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    Eu project managment Eu project managment Presentation Transcript

    • Compostela Seminar: “EU Projects and Mobility Opportunities”Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras National Technical University of Athens Citta’ della Pieve ‘Il Perugino’ Institute 4th-6th February 2004
    • PCM History“Project Cycle Management” (PCM) was adopted In 1992 by the European Commission as itsprimary set of project design and management tools, based on the Logical FrameworkApproach. A first PCM manual was produced in 1993 and is continuously updated.Comprehensive PCM Guidelines have been prepared for the European Commission by thestaff of the Aid Delivery Methods Helpdesk with the support of, and input from, a significantnumber of staff within the European Aid Cooperation Office (EuropeAID). An updatedversion can be found in the Europa Web Site :http://europa.eu.int/comm/europeaid/projects/asia-pro-eco/pdf/publications/pcm_manual_2004_en.pdf This presentation has been based on the official PCM guidelines, prepared by the EC services, including terminology, figures and examplesPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 2
    • Contents In a nutshell : 1. Project Cycle Management (PCM) 2. Logical Framework Approach (LFA) 3. The Logical Framework Matrix (LFM) 4. Elaborating the LFM … HOW-TO 5. DiscussionPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 3
    • What is a project? A project is… …a series of activities aimed at bringing about clearly specified objectives within a defined time-period and with a defined budget. A project should clearly define / have : – Stakeholders (Primary Target Group + Final Beneficiaries) – Co-ordination, management & financial agreements – A Monitoring & Evaluation system – Proof of benefits exceeding expected costsPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 4
    • The Project Cycle PROJECT DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY EVALUATION & AUDIT IDENTIFICATION & FORMULATION PREPARATION & APPRAISAL IMPLEMENTATION COMMITMENTPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 5
    • The Project Cycle PROJECT DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY • Analyse situation at national and sectoral level. Identify problems, constraints and opportunities; STRATEGY • Identify main objectives and sectoral priorities for development cooperation; EVALUATION & AUDIT • Provide a relevant and feasible IDENTIFICATION & FORMULATION programming framework within which projects can be identified and prepared; • Formulate / evaluate strategies taking account of past experience PREPARATION & APPRAISAL IMPLEMENTATION COMMITMENTPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 6
    • The Project Cycle PROJECT DEVELOPMENT IDENTIFICATION & FORMULATION • Identify ideas for projects and other STRATEGY development actions • Consult intended beneficiaries of each EVALUATION & AUDIT problems they face and action, analyse IDENTIFICATION & FORMULATION options to address these problems. • Make decision on the relevance of each project idea and on which ideas should be further studied during Formulation • Develop relevant project ideas into PREPARATION & APPRAISAL operational project plans. IMPLEMENTATION • Assess feasibility and sustainability • Make decision whether to draw up a COMMITMENT formal project proposal and seek funding for the project.PCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 7
    • The Project Cycle PROJECT DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY EVALUATION & AUDIT PREPARATION & APPRAISAL IDENTIFICATION & FORMULATION • Specify objectives, inputs and outputs • Assess impact and sustainability • Assess environmental, social and gender issues • Review of the prepared project for PREPARATION & APPRAISAL institutional capacity, costs and benefits IMPLEMENTATION • Prepare TOR and Endorsement Statements COMMITMENT • Receive approval by partner institutionPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 8
    • The Project Cycle PROJECT DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY EVALUATION & AUDIT IDENTIFICATION & FORMULATION COMMITMENT • Project proposals are examined by the funding agency, and a decision is taken on whether to fund the project. • The funding agency and partner country agree the modalities of implementation PREPARATION & APPRAISAL IMPLEMENTATION a legal document and formalise these in which sets out the arrangements by which the project will be funded and COMMITMENT implemented.PCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 9
    • The Project Cycle PROJECT DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION & AUDIT • Project is mobilised and IDENTIFICATION & FORMULATION executed. • Project Management assesses actual progress against planned progress to determine whether the project is on track towards achieving its objectives. • If necessary the project is re-oriented to PREPARATION bring it back on track, or to modify some & APPRAISAL IMPLEMENTATION of its objectives in the light of significant changes that may have occurred since COMMITMENT its formulation.PCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 10
    • The Project Cycle PROJECT DEVELOPMENT EVALUATION & AUDIT • Funding agency and partners assess the project to identify whatSTRATEGY has been achieved, and to identify lessons that have been learned. Evaluation findings are used to improve the design of future EVALUATION & AUDIT or programmes. projects IDENTIFICATION & FORMULATION • It is common practice also to conduct a mid-term evaluation during implementation, to identify lessons that can be applied during the remaining life of the project. PREPARATION & APPRAISAL IMPLEMENTATION COMMITMENTPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 11
