Proactive Displays: Bridging the Gaps between  Online Social Networks and Shared Physical Spaces Joe McCarthy Principal In...
Outline <ul><li>A few shameless plugs </li></ul><ul><li>What I learned from AI </li></ul><ul><li>Overview: A brief history...
Strands: social recommendation & discovery http://www.strands.com/corp http://blog.strands.com
Strands: social recommendation & discovery “ What you play counts!”
Recommender System Startup Contest Deadline: 15 September 2008 ACM RecSys 2008 23-25 October Lausanne, Switzerland
UbiComp 2008 <ul><li>10th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Seoul, Korea, 21-24 September...
My AI Background <ul><li>A Trainable Approach to Coreference Resolution for Information Extraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P...
What I learned from AI <ul><li>A little bit of AI goes a long way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence is a large problem sp...
Proactive Displays: Definition ( ˌ )prō- ˈ ak-tiv  adjective   acting in anticipation of future problems, needs, or change...
Proactive Displays + Online Profiles Physical  Tokens + Large Displays Better Real-world Interactions Bridging the gaps be...
1st Generation Proactive Displays MusicFX MusicFX: An Arbiter of Group Preferences for Computer-Supported Cooperative Work...
2nd Generation Proactive Displays Visual Awareness Location Tools (ActiveMap & EventManager) ActiveMap: A Visualization To...
3rd Generation Proactive Displays UniCast, OutCast, GroupCast: Ubiquitous Peripheral Displays UniCast, OutCast & GroupCast...
4th Generation Proactive Displays AutoSpeakerID Ticket2Talk Neighborhood Window Augmenting the Social Space of an Academic...
4th Generation Proactive Displays (v 2)
5th Generation Proactive Displays The Context, Content & Community Collage @ Nokia Research Center Palo Alto The Context, ...
The Latest Generation of Proactive Displays <ul><li>Shortcomings of previous efforts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special-purpose...
The Problem <ul><li>Employees feel un[der]appreciated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#1 reason people leave jobs (US Labor Dept) </...
Friendships at Work 30% of employees have a best friend at work (BF@W) 20% of employees dedicate time to building relation...
Maintaining Friendships through Social Media  <ul><li>ambient intimacy   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ being able to keep in tou...
Friendships through Social Media @ Work? @
The Context, Content & Community Collage: A proactive display application Opening physical windows into online  content in...
A New Generation of Proactive Displays <ul><li>Goal: increase the sense of community in the workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Me...
Signup / Login
Select / Configure Module
Select Bluetooth Device(s)
Locations (mock-up)
Hardware & Software
Details <ul><li>Location / proximity detection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth sampling (MAC addresses, BT names) </li></u...
 
Flickr API
Interactions with / through the displays
Interactions  with  displays
The Highest Rated Content (5 up votes)
Edge detection http://www.snopes.com/horrors/robbery/kidney.asp
Everything in moderation
Moderation: NSFW  [ N ot  S afe  F or  W ork]
Moderation: SFW
 
 
 
 
Evaluation: interactions through displays <ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 displays, deployed July 19, evaluated af...
Positive / Negative Impact (Personal / Professional)
A few choice comments <ul><li>I was surprised by some of the photos taken by [a colleague]. I had no idea of his very dive...
Impact of Displays on Social Media
Influence of Rank & Role
Influence of Team Membership
Influence of competition Wii Tournaments
Future Work: Algorithms <ul><li>Location / Proximity detection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Near / far </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Future Work: Modules <ul><li>Other sources of content </li></ul><ul><li>Other interaction modalities </li></ul><ul><li>Oth...
Future Work: Interfaces & Interactivity <ul><li>Interfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signup page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Di...
Future Work: Replicability and Sustainability <ul><li>Deployments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nokia: NY, Dallas, Helsinki, LA … ...
