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Prepared By
A.Prasad roshan
prasadroshan1982@gmail.com
Fundamental of
PUMPS
Pump is defined as a mechanical device that rotates or
reciprocates to move fluid from one place to another.
It converts P...
What is the purpose of a pump?
1) pump is designed to transfer fluid from
one point to another.
2)Pumps transfer fluid fro...
Kinetic energy:
Energy associated
with motion
• Positive displacement
pump (Gear Pump): a
specific amount of fluid
passes through the pump
for each rotation
• Centrifug...
Centrifugal pump or Constant head machine is
Adding energy to fluid is continuously
Positive displacement pump is
Adding e...
• Main pump components
• Pumps
• Prime movers: electric
motors, diesel engines, air
system
• Piping to carry fluid
• Valve...
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS CLASSIFICATION
According to types of flow
1)Radial flow
2)Axial flow
3)Mixed flow
According to suction t...
According to types of CASING
1)Volute
2)Vortex
According to priming
1)Non self Priming type
2)Self priming
According to ca...
According to suction/delivery nozzle orientation
1)End suction/top discharge
2)Top suction/top discharge
3)side suction/si...
How do they work?
• Liquid forced into
impeller
• Vanes pass
kinetic energy to
liquid: liquid
rotates and
leaves impeller
...
WORKING PRINCIPLE of
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
1)CONVERTING PRIME MOVER
ENERGY INTO VELOCITY ENERGY by
means of shaft & impeller
2)...
Velocity and pressure changes
within a centrifugal pump.
velocity
pressure
Suction
hose
impeller
volute
Double suction axially split
Self Priming centrifugal
Pump
Three types Of priming methods
1.Exhaust Primer
 Venturi effect
2.Vacuum Primer
 From manifold in gas engines
3.Positive...
vertical mounted pump
Pump Standard
Volute = spiral
Converts the motion of spinning liquid into pressure
Forces liquid into the piping at high pressure
Impeller Axial
Thrust
Impeller Radial Thrust
Hydraulic
Imbalance
Seal or
Packing
Radial Thrust
due to Hydraulic Imbalance
...
Single suction impeller
Centrifugal Pumps
• Open
• Semi-open
• Closed
- Single suction
- Double suction
• Non-clogging
• Axial flow
• Mixed flow
Radial flow
TYPES OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS:
• Radial flow – centrifugal force
• Axial flow – forced by impeller vanes
• Mixed flow – both
SPECIFIC SPEED
Shaft sealing devices
MECHANICAL SEALMECHANICAL SEAL
Pumping liquid
MECHANICAL SEALS
CLASSIFICATION
By arrangement
1. Single seal
- Inside mounted / Outside mounted
2. Multiple design
- Doub...
Shaft
Seal
follower
Stuffing box
Retainer Spring Static sealDynamic seal
Liquid
Bolt for locking
Gasket
Secondary
seal
Gap in between seal faces, resulting leakage
Shaft
Seal
follower
Stuffing box
Retainer Spring
Static sealDynamic seal
Liquid
Gasket
Secondary seal
Shaft
Seal
follower
Stuffing box
Retainer
Spring
Static seal
Dynamic seal
Liquid
Gasket
Secondary
seal
Outside mounted mec...
Static seal
Dynamic seal
Liquid
Gasket
Secondary
seal
Barrier fluid 1 bar more
than process
Process liquid
MOC – MECHANICAL SEALS
Primary seal
1. Ceramic
2. Carbon
- Resin impregnated – corrosive applications
- Antimony impregnat...
PUMP TERMS
Atmospheric pressure
Absolute Pressure
Vacuum
Specific gravity
Pressure of atmosphere
on earth
Sum of Available...
Three important characteristics of pump systems.
1)Pressure is the driving force responsible for the
movement of the fluid...
What is friction in a pump system
Friction is always present, even in fluids, it is the force that
resists the movement of...
Friction depends on average velocity of the fluid within the pipe ,
viscosity & pipe surface roughness. An increase in any...
