Reciprocating compressor and pumps


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  • Reciprocating compressors are capable of giving large pressure ratios but the mass handling capacity is limited or small.
  • Air breather A device permitting air movement between the atmosphere and the component in/on which it is installed. A vent or valve to release pressure or to allow air to move freely around something.
  • Reciprocating Compressor has piston, cylinder, inlet valve, exit valve, connecting rod, crank, piston pin, crank pin and crank shaft. Inlet valve and exit valves may be of spring loaded type which get opened and closed due to pressure differential across them. Let us consider piston to be at top dead centre (TDC) and move towards bottom dead centre (BDC). Due to this piston movement from TDC to BDC suction pressure is created causing opening of inlet valve. With this opening of inlet valve and suction pressure the atmospheric air enters the cylinder. Air gets into cylinder during this stroke and is subsequently compressed in next stroke with both inlet valve and exit valve closed. Both inlet valve and exit valves are of plate type and spring loaded so as to operate automatically as and when sufficient pressure difference is available to cause deflection in spring of valve plates to open them. After piston reaching BDC it reverses its motion and compresses the air inducted in previous stroke. Compression is continued till the pressure of air inside becomes sufficient to cause deflection in exit valve. At the moment when exit valve plate gets lifted the exhaust of compressed air takes place. This piston again reaches TDC from where downward piston movement is again accompanied by suction. This is how reciprocating compressor. Keeps on working as flow device. In order to counter for the heating of piston-cylinder arrangement during compression the provision of cooling the cylinder is there in the form of cooling jackets in the body. Reciproting compressor described above has suction, compression and discharge as three prominent processes getting completed in two strokes of piston or one revolution of crank shaft.
  • Pumps come in a variety of sizes for a wide range of applications. They can be classified according to their basic operating principle as dynamic or positive displacement pumps In principle, any liquid can be handled by any of the pump designs. Centrifugal pump is generally the most economical but less efficient. Positive displacement pumps are generally more efficient than centrifugal pumps, but higher maintenance costs.
  • Reciprocating compressor and pumps

    1. 1. ThermodynamicsThermodynamics Thermodynamics is the study of the effects of work, heat, and energy on a system. Thermodynamics is only concerned with macroscopic (large-scale)&microscopic changes and observations
    2. 2. The Laws of Thermodynamics:The Laws of Thermodynamics: SummarySummary Zeroth Law   If two systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other. First Law The increase in internal energy of a closed system is equal to the difference of the heat supplied to the system and the work done by it: U = Q - WΔ Second Law Heat cannot spontaneously flow from a colder location to a hotter location. Third Law The entropy of all systems and of all states of a system is smallest at absolute zero 3
    3. 3. Thermodynamic SystemsThermodynamic Systems 5
    4. 4. Thermodynamic ProcessesThermodynamic Processes  Isobaric process : the pressure is constant.  Isochoric process : the volume is constant.  Isothermal process :the temperature is constant.  Adiabatic process : no heat enters or leaves the system; i.e. Q = 0.  Isentropic process : the entropy is constant. It is also known as reversible adiabatic process.  Isenthalpic Process: occurs at a constant Enthalpy 6
    5. 5. The Ideal Gas LawThe Ideal Gas Law Ideal gas law : PV = mRT or Pv = RT, where m is the no. of kmoles, v is the volume per kmole, T is the absolute temperature in K, and the gas constant R = 8.314 x 103 J/ (K.kmol).  For a constant quantity of gas, P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2. Avogadro's law : For a given mass of an ideal gas, the volume and amount (moles n) of the gas are directly proportional if the temperature and  pressure are constant. V is proportional to moles n v/n=k PP PP VV VV T increasingT increasing TT TT V increasingV increasing P increasingP increasing
    6. 6. The energy balance for a steady-flowThe energy balance for a steady-flow device (nozzle, compressor, turbine anddevice (nozzle, compressor, turbine and pump) with one inlet and one exit is:pump) with one inlet and one exit is:
    7. 7. Fluid Moving EquipmentFluid Moving Equipment Fluids are moved through flow systems using compressors, pumps, fans and blowers. Such devices increase the mechanical energy of the fluid. The additional energy can be used to increase • Velocity (flow rate) • Pressure • Elevation
    8. 8. CASCAS  COMPONENT  Intake Air Filters : Prevent dust and atmospheric impurities from entering compressor. Dust causes sticking valves, scored cylinders, excessive wear etc.  Compressor : Pressurizes the air  Inter-stage Coolers : Reduce the temperature of the air (gas) before it enters the next stage to reduce the work of compression and increase efficiency. They can be water-or air-cooled.  After Coolers : Reduce the temperature of the discharge air, and thereby reduce the moisture carrying capacity of air.  Air-dryers : Air dryers are used to remove moisture, as air for instrument and pneumatic equipment needs to be relatively free of any moisture. The moisture is removed by suing adsorbents or refrigerant dryers, or state of the art heatless dryers.  Moisture Traps : Air traps are used for removal of moisture in the compressed air distribution lines. They resemble steam traps wherein the air is trapped and moisture is removed.  Receivers : Depending on the system requirements, one or more air receivers are generally provided to reduce output pulsations and pressure variations.