Future Work @ Strands Labs Seattle New Content Sources (http://beta.strands.com) New Physical Spaces (“third places”)
Related Work: Commercial Awareness / Interactions at Events Digital Signage Captivate TV ClearChannel,  et al. RippleTV
Related Work: OneKeyAway / MatchlinC <ul><li>OneKeyAway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singles mixers in LA / SF Bay area; since Ma...
Related Work: partyStrands (1) New Year’s Eve Times Square, NYC Paul Van Dyk Crystal Ballroom, Portland Buda del Mar Bar M...
Related Work: partyStrands (2)
Related Work: Research (1) <ul><li>Meme Tags (MIT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal display :  display for other people...
Related Work: Research (2) <ul><li>PlasmaPoster (FXPAL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive community bulletin board </li></...
Thanks! <ul><li>For more information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://interrelativ...
Backup
Related Work: Alone Together Two Hours of Joint Solitude http://www.coffeegeek.com/opinions/cafestage/10-19-2005 Alone Tog...
Related Work: Addictive Games <ul><li>Amy Jo Kim, Social Architect, Shufflebrain </li></ul><ul><li>“ Putting the Fun in Fu...
Early proactive displays Dangling String (PARC) Bus Mobile (UC Berkeley)
Proactive Displays in the large Sunset @ 200MHz (PARC) Love Board (Hachiko Crossing)
Proactive Displays on the road Alaris E-boards (www.alaris.net)
Proactive displays, circa 2054
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Proactive Displays IIIA 20080627

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Presentation given at IIIA @ CSIC in Barcelona on 27 June 2008.

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  • Proactive Displays IIIA 20080627

    1. 1. Proactive Displays: Bridging the Gaps between Online Social Networks and Shared Physical Spaces Joe McCarthy Principal Instigator Strands Labs, Seattle
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>A few shameless plugs </li></ul><ul><li>What I learned from AI </li></ul><ul><li>Overview: A brief history of Proactive Displays </li></ul><ul><li>An example: the Context, Content & Community Collage </li></ul><ul><li>Related work: commercial & academic </li></ul><ul><li>Future plans </li></ul>(Slides available online at http://www.slideshare.net/gumption )
    3. 3. Strands: social recommendation & discovery http://www.strands.com/corp http://blog.strands.com
    4. 4. Strands: social recommendation & discovery “ What you play counts!”
    5. 5. Recommender System Startup Contest Deadline: 15 September 2008 ACM RecSys 2008 23-25 October Lausanne, Switzerland
    6. 6. UbiComp 2008 <ul><li>10th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Seoul, Korea, 21-24 September 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Open participation categories (thru 27 June 2008, 23:59 PDT): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workshops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Panels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doctoral Colloquium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student Volunteers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://ubicomp.org/ubicomp2008/ </li></ul>Program Co-Chairs Joe McCarthy (Strands Labs Seattle, USA) James Scott (Microsoft Research, UK) Woontack Woo (GIST, South Korea)
    7. 7. My AI Background <ul><li>A Trainable Approach to Coreference Resolution for Information Extraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ph.D. Dissertation, 1996, University of Massachusetts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine Learning, Natural Language Processing </li></ul></ul>Conference Year Text Source Topic (Domain) MUC-1 1987 Mil. reports Fleet Operations MUC-2 1989 Mil. reports Fleet Operations MUC-3 1991 News reports Terrorist activities in Latin America MUC-4 1992 News reports Terrorist activities in Latin America MUC-5 1993 News reports Corporate Joint Ventures, Microelectronic Production MUC-6 1995 News reports Labor Disputes and Corporate Management Succession MUC-7 1997 News reports Airplane crashes, and Rocket/Missile Launches
    8. 8. What I learned from AI <ul><li>A little bit of AI goes a long way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence is a large problem space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The only way to make progress is to impose appropriate constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>News articles vs. all of language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small number of entities vs. all of the world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The same applies to ubiquitous computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ubiquitous computing = computing everywhere (“beyond the desktop”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everywhere is a large problem space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain places vs. everywhere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain activities vs. everything </li></ul></ul>Neat vs. Scruffy Strong AI vs. Weak AI
    9. 9. Proactive Displays: Definition ( ˌ )prō- ˈ ak-tiv adjective acting in anticipation of future problems, needs, or changes di- ˈ splā noun a setting or presentation of something in open view
    10. 10. Proactive Displays + Online Profiles Physical Tokens + Large Displays Better Real-world Interactions Bridging the gaps between people by bridging the gaps between the online and offline worlds = Large visual or aural displays that can sense & respond to the people and activities taking place in their vicinity
    11. 11. 1st Generation Proactive Displays MusicFX MusicFX: An Arbiter of Group Preferences for Computer-Supported Cooperative Workouts Joseph F. McCarthy and Theodore Anagnost 1998 ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW ‘98) A Multi-Agent System for Meting Out Influence in an Intelligent Environment M. V. Nagendra Prasad and Joseph F. McCarthy Eleventh Innovative Applications in Artificial Intelligence Conference (IAAI ‘99) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WLgXLl4uGYk a fitness center environment that knows who is working out, what they like to listen to, and dynamically adjusts the music to best suit the group of exercisers at any given time.