PUMP ENERGY = FRICTION ENERGY + ELEVATION
ENERGY
Pressure depends on the height of the liquid surface.
Many times both the suction and discharge piping
are the same size and the suction and discharge
tanks are atmospheric.
Wh...
When the suction tank level is raised, the total suction
system head is increased.
From this the total system head decreas...
When the suction tank level is lowered, the total suction system
head is decreased.
From this the total system head increa...
When the discharge tank level is raised, the total discharge
system head is increased.
From this the total system head is ...
When the friction losses increase on the suction, the
total suction system head is decreased.
From this the total system h...
When the discharge tank level is lowered, the total
discharge system head is decreased.
From this the total system head is...
When the friction losses decrease on the suction, the
total suction system head is increased.
From this the total system h...
When the friction losses decrease on the discharge,
the total discharge system head is decreased.
From this the total syst...
When the friction losses increase on the discharge,
the total discharge system head is increased.
From this the total syst...
When the pressure head increases on the discharge,
the total discharge system head is increased.
From this the total syste...
When the pressure head increases on the suction,
the total suction system head is increased.
From this the total system he...
When the pressure head decreases on the discharge, the total discharge
system head is decreased.
From this the total syste...
When the pressure head decreases
on the pump suction, the total suction
system head is decreased. From this the
total syst...
Centrifugal Pumps are "constant head machines"
It is not a constant pressure machine, since pressure is a function of
head...
Pressure depends on the height of the liquid surface.
• Friction head
• Resistance to flow in pipe and fittings
• Depends on size, pipes, pipe fittings, flow
rate, nature of li...
A pump head-
capacity
performance
curve identifies
how a pump will
operate in a given
system.
It is the
pump’s fingerprint.
Head & flow impact on pump
00 2020 4040 6060 8080 100100 120120 140140 160160
BEPBEP
HighFlowCavitation
DischargeRecircula...
Pump hydraulic power can be calculated by the formula:
Hydraulic kW =
Q x Total Head, (hd – hs) x ρ x g
1000
Parameter Det...
35
Affinity Laws
Affinity Laws are the performance of Centrifugal
Pumps based on change in Speed, Power, Flow,
Head, Impel...
NPSH = NOT PUMPING SO HOT?
Pump pressure profile showing point of lowest pressure (NPSHR).
Multiple-Pump Operation
• To install a pumping station that can be
effectively operated over a large range of
fluctuations...
SHAFT RUN OUT
AXIAL PLAY CHECKING
Ways to control flow of centrifugal
pumps
• Discharge throttle valves
• Bypass valves
• Impeller trimming
• Speed control
...
Before Impeller trimming
After Impeller Trimming
Understanding Alignment
Method of alignment
a)Feeler gauge
b)Straight edge method
c)Rim & face method
d)Reverse indicator method
e)Laser method
Face-rim Three Dial Indicator Method
ALIGNMENT
Centrifugal Pumps
Angular Mis-alignment
Centrifugal Pumps
Parallel or Offset Misalignment
Positive displacement
Fixed displacement, fluid is
captured in cavities within
the pump and mechanical
energy moves it fro...
• Low flow
• High pressure
• High viscosity
• Self priming
• Metering
• High energy
efficiency
Positive displacement pumps...
Positive displacement pump concerns
• Not for water thin fluids
• Relief valves required
• Solids can be a problem
• Flow ...
Reciprocating
piston
External
gear pump
Double
screw
pump
Sliding
vane
Three-lobe
pump (left)
Double
circumferential
pisto...
• For each pump revolution
• Fixed amount of liquid taken from one end
• Positively discharged at other end
• If pipe bloc...
G E A R P U M P S
L O B E P U M P S
S C R E W P U M P S
C A M P U M P S
V A N E P U M P S
R O T A R Y P U M P S
As the te...
Meshing gears separate creating vacuum
Atmospheric pressure forces liquid inward to fill
the vacuum
Liquid is delivered in
large volumes with less
number of pulses than in
gear pump
Not dependent on
discharge pressure
Screw pumps carry fluid in the spaces
between the screw threads.
