Managing Urban Change Revision


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A presentation used in class to help revise some of the main points of the OCR (A) AS level unit: Managing Urban Change

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Managing Urban Change Revision

  1. 1. Revision: Urban Change <ul><li>-We will know what they are expected to know for the urban change exam </li></ul><ul><li>-We will begin to revise the main concepts and theories </li></ul>
  2. 2. Word, words and terminology <ul><li>Urban </li></ul><ul><li>Rural </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanisation </li></ul><ul><li>Percentage urban </li></ul><ul><li>Rural-urban migration </li></ul><ul><li>Counterurbanisation </li></ul><ul><li>Urban hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Mega-city </li></ul><ul><li>World City </li></ul><ul><li>CBD </li></ul><ul><li>Edge city </li></ul><ul><li>Waste disposal </li></ul><ul><li>Paratransit </li></ul><ul><li>Derelict land </li></ul><ul><li>Garden grabbing </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Deindustrialisation </li></ul><ul><li>Global shift </li></ul><ul><li>Ghetto </li></ul><ul><li>Sink estate </li></ul><ul><li>Gated community </li></ul><ul><li>Inner ring </li></ul><ul><li>Urban land value surface </li></ul><ul><li>Urban manager </li></ul><ul><li>Aggolomeration </li></ul><ul><li>Suburbanisation </li></ul><ul><li>TNC </li></ul><ul><li>Informal economy </li></ul><ul><li>Social housing </li></ul><ul><li>Threshold </li></ul><ul><li>Urban regeneration </li></ul><ul><li>Brownfield </li></ul><ul><li>Re-imaging </li></ul><ul><li>Reurbanisation </li></ul><ul><li>Suburban intensification </li></ul><ul><li>Centralising </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralising </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle of poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple deprivation </li></ul><ul><li>Economic globalisation </li></ul><ul><li>Post-industrial </li></ul><ul><li>Image </li></ul><ul><li>Disaffected </li></ul><ul><li>Polaristaion </li></ul><ul><li>Floodplain </li></ul><ul><li>Risk </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Sustonable development </li></ul><ul><li>Need </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological footprint </li></ul><ul><li>Carrying capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon netral </li></ul><ul><li>Affordable housing </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definition Bingo <ul><li>Write four words from the following list </li></ul><ul><li>Cross them off if they are defined </li></ul>Urban Rural Urbanisation Percentage urban Rural-urban migration Counterurbanisation Urban hierarchy Mega-city World City CBD Edge city Waste disposal Paratransit Derelict land Garden grabbing
  4. 4. Definitions <ul><li>You need to know key words to understand the exam questions </li></ul><ul><li>Using key words show you know what you are talking about </li></ul>
  5. 5. Knowledge Check Q’s <ul><li>p209 of book </li></ul>
  6. 6. In what ways do urban areas differ to rural areas? <ul><li>Produce a table of urban characteristics and the rural comparisons e.g </li></ul>Hint: Think Environment, Economy. People Urban Rural -Lack of ‘natural world’ -High amounts of incidence of nature and natural processes
  7. 7. Urban Rural -Lack of ‘natural world’ -High amounts of incidence of nature and natural processes -Dominance of buildings and transport network -Low building density, difficulty in access -High levels of pollution (Water, air but also sound, light, visual) -Pollution exists but of a different nature. Mainly confined to water and air associated with agricultural practice -Pace of living (characterised as high) -Pace traditionally seen as more relaxed (is this a reality?) -Employment in the secondary, tertiary and quaternary sectors -Employment dominated in the primary industry -High level of service provision (commercial and social welfare sectors) -Low levels of services -High population density -Low population density -Urban lifestyle, values and behavior (e.g no talking on the tube, rat race, wine bars and coffee shops) -Rural lifestyles, values and behavior (e.g. local pub, community spirit,) -Diversity in terms of wealth, age and ethnicity -Diverse in terms of wealth and age however mainly white -Raised stress levels -Raised stress levels also (perceived to be lower)
  8. 8. Explain what is meant when it is said that ‘urbanistaion is a multi-strand process.’ <ul><li>In pairs define Urbansiation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hint: 5 parts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What makes it ‘multi-strand’ ? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Urbanisation <ul><li>The process by which places and people become more urban </li></ul><ul><li>Five elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shift in economy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change in population distribution (concentration) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change in way of life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spread of built up area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shift in size and character (village to town, town to city) </li></ul></ul></ul>Not a single line definition. The idea of 5 strands to the definition.
  10. 10. Describe the three main features of urban change at a global scale. <ul><li>Dissect the question </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the question- use the text book if necessary </li></ul>
  11. 11. Describe the three main features of urban change at a global scale. <ul><li>The rural to urban shift </li></ul><ul><li>The MEDC- LEDC shift (who is urbanising) </li></ul><ul><li>The shift in size (global and national) </li></ul>
  12. 12. How and why do processes of urbansiation change along the urbansiation pathway? <ul><li>Sketch the pathway from the next slide </li></ul><ul><li>Place the key words from the box onto your diagram </li></ul>
