Effect of vermicompost on growth and yield of groundnut
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Effect of vermicompost on growth and yield of groundnut

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Effect of vermicompost on growth and yield of groundnut Effect of vermicompost on growth and yield of groundnut Document Transcript

  • Available online at http://www.urpjournals.com International Journal of Environmental Biology Universal Research Publications. All rights reserved ISSN 2277–386X Original Article EFFECT OF VERMICOMPOST ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogaea L.) MATHIVANAN, S., AL. A. CHIDAMBARAM* P. SUNDARAMOORTHY AND R. BAKIYARAJ Department of Botany, Annamalai University, Annamalai nagar, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu. *Email: alachidambaram@gmail.com Received 09 February 2012; accepted 23 February 2012AbstractPot experiments were conducted in Botanical Garden, Department of Botany, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, TamilNadu, India to study the effect of vermicompost on, growth and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L,). The highest rootlength, shoot length, total leaf area, number of root nodules, fresh weight, dry weight, chlorophyll, Carotenoids were recordedin ground nut crop grown in the application of 200g of vermicompost at various stages of its growth (25, 50, 75 and 100 DAS).The highest number of pods (65 per plant), number of seeds (116 per pods), hundred seed weight (288.5 g) were recorded inthe crop grown with 200 grams of vermicompost application. © 2011 Universal Research Publications. All rights reservedKey words: Vermicompost, Germination, Growth, Yield, Groundnut1. INTRODUCTION decomposition of the organic matter and alters the physical Groundnut is believed to be a native of Brazil (South and chemical properties of the materials [2, 3]. In order toAmerica). The oil content of the seed varies from 44 to50 increase the growth and yield of groundnut, the presentpercent. They are rich in protein and vitamins, A, B and some research work has been carried out to know the effect ofmembers of the B2 group with a high calorific value of 349 different doses of vermicompost on growth and yield ofper 100 grammas. The residual oilcake contains 7 to 8 groundnut.percent of N, 1.5 percent of P2O5 and 1.2 percent K2O and is 2. MATERIALS AND METHODSused as a fertilizer. Environmental degradation is a major The present investigation was carried on to find outthreat confronting the world, and the rampant use of chemical the impact of vermicompost on growth and yield offertilizers contribute largely to the deterioration of the groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)environment through depletion of fossil fuels, by generationof carbon dioxide (CO2) and contamination of water 2.1. Location of experimental siteresources. It leads to loss of soil fertility due to imbalanced Pot experiments were conducted in Botanicaluse of fertilizers that has adversely impacted agricultural Garden, Department of Botany, Annamalai University,productivity causing soil degradation. Now there is a growing Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu, India.realization that the adoption of ecological and sustainablefarming practices can only reverse the declining trend in 2.2. Methods Ten seeds of groundnut were sown in earthen potsglobal productivity and environment protection [1]. Allsynthetic fertilizers must be replaced by organic fertilizers filled with soil mixed with various doses of vermicompost.such as vermicompost. Vermicompost has been recognized as The details of vermicompost application were as follows.having considerable potential as soil amendments. 2.3. Application of vermicompostVermicompost are products of organic matter degradation Control : 10 kilogram soil + without vermicompostthrough interactions between earthworms and 100 : 10 kilogram soil + 100 gram vermicompostmicroorganisms. The process accelerates the rate of 150 : 10 kilogram soil + 150 gram vermicompost International Journal of Environmental Biology 2012; 2(1): 7-11 7
