Greg Tinkler- Gulf Coast Green 2010

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Geothermal Heat Pumps: A Proven Renewable Energy Technology

Author: Greg Tinkler, Redding Linden Burr Consulting Engineers

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  • Greg Tinkler- Gulf Coast Green 2010

    1. 1. Geothermal Heat Pumps A Proven Renewable Energy Technology by Greg Tinkler, CGD
    2. 2. While Earth travels through Space…
    3. 3. … it Absorbs Energy from the Sun
    4. 4. This natural Energy Collection and Storage System captures nearly 50% of the Solar Energy falling on Earth… … thus maintaining a nearly Constant Temperature throughout the year just below the surface
    5. 5. Water is an incredibly efficient medium for transporting Thermal Energy 1 Btu will raise 1 lb (approx. 1 pint) of water up 1 degree Fahrenheit
    6. 6. 2,000 lbs of ICE- How many Tons does it take to melt?
    7. 7. Geothermal Heat Pump Systems combine Sun, Earth, and Water using proven technology… … to create “the most energy-efficient, environmentally clean, and cost-effective space-conditioning system” (according to U.S. EPA 1993)
    8. 8. Geothermal Heat Pump Basic Principles
    9. 9. HOW DOES IT WORK ? <ul><li>Heat pumps remove or add heat to a building. </li></ul><ul><li>The heat removed or added must be rejected to something : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directly to outside air (like your house system) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To water, which in turn rejects heat to the atmosphere via a cooling tower. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To water, then to the earth (Geothermal Heat Pumps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed Loop System – not taking water from the ground </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. AVERAGE GROUND WATER TEMPERATURES WHICH IS EASIER TO REJECT HEAT TO ? 99 DEGREE AIR OR 72 DEGREE DIRT
    11. 11. The Earth is an Efficient Place to Reject Heat in Summer… Outdoor air design temperature: 98°F in summer 74°F 72°F Insulating layer of earth A geothermal heat pump cools the building in summer by rejecting heat into the earth Delta T = $ to operate!!!
    12. 12. … and is the Source of Stored Heat in Winter… Outdoor air design temperature: 31.5°F in winter 72°F 80°F Insulating layer of earth A geothermal heat pump takes heat from the earth during winter and transfers it into the building Delta T = $ to operate!!!
    13. 13. … using Heat Pump Technology A geothermal heat pump is connected to a sealed water piping loop buried in the earth near the building When water exiting the heat pump is pumped through the ground loop, it is naturally warmed (or cooled) by the earth surrounding it Insulating layer of earth
    14. 14. Geothermal Heat Pump Efficiency One unit of energy from the grid Plus: 4 units of energy from the earth Yields: 5 units of energy for the building 500% Efficient
    15. 15. Geothermal Heat Pumps Exchange Heat between Air and Water $1 Worth of Electricity to Operate the Compressor and Fan Moves $5 Worth of Heat from the Water Delivering $6 Worth of Heat into the Air Heating Mode Shown Heat can be “pumped uphill” meaning delivered at a higher temperature than the source $4 $1 $5
    16. 16. Geothermal Heat Pumps Heat or Cool on Demand and also Produce Hot Water Operates on the Same Principle as a Refrigerator Cooling Mode Shown 160F Hot water is produced whenever the unit is operating $4 $5 $1
    17. 17. Heat Pumps Are All Around Us… Air conditioners and air-source heat pumps transfer heat from inside houses to the air outside Refrigerators transfer heat from food into the kitchen B B B HEAT HEAT
    18. 18. INDOOR COMPONENTS Horizontal Units Vertical Units
    19. 19. Geothermal Heat Exchanger Installation Methods
    20. 20. Vertical Closed-Loop A pair of pipes with a special U-bend assembly at the bottom is placed into bore holes from 100 to 400 feet deep
    21. 21. Horizontal Closed-Loop A piping array is installed in trenches cut 3 to 5 feet deep and hundreds of feet in length
    22. 22. Surface Water Closed-Loop A piping array is submerged in a pond or lake at least 12 feet deep
    23. 23. Ground Water Open-Loop Well water from an underground aquifer is pumped through the geothermal heat pump and then returned to the aquifer or discharged to the surface
    24. 24. Vertical Closed-Loop Installation Drilling Pipe Loop Insertion Heat Fusing Inside Connection
    25. 25. TRENCHING & MANIFOLDING <ul><li>Well fields </li></ul>Trenching and Manifolding The Finalized Earth Heat Exchanger Connecting the wells with each other The Earth Heath Exchanger is covered with soil. Nothing has changed!