    • The Project Cycle Management Definition Project Cycle Management is a term used to describe the management activities & decision-making procedures used during the life-cycle of a project (including key tasks, roles and responsibilities, key documents and decision options) Integration of the stages in the project cycle so that issues are examined systematically, by means of an approach and methodology, which ensures that objectives and issues of sustainability remain in focusPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 12
    • PCM Objectives PCM helps to ensure that projects are: 1. Supportive of overarching policy objectives of the EC and of development partners 2. Relevant to an agreed strategy and to the real problems of target groups/beneficiaries 3. Feasible can be realistically achieved 4. Well managed and benefits produced are likely to be… 5. SustainablePCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 13
    • PCM Objectives - Relevance Relevance Projects are relevant to the agreed strategy & to the real needs of beneficiaries: projects are linked to sectoral, national and company objectives beneficiaries are involved in the planning process from an early stage problem analysis is thorough objectives are clearly stated in terms of benefits to target groupsPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 14
    • PCM Objectives - Feasibility Feasibility Projects are feasible in that objectives can be realistically achieved within the constraints of the operating environment and the capabilities of the implementing agencies: objectives are logical and measurable risks and assumptions, and the implementing agencies capabilities are taken into account monitoring concentrates on relevant targetsPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 15
    • PCM Objectives - Sustainability Sustainability Projects are sustainable : factors affecting sustainability are addressed as part of project design results from evaluation are used to build lessons learned into the design of future projectsPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 16
    • PCM Principles Adherence to Project Cycle Stages: structured & informed decision-making Logframe planning: comprehensive & consistent analytical approaches to project design and management Client orientation: participatory approach for key stakeholders and promotion of local ownership Sustainability: Incorporate mechanisms for continued flow of benefits Integrated approach: vertical integration & standardised documentationPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 17
    • Logical Framework Approach Developed by USAID during the late 1960s in order to assist in the planning, management and evaluation of development activities. Adopted as a planning and management tool for systematic and logical thinking by a large number of agencies The European Commission has produced a manual on Project Cycle Management, based on the Logical Framework Approach.PCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 18
    • Logical Framework Approach Logical Framework tools are used both in the project preparatory phases and during implementation. They include: 1. Situation analysis (stakeholders, resources, problems & opportunities) 2. Analysis of objectives and possible strategies 3. Design of the project strategy 4. Planning of implementation 5. Work & Resource PlanningPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 19
    • Logical Framework Approach Fundamental Logic: 1. Co-operation with the beneficiaries from the very beginning 2. Problem and needs based approach 3. Objective oriented approachPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 20
    • LFA Phases ANALYSIS PHASE PLANNING PHASE ♦ Stakeholder analysis - identifying ♦ Logframe - defining the project & characterising potential major structure, testing its internal stakeholders; assessing their logic, and formulating objectives capacity in measurable terms ♦ Problem analysis - identifying key problems, constraints and ♦ Activity scheduling opportunities; determining cause determining the sequence and and effect relationships dependency of activities; estimating duration, setting ♦ Analysis of objectives- developing milestones and assigning objectives from the identified responsibility problems; identifying means to end relationships ♦ Input and cost scheduling ♦ Strategy analysis - identifying the from the activity schedule, different strategies to achieve developing input schedules and objectives; determining the overall a budget objectives and project purposePCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 21
    • Stakeholder Analysis Different groups have different concerns, capacities and interests. These need to be explicitly understood and recognized in the process of problem identification, objective setting and strategy selection.PCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 22
    • Stakeholder Analysis Key Steps : 1. Identify all groups who have a significant interest in the project; investigate roles, relative power and capacity to participate (strengths and weaknesses); 2. Identify the extent of cooperation or conflict in the relationships between stakeholders; 3. Incorporate relevant information into project design to ensure that: resources are appropriately targeted to meet distributional/equity objectives and the needs of priority groups, management and coordination arrangements are appropriate to promote stakeholder ownership and participation; conflicts of stakeholder interest are recognized and explicitly addressed in project designPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 23