    9. 9. Parts of reciprocating CompressorParts of reciprocating Compressor
    10. 10. COMPRESSORCOMPRESSOR What is Compressor? A compressor is a device that pressurize a working fluid, one of the basic aim of compressor is to compress the fluid and deliver it to a pressure which is higher than its original pressure. PURPOSE To provide air for combustion To transport process fluid through pipeline To provide compressed air for diving pneumatic tools To circulate process fluid through certain process
    11. 11. Types of compressor Type of compressor Positive displacement Dynamic Reciprocating Rotary Centrifugal Axial
    12. 12. CompressorCompressor selectionselection
    13. 13. Capacity of compressorCapacity of compressor Capacity of Compressor basically indicated by following two parameter 1.Pressure 2.FAD
    14. 14. What is FAD-What is FAD- Capacity of a Compressor?Capacity of a Compressor? The FAD is the volume of air drawn into a compressor from the atmosphere. After compression and cooling the air is returned to the original temperature but it is at high pressure Suppose atmospheric condition are Pa Ta and Va(the FAD) and the compressed condition are p , V and T
    15. 15. Some definationsSome definations  Bore = Cylinder diameter.  Stroke = Distance through which the piston moves.  The two extreme positions of the piston are known as head-end and crank-end dead centers.  Clearance Volume (Cl) : Volume occupied by the fluid when the piston is  at head-end dead centre.  Piston Displacement (PD) : Volume, a piston sweeps through.  Compression Ratio (rv) : Ratio of cylinder volume with the piston at crank-end dead centre to the cylinder volume with the piston at head-end dead centre.  Mechanical Efficiency : which gives an indication of the losses occurring between the piston and driving shaft.
    16. 16. CompressorCompressor Efficiency DefinitionsEfficiency Definitions Isothermal Efficiency Isothermal Efficiency = Actual measured input power IsothermalPower Isothermal power(kW) = P1 x Q1 x loger/36.7 P1 = Absolute intake pressure kg/ cm2 Q1 = Free air delivered m3 /hr. r = Pressure ratio P2/P1
    17. 17. CompressorCompressor Efficiency DefinitionsEfficiency Definitions Volumetric Efficiency 3 Free air delivered m /min Volumetric efficiency = Compressor displacement Compressor Displacement = Π x D2 x L x S x χ x n 4 D = Cylinder bore, metre L = Cylinder stroke, metre S = Compressor speed rpm χ = 1 for single acting and 2 for double acting cylinders n = No. of cylinders
    18. 18. Reciprocating CompressorsReciprocating Compressors Types 1. Single acting The working fluid compressed at only one side of the piston 2. Double acting The working fluid compressed alternately on both sides of the piston.
    19. 19. Frame HN2T - 150NPFrame HN2T - 150NP 1Frame Assly. 2Inner Head Assly. (LP) 3Cylinder Assly. (LP) 4Outer Head Assly. (LP) 5Inner Head Assly. (HP) 6Cylinder Assly. (HP) 7Outer Head Assly. (HP)
    20. 20. Frame, Cross Slide, Crank shaft andFrame, Cross Slide, Crank shaft and Connecting rod assemblyConnecting rod assembly 1. Breather 22. Crosshead 23. Cross Head Nut 35. Connecting Rod 40.Big End Bearing 36. Connecting rod Bolt 28,29. Stud,Nut
    21. 21. Breather:Breather: A vent or valve to release pressureA vent or valve to release pressure or to allow air to move freely aroundor to allow air to move freely around something.something. Crosshead: Is a mechanism used in large  and reciprocating compressorsto eliminate sideways pressure on the piston. Connecting Rod: connects the piston to the crank or crankshaft. Together with the crank, they form a simple mechanism that converts reciprocating motion into rotating motion.
    22. 22. Crank CaseCrank Case 42. Belt wheel 13.Oil Seal Ring 18. Gasket for Cover Flywheel end 34. Crank Shaft 25. Internal Circlip 24. Cross Head Pin 26.Cross Head Pin 43. Oil Cooler 8. Cover for Oil Pump end 41. Oil Pump Assembly 44.Oil filter 12.Thrust washer
    23. 23. Oil Seal RingOil Seal Ring :It prevent the oil the:It prevent the oil the oil to flow furtheroil to flow further Gasket: is a mechanical seal which fills the space between two or more mating surfaces, generally to prevent leakage from or into the joined objects while under  compression. Circlip: It is a type of fastener or retaining ring consisting of a semiflexible metal ring with open ends which can be snapped into place, into a machined groove on a dowel pin or other part to permit rotation but to prevent lateral movement. There are two basic types: I nternal and external, referring to whether they are fitted into a bore or over a shaft.