    26. 26. STAGE 3: CONNECTION WITH THE BUILDING Main connection to the building Interior piping network connects all the Water Source Heat Pumps to the EHX
    27. 27. Geothermal Hybrid System - Summer
    28. 28. Residential Geothermal Hybrid System
    29. 29. Residential Tax Incentives <ul><li>Code Sec. 25D. Residential energy efficient property. </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Allowance of credit. In the case of an individual, there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year an amount equal to the sum of— </li></ul><ul><li>6 (5) 30 percent of the qualified geothermal heat pump property expenditures made by the tax payer during such year. </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Limitations. </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Maximum credit. The credit allowed under subsection (a) (determined without regard to subsection (c) ) for any taxable year shall not exceed— 7 , </li></ul><ul><li>(D) $2,000 with respect to any qualified geothermal heat pump property expenditures. </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Limitation based on amount of tax; carry forward of unused credit </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Limitation based on amount of tax. In the case of a taxable year to which section 26(a)(2) does not apply, the credit allowed under subsection (a) for the taxable year shall not exceed the excess of— </li></ul><ul><li>(A) the sum of the regular tax liability (as defined in section 26(b)) plus the tax imposed by section 55, over </li></ul><ul><li>(B) the sum of the credits allowable under this subpart (other than this section) and section 27 for the taxable year. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Carry forward of unused credit. </li></ul><ul><li>(A) Rule for years in which all personal credits allowed against regular and alternative minimum tax. In the case of a taxable year to which section 26(a)(2) applies, if the credit allowable under subsection (a) exceeds the limitation imposed by section 26(a)(2) for such taxable year reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under this subpart (other than this section), such excess shall be carried to the succeeding taxable year and added to the credit allowable under subsection (a) for such succeeding taxable year. </li></ul><ul><li>(B) Rule for other years. In the case of a taxable year to which section 26(a)(2) does not apply, if the credit allowable under subsection (a) exceeds the limitation imposed by paragraph (1) for such taxable year, such excess shall be carried to the succeeding taxable year and added to the credit allowable under subsection (a) for such succeeding taxable year. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Commercial Incentives <ul><li>Code Sec. 48. Energy credit. </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Energy credit. </li></ul><ul><li>(1) In general. For purposes of section 46 , except as provided in 1 2 paragraphs (1)(B) , and (2)(B) , (3)(B) , and (4)(B) of subsection (c) , the energy credit for any taxable year is the energy percentage of the basis of each energy property placed in service during such taxable year. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Energy percentage. </li></ul><ul><li>(A) In general. The energy percentage is— </li></ul><ul><li>(i) 30 percent in the case of— </li></ul><ul><li>(II) energy property described in paragraph (3)(A)(i) but only with respect to periods ending before 3 January 1, 2017 , 4 </li></ul><ul><li>(III) energy property described in paragraph (3)(A)(ii), and </li></ul><ul><li>(IV) qualified small wind energy property , and </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) in the case of any energy property to which clause (i) does not apply, 10 percent. </li></ul><ul><li>(B) Coordination with rehabilitation credit. The energy percentage shall not apply to that portion of the basis of any property which is attributable to qualified rehabilitation expenditures. </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Energy property. For purposes of this subpart, the term “energy property” means any property— </li></ul><ul><li>(A) which is— </li></ul><ul><li>(i) equipment which uses solar energy to generate electricity, to heat or cool (or provide hot water for use in) a structure, or to provide solar process heat, excepting property used to generate energy for the purposes of heating a swimming pool, </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) equipment which uses solar energy to illuminate the inside of a structure using fiber-optic distributed sunlight but only with respect to periods ending before 6 