    • Stakeholder Analysis Terminology 1. Stakeholders: Individuals or institutions that may – directly or indirectly, positively or negatively – affect or be affected by a project or programme. 2. Beneficiaries: Are those who benefit in whatever way from the implementation of the project. Distinction may be made between: Target group (s):The group/entity who will be directly positively affected by the project at the Project Purpose level. This may include the staff from partner organisations; Final beneficiaries:Those who benefit from the project in the long term at the level of the society or sector 3. Project partners:Those who implement the projects in-country (who are also stakeholders,and may be a ‘target group’).PCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 24
    • Stakeholder Analysis Tools for Supporting SA 1. Stakeholder Analysis Matrix 2. SWOT analysis 3. Venn diagrams; and 4. Spider diagramsPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 25
    • Stakeholder MatrixPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 26
    • Problem Analysis Identifies the negative aspects of existing situation and establishes the cause and effect relationships between the problems that exist Main Steps : 1. Identification of the major problems faced by beneficiaries 2. Development of a problem tree to establish causes & effectsPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 27
    • Problem Tree Establishes cause and effect relationships to ensure that root problems are identified and then addressed. Should ideally be undertaken as a participatory group event. Step 1: Brainstorm problems which stakeholders consider to be a priority Step 2: Select an individual starter problem / Look for related problems Step 3: Establish a hierarchy of cause and effects: Problems resulting from the starter problem are put above Problems causing the starter problem are put below Causes combining to produce an effect are placed at the same level Step 4: Connect the problems with cause-effect arrows Step 5: Review the diagram and verify its validity and completeness.PCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 28
    • Problem Tree Effect CausePCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 29
    • Objectives Analysis Analysis of objectives presents the positive aspects of a desired future situation (Problem analysis presents the negative aspects of an existing situation) This involves the reformulation of problems into positive achievements (objectives) through establishing means/ends relationships The objective tree can be seen as the positive mirror image of the problem tree.PCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 30
    • Objectives Analysis Problem Tree Objectives Tree Elements Elements “River water quality “River water quality is deteriorating” is improved” “Pollution has been “Pollution Management a low political priority” is given a high Political priority”PCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 31
    • Objectives Analysis Ends MeansPCM – Project Cycle Management
    • Strategy Analysis Consists of: Analysing clusters of objectives to be included in the project Analysing the feasibility, costs and benefits of different interventions Choosing an appropriate strategy The selected strategy will then be used to help formulate the first column (Intervention Logic) of the Logical Framework, particularly in helping to identify the project Overall Objective, Purpose and potential Results.PCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 33
    • Strategy Analysis Decision based on policy priorities, cost-benefit, other ongoing interventions, overall budget etcPCM – Project Cycle Management
    • Strategy Analysis Strategy Criteria Expected contribution to key policy objectives, such as poverty reduction or economic integration Benefits to target groups – including women and men, young and old, disabled and able, etc Complementarity with other ongoing or planned programmes or projects Capital and operating cost implications & local ability to meet recurrent costs Financial and economic cost-benefit Contribution to institutional capacity building Technical feasibility Environmental impact UrgencyPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 35
    • Logframe Matrix Key Characteristics Is a 4 x 4 table; the key output of the LFA Is a summary of the project design based on the results of the stakeholder, problem, objectives and strategy analysis Must be seen as a dynamic tool, which should be re-assessed and revised as the project itself develops and circumstances change. Should be used to provide structure and purpose to project planning and budgeting without being perceived as an inflexible and constraining blueprintPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 36
    • The Logframe Matrix
    • HOW TO Complete the LFM Completion SequencePCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 38
    • The Logframe Matrix The Intervention Logic if the if the then the project will then the project will PROJECT PURPOSE contribute towards the contribute towards the is is achieved achieved OVERALL OBJECTIVE OVERALL OBJECTIVE then the then the if if RESULTS RESULTS PROJECT PURPOSE PROJECT PURPOSE are produced are produced will be achieved will be achieved ififACTIVITIES ACTIVITIES then RESULTS then RESULTS can be undertaken will be produced will be produced if if MEANS MEANS then ACTIVITIES then ACTIVITIES are provided can be undertaken can be undertakenPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 39
    • Recall the “Objectives Tree” Reference Numbers Use reference numbers to clearly link inputs, activities and results.PCM – Project Cycle Management
    • Objective statements Benefit Not a SUM of RESULTS !!! Tangible outcome Active Verbs Present TensePCM – Project Cycle Management