    12. 12. 2nd Generation Proactive Displays Visual Awareness Location Tools (ActiveMap & EventManager) ActiveMap: A Visualization Tool for Location Awareness to Support Informal Interactions Joseph F. McCarthy and Eric S. Meidel First International Symposium on Handheld and Ubiquitous Computing (HUC '99) EventManager: Support for the Peripheral Awareness of Events Joseph F. McCarthy and Theodore D. Anagnost. Second International Symposium on Handheld and Ubiquitous Computing (HUC 2000) a suite of tools for creating greater awareness of the location and activities of colleagues within a workgroup, with an aim to provide more opportunities for informal communication
    13. 13. 3rd Generation Proactive Displays UniCast, OutCast, GroupCast: Ubiquitous Peripheral Displays UniCast, OutCast & GroupCast: Three Steps Toward Ubiquitous Peripheral Displays Joseph F. McCarthy, Tony J. Costa and Edy S. Liongosari Third International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp 2001) Promoting Awareness of Work Activities through Peripheral Displays Elaine M. Huang, Joe Tullio, Tony J. Costa and Joseph F. McCarthy 2002 ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computer Systems (CHI 2002)
    14. 14. 4th Generation Proactive Displays AutoSpeakerID Ticket2Talk Neighborhood Window Augmenting the Social Space of an Academic Conference Joseph F. McCarthy, David W. McDonald, Suzanne Soroczak, David H. Nguyen and Al M. Rashid ACM 2004 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW 2004) Proactive Displays: Supporting Awareness in Fluid Social Environments David W. McDonald, Joseph F. McCarthy, Suzanne Soroczak, David H. Nguyen and Al M. Rashid ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interactions (TOCHI), Vol. 14, No. 4, January 2008
    15. 15. 4th Generation Proactive Displays (v 2)
    16. 16. 5th Generation Proactive Displays The Context, Content & Community Collage @ Nokia Research Center Palo Alto The Context, Content & Community Collage: Sharing Personal Digital Media in the Physical Workplace Joseph F. McCarthy, Ben Congleton, F. Maxwell Harper To appear: ACM 2008 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW 2008)
    17. 17. The Latest Generation of Proactive Displays <ul><li>Shortcomings of previous efforts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special-purpose sensors (IR badges, RFID tags) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special-purpose profiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special-purpose installations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goals of present / future efforts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-purpose sensors (BT mobiles … NFC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-purpose profiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-purpose installations </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. The Problem <ul><li>Employees feel un[der]appreciated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#1 reason people leave jobs (US Labor Dept) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2/3 of workers receive no recognition (Gallup) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active disengagement costs US$300B / year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employees feel disconnected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of community in workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Us vs. them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managers have less time, broader responsibilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to manage frequent, sustained “personal touch” </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Friendships at Work 30% of employees have a best friend at work (BF@W) 20% of employees dedicate time to building relationships at work Employees with a BF@W are 50% more satisfied with their company Employees with a BF@W are 7 times more likely to be engaged in their work
    20. 20. Maintaining Friendships through Social Media <ul><li>ambient intimacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ being able to keep in touch with people with a level of regularity and intimacy that you wouldn’t usually have access to” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leisa Reichert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.disambiguity.com/ambient-intimacy/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.slideshare.net/leisa/ambient-intimacy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>continuous partial friendship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>David Weinberger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.hyperorg.com/backissues/joho-may04-07.html </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Friendships through Social Media @ Work? @
    22. 22. The Context, Content & Community Collage: A proactive display application Opening physical windows into online content in workplace contexts to foster a greater sense of community