  13. 13. Time Urban population as % of total population 0 100 50 25 75 LDCs LEDCs RICs NICs MEDCs 1 2 3 4 5 The rural society phase (a) Economic take-off begins. Rapid rural-to-urban migration (c) Maturing economy: rates of urbanisation continue to rise (e) Mass urbanisation in most developed countries: rate of urbanisation levels off (b) Advanced economies, decentrailsation sets in (d)
  14. 14. Time Urban population as % of total population 0 100 50 25 75 LDCs LEDCs RICs NICs MEDCs 1 2 3 4 5 Glossary LDC Least economically developed country RIC Recently industrialising country NIC Newly Industriaised country MEDC More economically developed country LEDC Less economically developed country The rural society phase: low levels of urbansiation; largely rural population of subsistence farmers Economic take-off begins;rapid rural-to-urban migration leads to an accelerating rate of urbanisation Maturing economy: rates of urbanisation continue to rise but then start to slacken off; suburban spread Mass urbanisation in most developed countries: rate of urbanisation levels off and percentage urban peaks; most people now live in towns In advanced economies, decentrailsation sets in: people move to smaller towns and cities and to semi-rural areas; urbanism continues to spread
  15. 15. What case studies have you studied this unit? <ul><li>Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, UK </li></ul><ul><li>Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea </li></ul><ul><li>Birmingham, UK </li></ul><ul><li>Dhaka, Bangladesh </li></ul><ul><li>Cambridge (Traffic) </li></ul><ul><li>London, UK </li></ul><ul><li>Mumbai, India </li></ul><ul><li>? </li></ul>
  16. 16. With the aid of examples, examine why the fortunes of urban areas fluctuate. How? Why? Example Rapid rate of unemployment Global shift in manufacturing Birmingham (second half of 20th C) Attraction of TNCs Cheap Labour Dhaka (second half of 20th C)
  17. 17. ‘ Urban growth gives rise to more issues than urban decay.’ To what extent do you agree with this statement? Urban decay issues Urban growth issues Spider diagrams High levels of congestion High rates of unemployment
  18. 18. ‘ Deprivation is a relative term.’ Explain what this means. <ul><li>Define: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deprivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What does relative mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Bring the two together </li></ul><ul><li>What examples could you use? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Summarise the main challenges associated with providing services in an urban area. <ul><li>Guess the challenge and define it </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ageing areas and population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Life-cycle changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Service thresholds </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Examine the main threats to human health in urban areas. Car accident -High levels of congestion -High vehicle density Dhaka- 60,000 road deaths a year
  21. 21. Are the use of brownfield sites and flood plains just issues for MEDC urban areas? Justify your viewpoint. London- Issues Mumbai-Issues Brownfield Brownfield Flood Flood
  22. 22. Explain why transport is so important to the prosperity of urban areas. Why, why, why chain. Transport leads to prosperity Why? Why? Why? Why? Why? Why?
  23. 23. Do urban areas have to face a vicious downward spiral of urban decay. Declining job opportunities; rising unemployment Decline in services Physical fabric and infrastructure deteriorate More enterprising, economically active people move away Increasing decay Loss of investment confidence Create an essay plan. Example: Birmingham -Why? -How did it break it?
  24. 24. Why do land values affect the spatial patterns of urban areas? <ul><li>Where is the most expensive land? </li></ul><ul><li>What is on this land? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is the least expensive land? </li></ul><ul><li>What is on this land? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Do anomalies exist? </li></ul>
  25. 25. Identify how urban areas in MEDCs differ from those in LEDCs. <ul><li>Construct a table of LEDC, MEDC </li></ul>
  26. 26. Explain why it is unlikely that urban areas will ever be completely sustainable.
  27. 27. What is meant by ecological footprint? Why is it used and what are it limitations? <ul><li>Draw a footprint </li></ul><ul><li>Write the definition in the middle </li></ul><ul><li>Write the uses and limitations around the edge </li></ul>
  28. 28. The amount of land to provide the resource and disposal for people Shows how close to carrying capacity Allows comparisons Lack of LEDC data Indicates areas to target No account of economic, cultural or political factors of well being Can be used on different scales 78% of earth is deemed to have no capacity
  29. 29. What internal actions are most likely to contribute most to making urban areas more sustainable. <ul><li>Brain storm the internal actions </li></ul><ul><li>Rank them </li></ul>
  30. 30. Internal actions <ul><li>Recycle waste </li></ul><ul><li>Provide ‘green’ infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Make a living space healthy and secure </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse brownfield sites </li></ul><ul><li>Make areas more compact </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce use of private car </li></ul><ul><li>Create a fairer society </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage wide participation in decision making </li></ul>
  31. 31. ‘ Eco-city and eco-town projects are simply showpieces that will do little to making urban areas more sustinable.’ Do you agree? Give your reasons. <ul><li>Class discussion and debate </li></ul>
  32. 32. Using examples, suggest how urban areas might ‘lead the way to a greener world.’
  33. 33. Revision Websites <ul><li>Be careful </li></ul><ul><li>No website will tell you exactly what you need to know (different exam boards) </li></ul>