    • Interlocking LFMs Results or Purpose…or Objectives ? The concept of ‘interlocking’ or ‘nested’ Logframes can be useful to see how the objectives of different hierarchical levels (policy / sector programme / specific project) might be linked…PCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 42
    • Always have the “End” in Mind
    • Assumptions Completion SequencePCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 44
    • Assumptions Objectives not included in the intervention logic and other external factors affect the projects implementation and long- term sustainability but lie outside its control These conditions must be met if the project is to succeed, and are included as assumptions in the fourth column of the Logframe. Therefore assumptions : – are conditions required for project success; – are not under the control of project management; and – should be monitoredPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 45
    • Assumptions • The probability and significance of these assumptions met should be estimated as part of assessing the risk of the project. • Some will be critical to project success, and others of marginal importance. • Once assumptions have been identified, they are stated in terms of the desired situation. In this way they can lead to the design of risk monitoring and management strategiesPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 46
    • Assumptions Assumptions and objective hierarchyPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 47
    • Assumptions AlgorithmPCM – Project Cycle Management
    • AssumptionsPCM – Project Cycle Management
    • Indicators Completion SequencePCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 50
    • Indicators Why OVIs? Objectively Verifiable Indicators describe the overall objective(s), project purpose, results and activities in operationally measurable terms They help us in monitoring projects and assessing success / performance in achieving goals They specify the quantity and quality (targets) of the intervention logic elements.PCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 51
    • Indicators OVIs should be OVIs ! …and S.M.A.R.T. Specific: measure what they are supposed to measure Measurable: in terms of quality and/or quantity Available: at an acceptable cost Relevant: with regard to the objective needs Timebound: defining when the objective/target is to be achievedPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 52
    • Sources of Verification Completion SequencePCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 53
    • Sources of Verification• An “agreement” on how to measure OVIs• MoVs indicate whether the OVI can be realistically measured at the expense of a reasonable amount of time, money and effort.• The MoV should specify: • The format in which the information should be made available (e.g. progress reports, project accounts, project records, Official statistics etc.) • Who should provide the information • How often it should be provided. (e.g. monthly, quarterly, annually etc.)PCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 54
    • Example of OVIsPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 55
    • Activity & Resource Scheduling Once the Logframe matrix itself is complete, it is then possible to use the identified Activities to further analyse issues of timing, dependency and responsibility using an activity scheduling (or Gantt chart) format. Once the Activities have been entered into the schedule, the resources necessary to undertake the Activities must be specified. As there will be a need to aggregate or summarise the cost information, the resources should be allocated to agreed cost categoriesPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 56
    • Activity & Resource Scheduling Link with the LogframePCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 57
    • Use of the LFA during PCM Stages During FORMULATION The LFM provides a summary of key project elements in a standard format; defines scope and logic or proposed investments. The tools that make up LFA can be applied to test relevance and likely feasibility The objectives specified in the Logframe, combined with the activity, resource and cost schedules, provide information to support cost-benefit analysis The cost-schedules allow cash-flow implications to be assessed and the scope of Financing Agreements to be determinedPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 58
    • Use of the LFA during PCM Stages During IMPLEMENTATION Provides the basis on which contracts can be prepared – clearly stating anticipated objectives & level of responsibility and accountability Provides the basis on which detailed operational work plans can be formulated OVIs provide the framework for a more detailed Monitoring and Evaluation Plan to be designed and implemented by project managers Assumptions provide the basis for an operational risk management plan Results, OVIs and MoVs (+activities, resource and costs) provide the framework for preparing project progress reportsPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 59
    • Use of the LFA during PCM Stages During EVALUATION & AUDIT The LFM provides a framework for evaluation, given that it clearly specifies what was to be achieved (namely results and purpose), how these achievements were to be verified (Indicators and Means of Verification) and what the key assumptions were. The LFM provides a structure for preparing TOR for Evaluation studies and for performance audits.PCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 60
    • Use of the LFA during PCM Stages During EVALUATION & AUDITPCM – Project Cycle Management Presentation by George Kostaras 61
    • Compostela Seminar:“EU Projects and Mobility Opportunities” End of Presentation Thank you for your Attention ! Citta’ della Pieve ‘Il Perugino’ Institute 4th-6th February 2004