Rae Aesop09 Liverpool

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Alasdair Rae's presentation at AESOP 2009 in Liverpool, UK.

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Rae Aesop09 Liverpool

  1. 1. Geographically-Targeted Urban Policies and the Complications of Space: Some Thoughts Alasdair Rae Department of Town and Regional Planning University of Sheffield, UK AESOP 2009: ‘Why can’t the future be more like the past?’ Liverpool, UK – July 15-18 2009 City Futures ‘09, 4-6 June 2009, Madrid
  2. 2. Overview • Context (is the pot boiling again?) • And, will the future be like the past? • Placing ABIs (conceptually/spatially) • Rise to prominence of ABIs • Urban problems or urban symptoms? • A spatial framework • England’s North West (exemplar?) • Post-industrial challenges • Policy responses • Some spatial data: commuting 4. Complications • Spatial complexity is a reality • How should we understand it? 5. Where now for ABIs? • Re-invigoration or re-evaluation…
  3. 3. 1. Context Why ask the question? • 40+ years of urban policy • New commitment in US… – e.g. Obama, 13 July 2009 • What are the alternatives? • Questioning policy models • Will the future of urban policy be just like the past?
  4. 4. 2. Placing ABIs (conceptually/spatially) Rise to prominence of ABIs • Markets: – Inefficiency – Failure • Spatial strategies • People vs. places? • ‘Good’ policies for ‘bad’ areas? • ‘Pathological’ issues Cabrini-Green, Chicago, USA (2008)
  5. 5. Urban problems or urban symptoms? • What is the focus? – Efficiency – Effectiveness • Orientation reflected in policy formulation Tourcoing, Lille Métropole, France (2009) • Ontological paradox?
  6. 6. A spatial framework • Macro-spatial (e.g. UK) Nation – National scale – Poverty as problem – Inequality • Meso-spatial (e.g. France) – Spatial mismatch City – Locational disadvantage – Inefficiency • Micro-spatial (e.g. US) – Internal problems – Local solutions Neighbourhood – Inadequacy
  7. 7. 3. England’s North West (exemplar?) Post-industrial challenges North West Economic Urban policy re-structuring interventions • North West England – Dominated by Manchester and Liverpool – 4.0 million people in two metro areas – High levels of deprivation, lots of intervention
  8. 8. Policy responses
  9. 9. Some spatial data: commuting • Targeted areas are not islands • Evidence of spatial mismatch • Labour market ‘inefficiencies’? Self Workers Commuting IMD Internal Contain- Living Ward Inflow Outflow Net Flow 5km or Rank Flow ment Locally More (%) (%) (%) Princess (Knowsley) 1 139 378 1,108 -730 11.15 26.89 54.37 Breckfield (Liverpool) 2 452 1,539 2,400 -861 15.85 22.70 24.79 Bradford (Manchester) 3 565 5,254 1,987 3,267 22.14 9.71 33.15 Granby (Liverpool) 4 441 1,805 2,028 -223 17.86 19.63 24.71 Speke (Liverpool) 5 465 836 1,799 -963 20.54 35.74 43.73 Longview (Knowsley) 7 177 395 1,130 -735 13.54 30.94 49.12
  10. 10. 4. Complications Spatial complexity is a reality • Reality = challenging • Heal the patient by dressing the wound? • Is the model correct? • Spatial dynamics, Toxteth, Liverpool (2005) e.g. mix = movement
  11. 11. How should we understand it? • Need a coherent spatial framework • Focus on mobility • Understanding the ‘problem’ Red Road Flats, Glasgow, Scotland (2004) • Evaluation factors
  12. 12. 5. Where now for ABIs? Re-invigoration or re-evaluation… • New wave of policy transfer? • Continue ‘spatial rationalist’ approach? • More fundamental re-think? • No urban policy? What then?

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