Class Osteichthyes

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Class Osteichthyes

  1. 1.  Introduction  History  Classification  Distribution  General Characters Morphology  Anatomy
  2. 2. • Kingdom: Animalia • Phylum: Chordata • Subphylum: Vertebrata • Class: Osteichthyes • osteon - "a bone" ichthys - "a fish" • Skeleton made of bone
  3. 3. Devonian sarcopterygians  lungfishes  coelacanths (living fossils)  'rhipidistians', a paraphyletic ('incomplete') lie on the line of ancestry to the tetrapods. Early actinopterygians, heavy bony scales over the whole body and large bony plates over the head region. Silurian ……. Fossils Mid-Devonian Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fishes).
  4. 4. Classification  45 orders and 435 families of bony fishes.  Sarcopterygii Crossopterygii(coelacanth) Ceratodiformes(Australianlungfish) Lepidosireniformes (S. American lungfish)  Actinopterygii Polypteriformes(bichir,redfish) Acipensiformes(paddlefish,sturgeon) Amiiformes(bowfin,garpike) Elopiformes (tarpon, tenpounder) .
  5. 5. Classification Anguilliformes(eel) Notacanthiformes(spinyeel) Clupeiformes(herring,anchovy) Osteoglossiformes(arapaima) Mormyriformes (elephant-trunk fish) Salmoniformes(salmon,trout) Gonorhynchiformes(milkfish) Cypriniformes(carp,barbs,loach) Siluriformes(catfish) Myctophiformes(lanternfish,Bombayduck) .
  6. 6. Classification Percopsiformes(pirateperch) Batrachoidiformes(toadfish) Gobiesociformes(clingfish,dragonets) Lophiiformes(anglerfish) Gadiformes(cod,pollack) Atheriniformes(flyingfish) Lampridiformes(opah,ribbonfish) Gasterosteiformes(seahorse,stickleback) Channiformes(snakeshead) .
  7. 7. Distribution  They are found in tropical, temperate, and polar seas.  In fresh water, seawater, and brackish environments. Approximately 58% of all species of bony fishes live in marine environments. Freshwater fishes make up approximately 42% of fish species (Wootton, 1990). .
  8. 8. General Characters Habitat The desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius) lives in small hot springs of California. It can tolerate temperatures greater than 52 0C (126F) (Nikolsky, 1978). The arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) can survive temperatures as low as -2 0C (28F) (Nikolsky, 1978). Misgumus fossilis, a type of loach, can survive in as little as 0.5 mg/l of dissolved oxygen.
  9. 9. Smallest dwarf pygmy goby (Pandaka pygmaea), a freshwater fish of the Philippines 8 mm (0.3 in.) at maturity (Bond, 1979). Largest common mola (Mola mola), large mola can reach 3.7 m (1 3 ft.) and 1,500 kg (3,307 lb.) (Miller, 1972)
  10. 10. Feeding • Most bony fish are carnivores • Well developed teeth used for capture and holding • Roof of mouth, gill rakers, and pharynx may have teeth to help hold
  11. 11. Feeding • Grazers – fish that feed primarily on seaweeds and other plants • Some develop beaks to help scrape off algae or pieces of coral
  12. 12. Mouth & Jaws • Mouth of most bony fish is terminal or anterior • Overall jaw movement is more than that of sharks with teeth that are fused to jaw
  13. 13. Fins and Scales • Swim Bladder – a gas- filled sac above the stomach allows for adjustments in buoyancy
  14. 14. Bony fish have a bony opeculum Cartilaginous fish have gill slits
  15. 15. Class Osteichthyes • Swim Bladder – a gas-filled sac above the stomach allows for adjustments in buoyancy Upper and lower lobes of Caudal Fin almost always the same size
  16. 16. Internal Anatomy
  17. 17. Digestive System • Digestive System: stomach, intestine, pancreas, liver, pyloric caecae • Pyloric caecae – slender tubes that secrete digestive enzymes
  18. 18. Circulatory System • Two chambered heart • Gas exchange occurs in the gills
  19. 19. Gill Functioning • Gills share a common gill chamber • Mouth opens, operculum closes, and pharynx expands to allow in water and the opposite. A lungfish swallows air to fill up an air sac or "lung." This lung is surrounded by veins that bring blood to be oxygenated
  20. 20. Nervous System • Brain & spinal cord
  21. 21. Vision • Better eyes than chondrichthyes • Fish eyes focus by moving closer or farther away from subject • Many have color vision
  22. 22. Hearing • Presence of inner ears • Located on either side of the head just behind the brain • Can resonate/amplify sound through swim bladder
  23. 23. Behaviors • Schools • no leaders • Advantageous in feeding • Anadromous fish – live mostly at sea and migrate to freshwater to breed (salmon) • Catadromous fish – breed a sea and live in rivers (eels)