    24. 24. Cross Head Pin : It connects the piston to the connecting rod and provides a bearing for the connecting rod to pivot upon as the piston moves. Thrust washer: Thrust washers are long-wearing flat bearings in the shape of a washer that transmit and resolve axial forces in rotating mechanisms to keep components aligned along a shaft.  Crank Pin/Gudgeon Pin: Connects the piston to the connecting rod and provides a bearing for the connecting rod to pivot upon as the piston moves
    25. 25. Piston PartsPiston Parts 1.Piston Assembly 2.Rider Ring 3.Piston Ring 4.Sleeve for piston
    26. 26. PistonPiston Ring: Piston rings, mounted onRing: Piston rings, mounted on the pistons of lubricated or non-lubethe pistons of lubricated or non-lube (oil free) compressors, are designed to(oil free) compressors, are designed to ensure that the gas is compressed andensure that the gas is compressed and to provide a seal between the pistonto provide a seal between the piston and the cylinder.and the cylinder. Rider Ring:The function of rider rings, used mainly in oil free or mini-lube compressors, is to support or guide the piston and rod assembly and prevent contact between the piston and the cylinder (risk of seizure).
    27. 27. Working:Working: Reciprocating compressors generally, employ piston-cylinder arrangement where displacement of piston in cylinder causes rise in pressure.
    28. 28. Sequence of operationSequence of operation
    29. 29. Ideal indicator diagramIdeal indicator diagram
    30. 30. The total work interaction per cycleThe total work interaction per cycle ::
    31. 31. Chicago Pneumatic: For over a century ChicagoChicago Pneumatic: For over a century Chicago Pneumatic has represented tough tools designedPneumatic has represented tough tools designed to make tough jobs make tough jobs easier. Way back in 1889 John W. Duntley realized that construction workers in particular had a need for many tools that weren’t yet available. He founded Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company and set out on a lifelong mission to provide all types of industries and companies the tools necessary for their success. Over the years Duntley grew the company through product innovation, always insisting on product quality and reliability. Manufactures of air & gas compressors & pneumatic portable tools like grinders demolition tools, pumps vibrators, rammers hammers, etc. Decades of innovation 1901 Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company is incorporated, after Duntley persuades young steel magnate Charles M. Schwabto invest in the company
    32. 32. 1925 CP seals an agreement to manufacture the Benz diesel engine ,  used in various racing cars in Europe at the time.  1930s Chicago Pneumatic construction and mining equipment is used in  the building of the  Lincoln Tunnel, New York Triborough Bridge, New York Chicago subway system Boulder Dam, Arizona Grand Coulee Dam, Washington Eight dams comprising the Tennessee Valley Authority flood control and  power generation project Golden Gate suspension bridge, San Francisco 1940s In response to war effort demands, CP develops the “hot dimpling machine,” a device that heats rivets to 1,000 degrees  Fahrenheit 1960s Chicago Pneumatic customizes tools for the production of new  aircraft designs: the Boeing 737 and 747, 1987 Atlas Copco acquires Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company
    33. 33. Chicago Pneumatic CompetitionChicago Pneumatic Competition Elgi Equipment Ingersoll rand Revathi Cp
    34. 34. DefinitionDefinition  An apparatus or machine for raising, driving, exhausting fluid, by means of a piston, plunger, or set of rotating vanes
    35. 35. Principle of operation  Centrifugal  force (throwing) Positive displacement (physically pushing)
    36. 36. Type of PumpsType of Pumps Classified by operating principle Pump Classification Dynamic Positive Displacement Centrifugal Special effect Rotary Reciprocating Internal gear External gear Lobe Slide vane Others (e.g. Impulse, Buoyancy) Pumps Dynamic Positive Displacement Centrifugal Special effect Rotary Reciprocating Internal gear External gear Lobe Slide vane Others (e.g. Impulse, Buoyancy) Pumps
    37. 37. Centrifugal PumpsCentrifugal Pumps Most common type of pumping machinery.  There are many types, sizes, and  designs from various manufacturers who also publish operating characteristics of  each pump in the form of performance (pump) curves.  The device pictured on the  cover page is a centrifugal pump. Pump curves describe head delivered, pump efficiency, and net positive suction  head (NPSH) for a properly operating specific model pump. Centrifugal pumps are generally used where high flow rates and moderate head  increases are required.