The fluid is displaced axially as the screws
mesh.
G E ...
Fluid is carried between the rotor
teeth and the pumping chamber
The rotor surfaces create continuous
sealing
Rotors in...
Function of positive displacement pump
Reciprocating pumps.
• In the reciprocating pump a piston sucks the
fluid into a cylinder then pushes it up causing
the wa...
P IS T O N P U M P S
P L U N G E R P U M P S
D IA P H R A G M P U M P S
R E C IP R O C A T IN G P U M P S
P O S IT IV E D ...
PERISTALTIC PUMP
• Flexible tube subjected to transitional
squeeze
• Continuous repetition of squeeze cycle
• Handles sens...
Diaphragm, an elastic substance, usually rubber
Used for low pressure application like removing water
from trenches
314
317
Internal Gear
Pump
318
• A typical screw pump
319
Thanks
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Pump

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Pump definition, Classification, components , impeller,mechanical seal,alignment,

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Pump

  1. 1. Prepared By A.Prasad roshan prasadroshan1982@gmail.com Fundamental of PUMPS
  2. 2. Pump is defined as a mechanical device that rotates or reciprocates to move fluid from one place to another. It converts Prime mover energy in to mechanical energy , then mechanical energy into hydraulic energy ( fluids at motion ) What is a PUMP?What is a PUMP?
  3. 3. What is the purpose of a pump? 1) pump is designed to transfer fluid from one point to another. 2)Pumps transfer fluid from low pressure areas to higher pressure areas, 3)low elevations to higher elevations, and 4)from local locations to distant locations. What is the purpose of a pump? 1) pump is designed to transfer fluid from one point to another. 2)Pumps transfer fluid from low pressure areas to higher pressure areas, 3)low elevations to higher elevations, and 4)from local locations to distant locations.
  4. 4. Kinetic energy: Energy associated with motion
  5. 5. • Positive displacement pump (Gear Pump): a specific amount of fluid passes through the pump for each rotation • Centrifugal pump (KINETIC Pump): no specific amount of fluid flow per rotation; flow depends on speed of blades 6
  6. 6. Centrifugal pump or Constant head machine is Adding energy to fluid is continuously Positive displacement pump is Adding energy to fluid is intermediately
  7. 7. • Main pump components • Pumps • Prime movers: electric motors, diesel engines, air system • Piping to carry fluid • Valves to control flow in system • Other fittings, control, instrumentation What are Pumping Systems a. Pump casing b. Pump shaft c. Impeller d. Volute e. Stuffing box f. Stuffing box gland g. Packing h. Lantern Ring i. Impeller wearing ring j. Pump casing wearing ring
  8. 8. CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS CLASSIFICATION According to types of flow 1)Radial flow 2)Axial flow 3)Mixed flow According to suction type 1)Single suction 2)Double suction According to number of Impellers 1)Single 2)Multiple According to Impeller type 1)Open 2)Semi open 3)Closed
  9. 9. According to types of CASING 1)Volute 2)Vortex According to priming 1)Non self Priming type 2)Self priming According to case split 1)Horizontal (back pull out type) 2)vertical According to bearing support 1)Over hung ( ie cantilever type) 2)Between bearing (ie simply supported)
  10. 10. According to suction/delivery nozzle orientation 1)End suction/top discharge 2)Top suction/top discharge 3)side suction/side discharge According to pumped fluid sealing method 1)Gland packing 2)Mechanical seal According to horizontal shaft mounting 1)Foot mounted 2)Center line mounted According to shaft to impeller 1)Direct motor shaft ( mono block) 2)Indivisible shaft (pump shaft + motor shaft)
  11. 11. How do they work? • Liquid forced into impeller • Vanes pass kinetic energy to liquid: liquid rotates and leaves impeller • Volute casing converts kinetic energy into pressure energy
  12. 12. WORKING PRINCIPLE of CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 1)CONVERTING PRIME MOVER ENERGY INTO VELOCITY ENERGY by means of shaft & impeller 2) CONVERTING VELOCITY ENERGY INTO PRESSURE ENERGY by means of volute casing.
