Spending % of GDP 1% 37% Defense Spending % of Fed 7% 89% US Increase in Output 830% Unemployment 15% 2% Military Aircraft WW II 128,000 Ships 5,800
  25. 25. Nation City Neighborhood & Development Building The Case of California + + + + + Region State Level: Center of Power Blueprint California Pushing EPA General Plans, Codes Vehicle Emissions AB 32 Greenhouse Gas Limits SB 375 Land Use & Transportation International + Global Climate Summit International Climate Action Partnership
  26. 26. Development Scale
  27. 27. Energy and Carbon Toolkit Energy Use Intensity (EUI) Green Power Renewable Energy Carbon Emissions Factors Carbon Footprint
  28. 28. Energy Use Intensity EUI Annual energy use per sf of building area = kBtu / SF / Yr
  29. 29. Energy Use Intensity 62.1 kBtu/SF/Yr 45 MPG
  30. 30. Site Energy / Source Energy 62.1 kBtu/SF/Yr 165.2 kBtu/SF/Yr
  31. 31. Energy Use Intensity Energy Use Intensity Data Sources Energy Star Target Finder 2030 Challenge EUI Tables 2003 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) NREL EUI Tables
  32. 32. Energy Use Intensity ENERGY STAR Target Finder
  33. 33. Energy Use Intensity ENERGY STAR Target Finder Building/Space Types Offices K-12 Schools Hospitals Hotels Medical Offices Residence Halls Supermarkets Warehouses Banks Courts Retail
  34. 34. Energy Use Intensity ENERGY STAR Target Finder Support Space Types Computer / Data Center Parking Swimming Pool Other
  35. 35. Green Power Renewable Electricity REC
  36. 36. Green Power Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) REC +
  37. 37. Renewable Energy
  38. 38. Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Resources Source: Energy Information Administration
  39. 39. Building Integrated PV (BIPV) <ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce energy use first </li></ul><ul><li>Determine PV goal and required size early </li></ul><ul><li>Design massing and form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar access / prevent shading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide adequate surface area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use as part of the aesthetic / materials </li></ul>Renewable Energy
  40. 40. PV Calculator Input location and orientation of panel Calculates monthly and annually energy production for each KW of PV system size Renewable Energy
  41. 41. Building Integrated PV (BIPV) Renewable Energy <ul><li>Financial </li></ul><ul><li>Use all incentives and rebates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal 30% tax credit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>www.dsireusa.org </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the financial structure early </li></ul><ul><li>Power Purchase Agreements </li></ul>
  42. 42. Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) Building Owner Solar Developer Utility Company <ul><li>Gets solar generated electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Gets a competitive long term power contract </li></ul><ul><li>Provides roof or site area for PV </li></ul><ul><li>Gets 30% Federal tax credit </li></ul><ul><li>Gets Solar REC Payments from Utility </li></ul><ul><li>Gets 20 year contract for power </li></ul><ul><li>Installs and maintains equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Gets to claim renewable energy toward renewable portfolio standard </li></ul><ul><li>Provides net metering </li></ul>
  43. 44. Carbon Footprints
  44. 45. Carbon Footprints A measure of greenhouse gas emission through human activity within a defined boundary. Typically metric tons of CO 2 or CO 2 e per year
  45. 46. Carbon Footprints Footprint = Annual Energy x Emission Factor CO 2 = kBtu/yr x CO 2 /kBtu
  46. 47. Carbon Footprints
  47. 48. Carbon Footprints Carbon Footprint Emission Factors
  48. 49. ENERGY STAR Target Finder NREL “Source Energy and Emission Factors for Energy Use in Buildings” eGRID Carbon Footprint Emission Factors Data Sources Building Carbon Footprints
  49. 50. Carbon Footprint Emission Factors Carbon Footprints Emission factor for electricity in Texas: 1.850 LB of CO 2 /kWh or 0.542 LB of CO 2 /kBtu Emission factor for natural gas: 133.60 LB of CO 2 /1000 ft 3 or 0.130 LB of CO 2 /kBtu Source: NREL “Source Energy and Emission Factors for Energy Use in Buildings”
  50. 51. Carbon Footprint Emission Factors Carbon Footprints Emission factor for vehicular travel: 1 gallon of gas = 19.4 LB of CO 2 20 MPG = 0.970 LB of CO 2 / Mile
  51. 52. Getting to Work At Work Average worker car commute to/from work 5,850 LBS of CO 2 /year Average worker In an average office 9,330 LBS of CO 2 /year In a Energy Star 90 office 4,160 LBS of CO 2 /year Carbon Footprints
  52. 55. Off-site Transportation On-site Circulation Building Usage Landscape & Open Space Utilities & Infrastructure A Development Scale Model LEED-NC LEED-EB LEED- ND LEED- ND Civil Transportation 2030 Sustainable Sites Initiative
  53. 56. CO 2 Baseline CO 2 Budget External Transportation Internal Circulation Landscape & Open Space Building & Energy Usage Utilities & Infrastructure Carbon-Neutral Renewables, Sequestering, Offsets GHG Generation Carbon Neutral Development?
