Fish Taxonomy & Charateristics

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Fish Taxonomy & Charateristics
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Subphylum Vertebrata (Back bone present)
Supraclass Agnatha (Jawless Fish)
Class Myxini (Hagfish)
Class Cphalospidomorphi (Lamprey)
Supraclass Gnathostomata (Jawed Fish)
Class Chondrichthyes (Cartilaginous Fish)
Class Osteichthyes (Bony Fish)

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Fish Taxonomy & Charateristics

  1. 1. FISH
  2. 2. CLASSIFICATION • KINGDOM ANIMALIA • PHYLUM CHORDATA • SUBPHYLUM VERTEBRATA (BACK BONE PRESENT) • SUPRACLASS AGNATHA (JAWLESS FISH) • CLASS MYXINI (HAGFISH) • CLASS CPHALOSPIDOMORPHI (LAMPREY) • SUPRACLASS GNATHOSTOMATA (JAWED FISH) • CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES (CARTILAGINOUS FISH) • CLASS OSTEICHTHYES (BONY FISH)
  3. 3. PHYLUM CHORDATA FIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF CHORDATES • 1. HOLLOW NERVE CORD- IN VERTEBRATES IT DIFFERENTIATES INTO BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD • 2. NOTOCHORD- FLEXIBLE ROD PRESENT AT ONE STAGE IN ALL CHORDATES; IN VERTEBRATES IT DIFFERENTIATES INTO VERTEBRAL COLUMN THAT FORMS AROUND THE NERVE CORD • 3. PHARYNGEAL SLITS - POUCHES THAT CONNECT PHARYNX WITH OUTSIDE (BETWEEN MOUTH AND ESOPHAGUS). GILLS IN SHARKS, FISH; PRESENT IN TERRESTRIAL ANIMAL EMBRYOS BUT DISAPPEAR LATER EXCEPT EUSTACHIAN TUBE (CONNECTING THROAT AND MIDDLE EAR) • 4. POSTANAL TAIL- EXTENDS BEYOND ANUS; PRESENT AT LEAST IN EMBRYO; REGRESSES INTO TAIL BONE IN HUMANS • 5. SEGMENTATION- REFLECTED IN ARRANGEMENT OF MUSCLES & IN VERTEBRAL COLUMN 3
  4. 4. SUPRACLASS AGNATHA (JAWLESS FISH) 4 Class Cephalspidomorphi (Lamprey) • Parasite • attaches to other fish & sucks their blood • lives in ocean Class Myxini (Hagfish) • Scavenger • lives in the ocean • known for its slimy secretions Both have cartilaginous skeletons and sucker-like mouths
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. SUPRACLASS GNATHOSTOMATA (JAWED FISHES)
  7. 7. CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES (SHARKS & RAYS) • HAVE SKELETONS MADE OF CARTILAGE NOT BONES (HAVE BONE JAW). • MOST SALTWATER/ VERY FEW FRESHWATER • HAVE NO OPERCULUM (GILL COVER) • SOME MUST KEEP MOVING TO BREATHE & OTHERS CAN PUMP WATER OVER THEIR GILLS • SPIRACLE- A MODIFIED SLIT BEHIND THE EYE, ASSISTS THE SHARK WITH TAKING IN WATER DURING RESPIRATION AND PLAYS A MAJOR ROLE IN BOTTOM DWELLING SHARKS. • HAVE DIFFERENT KINDS OF SCALES THAT FEEL AND LOOK MORE LIKE SANDPAPER. • MULTIPLE ROWS OF REPLACEMENT TEETH THAT STEADILY MOVE FORWARD LIKE A CONVEYOR BELT. SHARKS CAN LOSE UP TO 30,000 OR TEETH IN THEIR LIFETIME. • MOST SHARKS ARE COLD BLOODED • CONTROL BUOYANCY WITH LARGE LIVERS THAT EXCRETE OIL 7
  8. 8. CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES (SHARKS & RAYS) REPRODUCTION • VIPAROUS- LIVE BIRTH • VIVIPAROUS- EGGS HATCH INTERNALLY • OVOVIVIPAROUS- LAY EGG CASES EXTERNALLY (CALLED MERMAID’S PURSE) • SEPARATE SEXES • MALES HAVE CLASPERS 8
  9. 9. CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES (SHARKS & RAYS) SENSORY • AMPULLAE OF LORENZINI- ELECTRORECEPTOR ORGANS USED TO DETECT THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS ALL LIVING THINGS PRODUCE. THEY NUMBER IN THE HUNDREDS TO THOUSANDS. • LATERAL LINE SYSTEM- DETECTS MOTION OR VIBRATIONS IN WATER 9
  10. 10. GENERAL ANATOMY OF A SHARK 10
  11. 11. GENERAL ANATOMY OF A RAY 11
  12. 12. 16 Basking Shark is a filter feeder
  13. 13. 17
  14. 14. 18
  15. 15. CLASS OSTEICHTHYES (BONY FISH) • BACKBONE MADE OF BONE • FRESHWATER & SALTWATER • GILLS WITH OPERCULUM (FEW HAVE LUNGS) • FINS - DORSAL, CAUDAL, PECTORAL, PELVIC, ANAL. • SWIM BLADDER- A GAS FILLED SAC THAT HELPS THE FISH MAINTAIN BUOYANCY. SHARKS DON’T HAVE A SWIM BLADDER • LATERAL LINE SYSTEM
  16. 16. TYPES OF OSTEICHTHYES RAY FINNED: – MOST FISH ARE THIS TYPE – FINS ARE SUPPORTED BY BONY STRUCTURES CALLED RAYS. LOBE FINNED: – FINS ARE LONG, FLESHY, MUSCULAR, SUPPORTED BY CENTRAL CORE OF BONES. – THOUGHT TO BE ANCESTORS OF AMPHIBIANS. – EXAMPLES ARE: COELACANTH, LUNGFISH
  17. 17. FINS
  18. 18. ADAPTATIONS SWIM R BLADDER OPERCULUM LATERAL LINE SYSTEM Swim Bladder
  19. 19. FISH ANATOMY
  20. 20. RESPIRATION • WATER FLOWS OVER GILLS AS FISH OPENS MOUTH AND SWIMS. • WATER FLOWS OPPOSITE DIRECTION OF BLOOD FLOW. • O2 DIFFUSES FROM THE WATER INTO THE BLOOD. • GILLS ARE MADE OF THOUSANDS OF GILL FILAMENTS. • GILLS ARE COVERED BY THE OPERCULUM.
  21. 21. CIRCULATION • FISH HEART HAS 2 CHAMBERS • SINGLE LOOP CIRCULATION • BLOOD FLOWS INTO GILLS, PICKS UP O2, GOES TO THE BODY, RETURNS TO THE HEART.
  22. 22. REPRODUCTION • MOST FISH REPRODUCE SEXUALLY, AND FERTILIZE THEIR EGGS EXTERNALLY • SPAWNING IS THE PROCESS OF FERTILIZING EGGS. • BABY FISH ARE CALLED FRY.
  23. 23. 29 Coelacanth: living fossil, lobe-finned
  24. 24. 30 Cichlids
  25. 25. 31 Clown Fish (Nemo)
  26. 26. 32 Kissing Fish
  27. 27. 33
  28. 28. 34
  29. 29. 35
  30. 30. 36
  31. 31. 37The puffer fish uses air to expand its body to look intimidating to predators
  32. 32. 38

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