  13. 13. Velocity and pressure changes within a centrifugal pump. velocity pressure Suction hose impeller volute
  14. 14. Double suction axially split
  15. 15. Self Priming centrifugal Pump
  16. 16. Three types Of priming methods 1.Exhaust Primer  Venturi effect 2.Vacuum Primer  From manifold in gas engines 3.Positive Displacement Primer
  17. 17. vertical mounted pump
  18. 18. Pump Standard
  19. 19. Volute = spiral Converts the motion of spinning liquid into pressure Forces liquid into the piping at high pressure
  20. 20. Impeller Axial Thrust Impeller Radial Thrust Hydraulic Imbalance Seal or Packing Radial Thrust due to Hydraulic Imbalance Impeller Axial Thrust Hydraulic Induced Forces due to Recirculatio n & Cavitation Simultaneous loads on pump shaft
  21. 21. Single suction impeller
  22. 22. Centrifugal Pumps • Open • Semi-open • Closed - Single suction - Double suction • Non-clogging • Axial flow • Mixed flow
  23. 23. Radial flow
  24. 24. TYPES OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS: • Radial flow – centrifugal force • Axial flow – forced by impeller vanes • Mixed flow – both
  25. 25. SPECIFIC SPEED
  26. 26. Shaft sealing devices
  27. 27. MECHANICAL SEALMECHANICAL SEAL
  28. 28. Pumping liquid
  29. 29. MECHANICAL SEALS CLASSIFICATION By arrangement 1. Single seal - Inside mounted / Outside mounted 2. Multiple design - Double seal/ Tandem seal By design 1. Unbalanced seal 2. Balanced seal 3. single spring 4. Multiple spring 5. Pusher seal 6. Non – pusher seal
  30. 30. Shaft Seal follower Stuffing box Retainer Spring Static sealDynamic seal Liquid Bolt for locking Gasket Secondary seal
  31. 31. Gap in between seal faces, resulting leakage
  32. 32. Shaft Seal follower Stuffing box Retainer Spring Static sealDynamic seal Liquid Gasket Secondary seal
  33. 33. Shaft Seal follower Stuffing box Retainer Spring Static seal Dynamic seal Liquid Gasket Secondary seal Outside mounted mechanical seal Liquid
  34. 34. Static seal Dynamic seal Liquid Gasket Secondary seal Barrier fluid 1 bar more than process Process liquid
  35. 35. MOC – MECHANICAL SEALS Primary seal 1. Ceramic 2. Carbon - Resin impregnated – corrosive applications - Antimony impregnated – non-corrosive 3. Tungsten carbide - Ni binder - Co binder 4. Silicon carbide Secondary seal Elastomers - Nitrile , Neoprene , Butyl, Hypalon Non –Elastomers - PTFE, Graf oil Spring SS 304, SS 316, Hastalloy, Monel, Alloy-20
  36. 36. PUMP TERMS Atmospheric pressure Absolute Pressure Vacuum Specific gravity Pressure of atmosphere on earth Sum of Available Pressure & Atm-pressure Full or partial elimination of atmospheric pressure Ratio weight of any liquid to weight of water of same volume.
  37. 37. Three important characteristics of pump systems. 1)Pressure is the driving force responsible for the movement of the fluid. 2)Friction is the force that slows down fluid particles. 3) Flow rate is the amount of volume that is displaced per unit time.
  38. 38. What is friction in a pump system Friction is always present, even in fluids, it is the force that resists the movement of objects.
  39. 39. Friction depends on average velocity of the fluid within the pipe , viscosity & pipe surface roughness. An increase in any one of these parameters will increase friction.
  40. 40. PUMP ENERGY = FRICTION ENERGY + ELEVATION ENERGY
  41. 41. Pressure depends on the height of the liquid surface.