  • 200 : 10 kilogram soil + 200 gram vermicompost 3. YIELD PARAMETERS250 : 10 kilogram Soil + 250 gram vermicompost 3.1. Number of seeds per plant The seeds were removed from the pod and theThoroughly mixed with the soil in pots. number of seeds was counted and they were expressed in2.4. Root length and Shoot length number of seeds per plant. Five plants were randomly selected for recording the 3.2. Hundred Seed weight (g/seed)root length and shoot length of crop plants. They were 100 matured seeds were collected from test crop andmeasured by using centimeter scale and recorded. their dry weight was recorded by using an electrical single2.5. Nodulation pan balance. Five plants from each pot with intact roots were 4. RESULTSremoved with the help of digging fork. The root with root The present research work deals with the influencenodules were carefully separated from the soil, washed of vermicompost in different doses on growth, and yieldthoroughly and the number of nodules per plant were counted parameters of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) var. VRI 2 anand recorded. important oil seed crop of India.2.6. Fresh weight and dry weight 4.1. Root length (cm/plant) Five plant samples were randomly selected at The result on the effect of different doses of vermicompost onregular intervals (25, 50, 75 and 100 DAS). They were root length of groundnut at various stages of its growth (25,separated into root and shoot. Their Fresh weight was taken 50, 75 and 100 DAS) is shown in Table 2. The highest rootby using an electrical single pan balance. The fresh plant length (9.1, 14.5, 15.7 and 18.2 cm/plant) was recorded inmaterials were kept in a hot air oven at 80C for 24 hrs and groundnut grown in 200 g of vermicompost treatment. Thethen their dry weight were also determined. lowest root length (6.2, 10.4, 11.3 and 13.7 cm/plant) wasTable 1. Effect of application of various doses of vermicompost on shoot length (cm/plant) at different stages of growth groundnut(Arachis hypogaea L.). Age of the plant in days Treatments 25 50 75 100 Control (T0) 5.8  0.29 16.8  0.84 26.1  1.15 30.7  1.53 Soil + vermicompost (100 g/pot) (T1) 6.7  0.33 19.3  0.96 28.5  1.42 33.5  1.67 Soil + vermicompost (150 g/pot) (T2) 7.6  0.38 24.1  1.20 32.4  1.62 36.2  1.81 Soil + vermicompost (200 g/pot) (T3) 8.7  0.43 29.4  1.47 36.2  1.81 39.4  1.97 Soil + vermicompost (250 g/pot) (T4) 7.1  0.35 22.3  1.11 30.1  1.50 34.5  1.72Table 2. Effect of application of various doses of vermicompost on root length (cm/plant) of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) atdifferent growth stages. Age of the plant in days Treatments 25 50 75 100 Control (T0) 6.2  0.31 10.4  0.52 11.3  0.56 13.7  0.68 Soil + vermicompost (100 g/pot) (T1) 7.4  0.37 11.6  0.58 12.4  0.62 14.9  0.74 Soil + vermicompost (150 g/pot) (T2) 8.3  0.41 12.9  0.645 14.2  0.71 16.5  0.82 Soil + vermicompost (200 g/pot) (T3) 9.1  0.45 14.5  0.72 15.7  0.78 18.2  0.91 Soil + vermicompost (250 g/pot) (T4) 8.2  0.41 12.1  0.60 13.4  0.67 15.4  0.77Table 3. Effect of application of various doses of vermicompost on number of root nodules/plant of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Age of the plant in days Treatments 25 50 75 100 Control (T0) 10.0  0.5 22.0  1.1 34.0  1.7 48.0  2.4 Soil + vermicompost (100 g/pot) (T1) 17.0  0.85 34.0  1.7 42.0  2.1 63.0  3.15 Soil + vermicompost (150 g/pot) (T2) 26.0  1.3 43.0  2.15 64.0  3.2 80.0  4.0 Soil + vermicompost (200 g/pot) (T3) 36.0  1.8 58.0  2.9 78.0  3.9 94.0  4.7 Soil + vermicompost (250 g/pot) (T4) 23.0  1.15 39.0  1.95 59.0  2.95 79.0 3.95 International Journal of Environmental Biology 2012; 2(1): 7-11 8
  • Table 4. Effect of application of various doses of vermicompost on fresh weight (g/plant) of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)at various stages of its growth. Age of the plant in days Treatments 25 50 75 100 Control (T0) 9.71  0.48 19.53  0.97 51.53  2.57 110.2  5.51 Soil + vermicompost (100 g/pot) (T1) 11.79  0.57 22.39  1.11 72.39  3.61 120.54  6.02 Soil + vermicompost (150 g/pot) (T2) 18.72  0.93 36.49  1.82 93.49  4.69 172.42  8.62 Soil + vermicompost (200 g/pot) (T3) 22.48  1.124 48.89  2.44 128.89  6.44 218.19  10.9 Soil + vermicompost (250 g/pot) (T4) 15.62  0.78 32.62  1.63 89.41  4.47 155.78 7.789Table 5. Effect of application of various doses of vermicompost on dry weight (g/plant) of groundnut (Arachishypogaea L.). Age of the plant in days Treatments 25 50 75 100 Control (T0) 3.23  0.16 6.51  0.32 17.17  0.85 36.73  1.83 Soil + vermicompost (100 g/pot) (T1) 3.93  0.19 7.46  0.37 24.13  1.20 40.18  2.00 Soil + vermicompost (150 g/pot) (T2) 6.24  0.31 12.16  0.60 31.16  1.55 57.47  2.87 Soil + vermicompost (200 g/pot) (T3) 7.49  0.37 16.29  0.81 42.96  2.14 72.73  3.63 Soil + vermicompost (250 g/pot) (T4) 5.20  0.26 10.87  0.54 29.80  1.49 51.92  2.59Table 6. Effect of application of various doses of vermicompost on yield parameters on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Number of Treatments Number of pods/plant 100 seed weight/plant seeds/plant Control (T0) 29.0  1.45 49.0  2.45 202.5  10.12 Soil + vermicompost (100 g/pot) (T1) 37.0  1.85 67.0  3.35 220.5  11.02 Soil + vermicompost (150 g/pot) (T2) 52.0  2.6 92.0  4.6 267.5  13.37 Soil + vermicompost (200 g/pot) (T3) 63.0  3.15 116.0  5.8 288.5  14.42 Soil + vermicompost (250 g/pot) (T4) 45.0  2.25 85.0  4.25 257.5  12.87recorded at various stages