    38. 38. Terms to be familiar withTerms to be familiar with Impeller- transmit energy to pressure Volute- water passes and pressure is increased
    39. 39.  This machine consists of an IMPELLER rotating within a case (diffuser)  Liquid directed into the center of the rotating impeller is picked up by the impeller’s vanes and accelerated to a higher velocity by the rotation of the impeller and discharged by centrifugal force into the case (diffuser). Centrifugal PumpsCentrifugal Pumps
    40. 40. Working principles centrifugalWorking principles centrifugal pumpspumps
    41. 41.  Head is a term for expressing feet of water column  Head can also be converted to pressure "Head""Head" 100 feet 43.3 PSI Reservoir of Fluid Pressure Gauge
    42. 42. HeadHead Head and pressure are interchangeable terms provided that they are expressed in their correct units. The conversion of all pressure terms into units of equivalent head simplifies most pump calculations.
    43. 43. Conversion Factors Between HeadConversion Factors Between Head and Pressureand Pressure  Head (feet of liquid) =Pressure in PSI x 2.31 / Sp. Gr.  Pressure in PSI = Head (in feet) x Sp. Gr. / 2.31  PSI is Pounds per Square Inch  Sp. Gr. is Specific Gravity which for water is equal to 1 ◦ For a fluid more dense than water, Sp. Gr. is greater than 1 ◦ For a fluid less dense than water, Sp. Gr. is less than 1
    44. 44. Diameter of the Impeller Thickness of the impeller Centrifugal ImpellersCentrifugal Impellers Thicker the Impeller- More Water Larger the DIAMETER - More Pressure Increase the Speed - More Water and Pressure Impeller Vanes “Eye of the Impeller” Water Entrance
    45. 45. Two-Stage Centrifugal PumpsTwo-Stage Centrifugal Pumps Two Impellers within a single housing ◦ Allow delivery in Volume(parallel) or Pressure (series)
    46. 46. Thrust balance in a multi-stage pump
    47. 47. Positive Displacement PumpsPositive Displacement Pumps To move fluids positive displacement pumps admit a fixed volume of liquid from the inlet into a chamber and eject it into the discharge. Positive displacement pumps are used when higher head increases are required. Generally they do not increase velocity.
    48. 48. Reciprocating Pumps • Piston type Vertical& Horizontal & double acting • Plunger type • Diaphragm pump
    49. 49. Reciprocating pumps Explain double acting, plunger type , vertical, horizontal, multistage
    50. 50. Diaphragm pumps
    51. 51. Diaphragm Reciprocating pumps Basic principle is similar to a reciprocating plunger pump/ Plunger pressurizes the hydraulic oil which when pressurized pushes the diaphragm and discharge starts. Stroke length can be adjusted and hence the dosing flow rate. No direct contact of plunger with the solution. Direct contact is only with diaphragm ( neoprene, Teflon etc)
    52. 52. DiaphragmReciprocatingpumps Figure 1: The air valve directs pressurized air to the back side of diaphragm "A". The compressed air is applied directly to the liquid column separated by elastomeric diaphragms. The compressed air moves the diaphragm away from the center block of the pump. The opposite diaphragm is pulled in by the shaft connected to the pressurized diaphragm. Diaphragm "B" is now on its air exhaust stroke; air behind the diaphragm has been forced out to atmosphere through the exhaust port of the pump. The movement of diaphragm "B" toward the center block of the pump creates a vacuum within the chamber "B". Atmospheric pressure forces fluid into the inlet manifold forcing the inlet ball off its seat. Liquid is free to move past the inlet valve ball and fill the liquid chamber.
    53. 53. DiaphragmReciprocatingpumps Figure 2: When the pressurized diaphragm, diaphragm"A", reaches the limit of its discharge stroke, the air valve redirects pressurized air to the back side of diaphragm "B". The pressurized air forces diaphragm "B" away from the center block while pulling diaphragm "A" to the center block. Diaphragm "B" forces the inlet valve ball onto its seat due to the hydraulic forces developed. These same hydraulic forces lift the discharge valve ball, forcing fluid flow to flow through the pump discharge. The movement of diaphragm "A" to the center block of the pump creates a vacuum within liquid chamber "A". Atmospheric pressure forces fluid into the inlet manifold of the pump. The inlet valve ball is forced off its seat allowing the fluid being transferred to fill the
    54. 54. Diaphragm Reciprocating pumps Figure 3: Upon completion of the stroke, the air valve again redirects air to the back side of diaphragm "A", and starts diaphragm "B" on its air exhaust stroke. As the pump reaches its original starting point, each diaphragm has gone through one air exhaust or one fluid discharge stroke. This constitutes one complete pumping cycle. The pump may take several cycles to become completely primed depending on the conditions of the application.
    55. 55. Gear and screw pumps •High pressure and viscous fluids •Used in Samd for lube and seal oil pumps air booster of ammonia, 102- J
    56. 56. Gear pumps •High pressure and viscous fluids Example : lube/ seal oil pumps
    57. 57. See the solution is pushed out of the pump physically
    58. 58. Only one gear is used ( Explain)