  54. 57. EUI – kBtu/sf/yr Carbon – lb/sf/yr Carbon after RE – lb/sf/yr Average Office Bldg (CBECS) ENERGY STAR ASHRAE Min 2030 50% 2030 60% LEED Silv 30% LEED Plat 45% ZEB 50% 135,000 SF Office Building Climate Zone 3 540 Employees / 40 hours a week
  55. 58. LEED-NC 2009 & Carbon Credit Weightings
  56. 59. LEED-NC 2009 & Carbon Credit Weightings Weighted against 13 EPA TRACI impact categories Carbon Footprint is the top weighted impact category. The impact categories are applied to different activity groups Building Systems, Transportation, Water, Materials and Land Use
  57. 60. LEED-NC 2009 & Carbon Credit Weightings Prototype Building Building Systems 135,000 SF office building Climate zone 3 ENERGY STAR 50 9 to 5, 5 days a week, 250 days a year 540 full time employees No on-site renewable energy 80% energy from electricity Electricity emissions based on national average
  58. 61. LEED-NC 2009 & Carbon Credit Weightings Prototype Building Transportation 9 to 5, 5 days a week, 250 days a year 20.5 mile average daily roundtrip commute 21 MPG 74% drive alone 12% carpool 4% rail 3% bus 1% bicycle 1% walk
  59. 62. LEED-NC 2009 & Carbon Credit Weightings Prototype Building Water 50/50 male/female split Conventional fixtures 1 acre of landscaping Trees and shrubs Climate zone 3 Conventional irrigation Potable water National average embodied energy
  60. 63. LEED-NC 2009 & Carbon Credit Weightings Prototype Building Materials / Solid Waste / Land Use Two story steel construction 67,000 SF footprint 109,950 SF surface parking lot Solid waste of 4.9 tons/1000 SF
  61. 64. LEED-NC 2009 & Carbon Credit Weightings 2832 Met T 62% 1711 Met T 37% 19 Met T <1% 15 Met T <1%
  62. 65. Reducing Carbon Footprints Green Buildings Neighborhood Infill Mixed Use Neighborhood Infill Site Design The LEED-Carbon Curve LEED- ND 000’s tons CO2/year Certified Silver Gold Platinum Zero Carbon
  63. 66. LEED-ND Smart Location & Linkage Project Location: Brownfield, utilities, infrastructure, schools, wetlands, surrounding development, infill or greenfield … affects modal choice, trip length, VMT—can convert to mTCO 2
  64. 67. LEED-ND Neighborhood Pattern & Design Urban Design: Compact development, walkability, access to open space and public facilities, street network, housing types … density (energy), VMT reduction, trips avoided, pedestrian opportunities
  65. 68. LEED-ND Green Construction & Technology Architecture, Engineering, Landscape: Stormwater management, energy conservation, renewables, waste, solar orientation … carbon sequestering, water, net reduction of CO 2
  66. 69. 0 20 40 60 80 100 106 Site Design Certified Silver Gold Platinum LEED-ND: Getting to Platinum Mixed Uses Infill & Green Buildings Green Buildings Neighborhood Infill Combine Approaches LEED-ND Credits
  67. 70. Getting to Zero Carbon 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Combine Approaches Neighborhood Infill Baseline Site Design Green Buildings 000’s tons CO 2 / yr Mixed Uses Infill & Buildings Zero Carbon 75 0
  68. 71. 0 20 40 60 80 100 106 Site Design Certified Silver Gold Platinum Relative Effectiveness Mixed Uses Infill & Green Buildings Green Buildings Neighbor-hood Infill Combined Approaches Carbon Footprinting LEED-ND Zero Carbon Baseline LEED-ND Credits
  69. 72. Characteristics of Development Model Comprehensive Strategic Easy to Use—menu driven Able to be Refined—with additional input Quantitative--measurable
  70. 73. Baseline Carbon Model Greenfield 200 acres Single use office park at .3 FAR Buildings built to code No renewables Buildings: 27,330 Tons CO2 Trips: 47,470 Tons CO2 Total: 74,800 Tons CO2
  71. 74. Site Design Street Connectivity Ped Walks & Open Space Transit Proximity Buildings: 27,300 Tons CO2 Trips: 42,720 Tons CO2 Total: 70,020 Tons CO2
  72. 75. Mixed Uses: Same 200 acres of office mixed with retail & residential More trips internalized—change to walking Reduces “peaking”—better use of access road capacity Buildings: 27,330 Tons CO2 Trips: 40,350 Tons CO2 Total: 67,680 Tons CO2
  73. 76. Green Buildings Phased reductions in energy Initial 50% reduction based on code equivalents Buildings: 8,200 Tons CO2 Trips: 47,470 Tons CO2 Total: 55,670 Tons CO2
  74. 77. Neighborhood Infill : Mixed uses fill in around office Shorter trips to adjacent uses Shared parking still works Add transit access Buildings: 27,330 Tons CO2 Trips: 22,780 Tons CO2 Total: 50,110 Tons CO2
  75. 78. Combined Techniques Mixed Use Bldgs: 2030 Challenge Neighborhood Infill Site Design Buildings: 8,200 Tons CO2 Trips: 18,160 Tons CO2 Total: 26,360 Tons CO2
  76. 79. Zero Carbon Development Zero Energy Buildings PV on Parking & Building Roofs Reduce Program Aggressive TMA & Site-Wide Buildings: 0 Tons CO2 Trips: 18,160 Tons CO2 - Other: (18,200)Tons CO2 Total: 0 Tons CO2
  77. 80. Zero Carbon Development What makes up the remaining offset of 18,200 Tons CO2?
  78. 81. Conclusions <ul><li>Development has great leverage on climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Demand side strategy can be no cost </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement is key to success </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive model is needed </li></ul><ul><li>LEED and carbon neutrality are same quest </li></ul><ul><li>Combining approaches has most value </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation is already here—more coming </li></ul>
  79. 82. What Can a Building Do? Become Positive Zero! Set Comprehensive Sustainability Goals Define Carbon and EUI Budgets / 2030 Challenge Build Carbon Footprinting into Project Design Process Follow integrated Design and Use Energy Modeling Find Ways of Integrating PV
  80. 83. What Can a Community Do? Community Inventory & Update Adopt Climate Action Plan Set Comprehensive Community Goals-LEED Define Carbon Budgets for New Development Build Carbon Footprinting into Project Review

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