of its growth (25, 50, 75 and 100 The lowest number of root nodules (10, 22, 34 and 48 perDAS) in the crops grown without vermicompost treatment. plant) was recorded at various stages of its growth (25, 50, 75 and 100 DAS) in crop grown without vermicompost4.2. Shoot length (cm/plant) treatment. The results on the effect of various doses ofvermicompost fertilizers on the shoot length (cm/plant) of 4.4. Fresh weight of plant (g/plant)groundnut crop at various stages of its growth (25, 50, 75 and The effect of various doses of vermicompost on100 DAS) are shown in Table 1. The highest shoot lengths fresh weight (g/plant) of groundnut crop at various stages of(8.7, 29.4, 36.2 and 39.4 cm/plant) were recorded in its growth (25, 50, 75 and 100 DAS) is shown in Table 4.groundnut crop grown in 200 g of vermicompost treatment. The highest fresh weights (22.48, 48.89, 128.89 and 218.19The lowest shoot length (5.8, 16.8, 26.1 and 30.7 cm/plant) g/plant) were recorded in groundnut crop grown with 200 gwas recorded at various stages of its growth (25, 50, 75 and of vermicompost treatment. The lowest fresh weight of plant100 DAS) in the crop grown without vermicompost (9.71, 19.53, 51.53 and 110.2 g/plant) at various 25, 50, 75treatment. and 100 DAS, were recorded in the crops grown without vermicompost treatment.4.3. Number of root nodules (nodules/plant) The result on the effect of various doses of 4.5. Dry weight of plant (g/plant)vermicompost on number of root nodules per plant of The results on the effect of various doses ofgroundnut at various stages of its growth (25, 50, 75 and 100 vermicompost application on dry weight (g/plant) ofDAS) is shown in Table 3. The highest number of root groundnut crop at various stages of its growth (25, 50, 75 andnodules (36, 58, 75 and 94 per plant) was recorded in 100 DAS) are shown in Table 5. The highest dry weight ofgroundnut crop grown in 200 g of vermicompost treatment. plant (7.49, 16.29, 42.96 and 72.73 g/plant) was recorded in International Journal of Environmental Biology 2012; 2(1): 7-11 9
  • groundnut crop grown with 200 g of vermicompost treatment. grow vigorously if it contains much amount of fresh weightThe lowest dry weight (3.23, 6.51, 17.17 and 36.73 g/plant) and dry weight. In the present study, the application of 200 gof plant at 25, 50, 75 and 100 DAS was recorded in the crops of vermicompost increased the fresh weight and dry weightgrown without vermicompost treatment. of crop plants at the highest level when compared to control as well as with other treatment. The highest fresh weight and4.6. Yield parameters dry weight were recorded in 100 day old plants followed by The effect of application of various dose of 75, 50 and 25 DAS. Root and shoot weights of marigoldsvermicompost on the yield parameters of groundnut are were also significantly greater due to vermicompostshown in Table 6. The highest number of pods (65 per plant), application[16].Vermicompost caused increased growths innumber of seeds (116 per pods), hundred seed weight (288.5 terms of shoot and root dry weight of Petunia[13].g) were recorded in the crop grown with 200 gram ofvermicompost application. The lowest number of pods (29 5.4. Yield parametersper plant), number of seed (49 per pot), hundred seed weight In this experiment, the highest yield parameters (number of(202.5 g/plant) were recorded in the crops grown in the pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, 100 seed weightcontrol plants which are grown without vermicompost and yield) were registered in the crop grown under theapplication. different dose of vermicompost (control, 100, 150, 200 and 250 g) treatment. Almost thirty per cent yield increase was5. DISCUSSION observed in 200 g of vermicompost treatment. The The vermicompost contain plant growth regulating vermicompost application increased the germinating ability,substances including growth hormones and humic acids growth and yield of vegetables and ornamentals than inwhich are probably responsible for the increase in commercial plants growth media [14, 15].germination, growth and yield of plant [4,5].Vermicompostare cost effective, ecofriendly and a source of plant nutrients REFERENCESto supplement chemical fertilizers in sustainable agriculturesystem in India. They are microbial inoculants, which 1. Wani.S.P and K.K.Lee. Biofertilizers for sustaining cerealenhance crop production through improved supplies of crop production. In: S. Kannaiyan (Ed.)nutrients [6].Germination, the critical phase in the life cycle Biotechnology of Biofertilizers, Narosha Publishingof a crop plant is subjected to numerous environmental House, and New Delhi, India. (2002).factors [7].The natural environment is favoured for growth 2. 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