  42. 42. Many times both the suction and discharge piping are the same size and the suction and discharge tanks are atmospheric. When this happens both the velocity head and pressure head terms cancel
  43. 43. When the suction tank level is raised, the total suction system head is increased. From this the total system head decreases. This means the pump TDH requirement also decreases.
  44. 44. When the suction tank level is lowered, the total suction system head is decreased. From this the total system head increases. This means the pump TDH requirements will increase.
  45. 45. When the discharge tank level is raised, the total discharge system head is increased. From this the total system head is increased. This means the pump TDH requirement increases.
  46. 46. When the friction losses increase on the suction, the total suction system head is decreased. From this the total system head is increased. This means the pump TDH requirements increase
  47. 47. When the discharge tank level is lowered, the total discharge system head is decreased. From this the total system head is decreased. This means the pump TDH requirements will decrease.
  48. 48. When the friction losses decrease on the suction, the total suction system head is increased. From this the total system head decreases. This means the pump TDH requirement decreases
  49. 49. When the friction losses decrease on the discharge, the total discharge system head is decreased. From this the total system head decreases. This means the pump TDH requirement decreases.
  50. 50. When the friction losses increase on the discharge, the total discharge system head is increased. From this the total system head increases. This means the pump TDH requirement increases.
  51. 51. When the pressure head increases on the discharge, the total discharge system head is increased. From this the total system head increases. This means the pump TDH requirement increases.
  52. 52. When the pressure head increases on the suction, the total suction system head is increased. From this the total system head decreases. This means the pump TDH requirement decreases
  53. 53. When the pressure head decreases on the discharge, the total discharge system head is decreased. From this the total system head decreases. This means the pump TDH requirement decreases.
  54. 54. When the pressure head decreases on the pump suction, the total suction system head is decreased. From this the total system head increases. This means the pump TDH requirement increases
  55. 55. Centrifugal Pumps are "constant head machines" It is not a constant pressure machine, since pressure is a function of head and density. The head is constant, even if the density (and therefore pressure) changes.
  56. 56. Pressure depends on the height of the liquid surface.
  57. 57. • Friction head • Resistance to flow in pipe and fittings • Depends on size, pipes, pipe fittings, flow rate, nature of liquid • Proportional to square of flow rate Friction head Flow
  58. 58. A pump head- capacity performance curve identifies how a pump will operate in a given system. It is the pump’s fingerprint.
  59. 59. Head & flow impact on pump 00 2020 4040 6060 8080 100100 120120 140140 160160 BEPBEP HighFlowCavitation DischargeRecirculation SuctionRecirculation ImpellerDamage Bearing&SealLifeReduced LowFlowCavitation HighTemperatureRise Capacity Head 150 125 100 75 50 25 0
  60. 60. Pump hydraulic power can be calculated by the formula: Hydraulic kW = Q x Total Head, (hd – hs) x ρ x g 1000 Parameter Details Unit Q Water flow rate m3 /s Total head Difference between discharge head, hd & suction head, hs m ρ Density of water or fluid being pumped Kg/m3 g Acceleration due to gravity m2 /s Pump efficiency, ηPump = Hydraulic power Pump shaft power Pump shaft power = Hydraulic power x ηMotor
  61. 61. 35 Affinity Laws Affinity Laws are the performance of Centrifugal Pumps based on change in Speed, Power, Flow, Head, Impeller Diameter. • FLOW CHANGES DIRECTLY AS A CHANGE IN SPEED OR DIAMETER • HEAD CHANGES AS THE SQUARE OF A CHANGE IN SPEED OR DIAMETER • HORSEPOWER CHANGES AS THE CUBE OF A CHANGE IN SPEED OR DIAMETER
  62. 62. NPSH = NOT PUMPING SO HOT?
  63. 63. Pump pressure profile showing point of lowest pressure (NPSHR).