January 1, 2017 , </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) equipment used to produce, distribute, or use energy derived from a geothermal deposit (within the meaning of section 613(e)(2) ), but only, in the case of electricity generated by geothermal power, up to (but not including) the electrical transmission stage, 7 </li></ul><ul><li>(iv) qualified fuel cell property or qualified microturbine property, 8 9 </li></ul><ul><li>(v) combined heat and power system property, 11 12 </li></ul><ul><li>(vi) qualified small wind energy property, 14 or </li></ul><ul><li>(vii) equipment which uses the ground or ground water as a thermal energy source to heat a structure or as a thermal energy sink to cool a structure, but only with respect to periods ending before January 1, 2017, </li></ul>
    31. 31. PROJECT TYPES <ul><li>LIKELY </li></ul><ul><li>High end single family </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-family – public or military </li></ul><ul><li>Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Healthcare </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitality </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate office </li></ul><ul><li>LEED/Green Building </li></ul><ul><li>Owners who prefer simpler systems </li></ul><ul><li>LESS LIKELY </li></ul><ul><li>Developer buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Private multi-family </li></ul><ul><li>Projects where First Cost is more important than Life Cycle Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Campuses with a Chilled Water Infrastructure </li></ul>
    32. 32. HOW DOES IT AFFECT ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN? <ul><li>INSIDE THE BUILDING </li></ul><ul><li>Plenum space: little or no difference compared to Tower Loop Heat Pumps, Chilled Water Fan Coils or VAV Box Type Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical rooms and shafts: less space than Central Air Handlers </li></ul><ul><li>OUTSIDE THE BUILDING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roof: no units on the roof (but can be) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No condensing units on the ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No visible loop piping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little affect on finished landscaping , grading & paving </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Electric Utility Perspective And CASE STUDIES
    34. 34. Garrett Office Buildings Edmond, Oklahoma
    35. 35. Garrett Office Buildings Annual Energy and HVAC Maintenance Costs 2006-2007 55% Operational Cost Savings
    36. 36. Garrett Office Buildings Annual Energy Use 2006-2007 47% Site Energy Savings
    37. 37. Garrett Office Buildings Annual CO 2 Emissions 2006-2007 28% Carbon Emissions Reduction
    38. 38. Garrett Office Buildings Monthly Energy Use
    39. 39. Garrett Office Buildings Monthly Peak Demand
    40. 40. System Performance Comparison <ul><li>* Arnold High School - Closed Loop Geothermal System (completed Aug, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Mosley High School - Gas Boiler/Chiller System (Updated w/ new equipment 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Bay Haven Charter School – Closed Geo System </li></ul><ul><li>Bozeman Learning Center-All Electric-Gulf Coast Co-Op </li></ul><ul><li>Washington Co. – Includes Rouhlac Middle School & Chipley High School Open Geo System </li></ul>
    41. 41. Metered KWH’s Geothermal vs Conventional Fast Food Store 2008 31 17 21 17 10 14 10 11 10 (Conventional Store Kwh’s Percent more than Geothermal Store)
    42. 42. Geothermal Heat Pumps are one of the Most Effective and Deployable… … producing the lowest carbon dioxide emissions, including all source effects, of all available space-conditioning technologies (EPA, 1993)
    43. 43. RESOURCES <ul><ul><ul><li>IT MAY NOT BE ROCKET SCIENCE, BUT USE AN EXPERIENCED TEAM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consulting Engineers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contractors: installation, testing, monitoring. Can provide financing. Partner with local contractors for indoor systems. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Associations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IGSHPA : www.igshpa.okstate.edu </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMP CONSORTIUM www.geoexchange.org </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ASHRAE www.ashrae.org </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vendors: WaterFurnace, Climate Master, Carrier, Trane, Florida Heat Pump, McQuay, </li></ul></ul></ul>

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