  24. 24. Reproductive behavior • Reproduction is generally cyclic in bony fishes. • The duration of cycles may be as short as four weeks or as long as many years. • Pacific salmon (family Salmonidae) reproduce only once during their five-year lifespan, then die soon after.
  25. 25. Sarcopterygii • Name means “fleshy finned fishes” • First appeared 385 million years ago • Ancestors of land vertebrates! • Internal nostrils and cosmoid scales
  26. 26. Subclass Dipnoi • “Lungfish” • Jaw fused to brain case • Caudal, dorsal, and anal fin connected • Pectoral fins long and tubular • Air breathing organ attached to esophagus
  27. 27. Crossopterygii(coelacanth) • “Coelacanths” • Cosmoid scale • Two dorsal fins and fleshy paired fins with skeletal elements • Thought to be extinct till found • Sometimes grouped with lungfish in Subclass Sarcopterygii
  28. 28. Subclass Actinopterygii • Ray-finned fishes • Most familiar fish • Have fin rays, swim bladders, and a symmetrically lobed caudal fin
  29. 29. Subclass Actinopterygii Superorder Teleostei Bass Goldfish Guppies Seahorses Sturgeons Tuna Etc. Superorder Holostean Garpikes Bowfins Superorder Chondrostei Freshwater Sturgeon Bichirs Paddlefish Reedfish
  30. 30. Superorder Telostei • Most prolific class • 96% of all fish • 12 suborders • Symmetrical caudal fin • Spines on fins
  31. 31. Superorder Holostean • Fin arrangements make for more efficient swimmers
  32. 32. Superorder Chondrostei • Lack bone • Sometimes classified with sharks • Though more in common with the telosts
  33. 33. Osteoglossmorpha • Order Osteoglossiformes • Order Hiodontiformes
  34. 34. Elopomorpha • Order Elopiformes • Order Albuliformes • Order Notacanthiformes • Order Anguilliformes • Order Saccopharyngiformes
  35. 35. Clupeomorpha • Order Clupeiformes Protacanthopterygii • Order Salmoniformes • Order Escociformes • Order Osmeriformes
  36. 36. Ostariophysi • OrderGonorynchiformes • Order Cypriniformes • Order Characiformes • Order Gymnotiformes • Order Silurioformes
  37. 37. Stenopterygii • Order Ateleopodiformes • Order Stomiiformes Cyclosquamata • Order Aulopiformes
  38. 38. Scopelomorpha • Order Myctophiformes Lampridiomorpha • Order Lampriformes Polymyxiomorpha • Order Polymixiiformes
  39. 39. Paracanthopterygii • Order Percopsiformes • Order Batrachoidiformes • Order Lophiiformes • Order Gadiformes • Order Ophidiiformes
  40. 40. Acanthopterygii • Order Mugiliformes • Order Atheriniformes • Order Beloniformes • Order Cetomimiformes • Order Cyprinodontiformes • Order Stephanoberyciformes • Order Bericiformes • Order Zeiformes
  41. 41. Acanthopterygii • Order Gobiescociformes • Order Gasterosteiformes • Order Syngnathiformes • Order Synbranchiformes • Order Tetraodontiformes • Order Pleuronectiformes • Order Scorpaeniformes • Order Perciformes - 46% of fish
  42. 42. References: • Gupta, S.K. and Gupta, P.C, " General and Applied Ichthyology ( Fish and Fishries),. S. Chand and comapny private limited. 2010, pp: 138-167 • Bond, C. E. Biology of Fishes. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1979. • Burton, Maurice and Robert B. Encyclopedia of Fish. 1984. St. Louis: BPC Publishing,. • Evans, David,. The Physiology of Fishes. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1993. • Fichter, George, S. and Edward, C. M. The Fresh & Saltwater Fishes of the World. New York: Greenwich House, 1983. • Hauser, H. Book of Marine Fishes. Glen Cove, New York: Pisces Books/Tetra Press, 1984. • Jordan, D., S. The Genera of Fishes, and a Classification of Fishes. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1983. • Moyle, P. B. and Joseph J. C . Fishes. An Introduction to Ichthyology. Second edition. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1988. • Nelson and Joseph S. Fishes of the World. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1976. • Nikolsky, G.V. The Ecology of Fishes. New Jersey: TF.H. Publications, Inc. Ltd., 1978. • Ommanney, F. D. The Fishes. New York: Time, Inc., 1984. • Thompson, P. Thompson's Guide to Freshwater Fishes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1985. • Moyle, P. B. and J. J. Cech.. Fishes: An Introduction to Ichthyology. 5th ed. Benjamin Cummings. San Francisco, CA. 2003 • Paxton, J. R. and W. N. Eschmeyer, eds.. Encyclopedia of Fishes. Academic Press. San Diego, CA. 1998 • Pough, F. H., C. M. Janis, and J. B. Heiser. Vertebrate Life. 8th ed. Benjamin Cummings. New York. 2009.pp. 688

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