  64. 64. Multiple-Pump Operation • To install a pumping station that can be effectively operated over a large range of fluctuations in both discharge and pressure head, it may be advantageous to install several identical pumps at the station. Pumps in Parallel Pumps in Series
  65. 65. SHAFT RUN OUT
  66. 66. AXIAL PLAY CHECKING
  67. 67. Ways to control flow of centrifugal pumps • Discharge throttle valves • Bypass valves • Impeller trimming • Speed control • Multiple pump arrangements
  68. 68. Before Impeller trimming
  69. 69. After Impeller Trimming
  70. 70. Understanding Alignment
  71. 71. Method of alignment a)Feeler gauge b)Straight edge method c)Rim & face method d)Reverse indicator method e)Laser method
  72. 72. Face-rim Three Dial Indicator Method
  73. 73. ALIGNMENT
  74. 74. Centrifugal Pumps Angular Mis-alignment
  75. 75. Centrifugal Pumps Parallel or Offset Misalignment
  76. 76. Positive displacement Fixed displacement, fluid is captured in cavities within the pump and mechanical energy moves it from the inlet to discharge
  77. 77. • Low flow • High pressure • High viscosity • Self priming • Metering • High energy efficiency Positive displacement pumps strengths
  78. 78. Positive displacement pump concerns • Not for water thin fluids • Relief valves required • Solids can be a problem • Flow limited by size and speed • Pulsating flow • More complicated machine • May require speed reducers • Higher initial cost • Higher repair costs
  79. 79. Reciprocating piston External gear pump Double screw pump Sliding vane Three-lobe pump (left) Double circumferential piston (centre) Flexible tube squeegee (peristaltic) Positive displacement pumps:
  80. 80. • For each pump revolution • Fixed amount of liquid taken from one end • Positively discharged at other end • If pipe blocked • Pressure rises • Can damage pump • Used for pumping fluids other than water Positive Displacement Pumps
  81. 81. G E A R P U M P S L O B E P U M P S S C R E W P U M P S C A M P U M P S V A N E P U M P S R O T A R Y P U M P S As the teeth come out of mesh, liquid flows into the pump and is carried between the teeth and the casing to the discharge side of the pump The teeth come back into mesh and the liquid is forced out the discharge port
  82. 82. Meshing gears separate creating vacuum Atmospheric pressure forces liquid inward to fill the vacuum
  83. 83. Liquid is delivered in large volumes with less number of pulses than in gear pump Not dependent on discharge pressure
  84. 84. Screw pumps carry fluid in the spaces between the screw threads. The fluid is displaced axially as the screws mesh. G E A R P U M P S L O B E P U M P S S C R E W P U M P S C A M P U M P S V A N E P U M P S R O T A R Y P U M P S
  85. 85. Fluid is carried between the rotor teeth and the pumping chamber The rotor surfaces create continuous sealing Rotors include bi-wing, tri-lobe, and multi-lobe configurations G E A R P U M P S L O B E P U M P S S C R E W P U M P S C A M P U M P S V A N E P U M P S R O T A R Y P U M P S
  86. 86. Function of positive displacement pump
  87. 87. Reciprocating pumps. • In the reciprocating pump a piston sucks the fluid into a cylinder then pushes it up causing the water to rise.
  88. 88. P IS T O N P U M P S P L U N G E R P U M P S D IA P H R A G M P U M P S R E C IP R O C A T IN G P U M P S P O S IT IV E D IS P L A C E M E N T P U M P S • Two valves and one stuffing box • A rotating mechanism for the reciprocating piston • Uses suction to raise liquid into the chamber.
  89. 89. PERISTALTIC PUMP • Flexible tube subjected to transitional squeeze • Continuous repetition of squeeze cycle • Handles sensitive & delicate fluid
  90. 90. Diaphragm, an elastic substance, usually rubber Used for low pressure application like removing water from trenches
  91. 91. 314
  92. 92. 317
  93. 93. Internal Gear Pump 318
  94. 94. • A typical screw pump 319
  95. 95. Thanks

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