    23. 23. A New Generation of Proactive Displays <ul><li>Goal: increase the sense of community in the workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Method: open windows in shared physical spaces into the social media co-workers are creating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situated Social Software (SiSoSo) [vs. Mobile Social Software (MoSoSo)] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypotheses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding a physical dimension of audience will promote greater social media usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social media sharing in the workplace will enhance personal relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced personal relationships will lead to more productive professional relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy / benefit tradeoff (usability vs. security) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable engagement (after novelty factor has worn off) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to measure the impact? (measuring community, relationships) </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Signup / Login
    25. 25. Select / Configure Module
    26. 26. Select Bluetooth Device(s)
    27. 27. Locations (mock-up)
    28. 28. Hardware & Software
    29. 29. Details <ul><li>Location / proximity detection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth sampling (MAC addresses, BT names) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location server (separate component) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Priority queue management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New / old, near / far, 70/30 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Display management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firefox + Javascript </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flickr module </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruby API </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remote administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process, power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modular, flexible framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Front-end (time / space sharing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back-end </li></ul></ul>
    30. 31. Flickr API
    31. 32. Interactions with / through the displays
    32. 33. Interactions with displays
    33. 34. The Highest Rated Content (5 up votes)
    34. 35. Edge detection http://www.snopes.com/horrors/robbery/kidney.asp
    35. 36. Everything in moderation
    36. 37. Moderation: NSFW [ N ot S afe F or W ork]
    37. 38. Moderation: SFW
    38. 43. Evaluation: interactions through displays <ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 displays, deployed July 19, evaluated after 4 weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>75 full-time / part-time residents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>44 proactive display accounts (34 non-empty) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perpetual alpha (location sensing, new modules, new features) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypotheses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding a physical dimension of audience will promote greater social media usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social media sharing in the workplace will enhance personal relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced personal relationships will lead to more productive professional relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web-based Survey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix of multiple choice and open text questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32 responses </li></ul></ul>
    39. 44. Positive / Negative Impact (Personal / Professional)
    40. 45. A few choice comments <ul><li>I was surprised by some of the photos taken by [a colleague]. I had no idea of his very diversified and, in some cases, adventurous interests, and his photos showed me a side of him I would have never realized. The photos also give you an appreciation of other people's interests and unique travels. I find the photos absolutely fascinating and a very strong method of bringing all of us closer. </li></ul><ul><li>I[t] was nice to see people putting up &quot;themes&quot;. One person had a Star Wars theme, actually happening just by tags, but appeared to me as if a themed series of photos. </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat negative: I was surprised to see a photo of my family (my husband and my two kids) with another female friend. They were all sprawled on the grass. It reminded me of a picnic we all had together. But it also made me self-conscious: what would other people think of seeing this scene. Who is the &quot;mystery lady&quot;? Positive: walking into the kitchen and spotting my daughter's happy face on the screen. It was a nice greeting! Positive: I am delighted to see other peoples pics of exotic places they visited. Negative: seeing a picture of a guy in his underwear. The face was not in the pics so I couldn't tell who it is. Somebody esle in the room &quot;killed&quot; the photo. Positive: seeing people cluster around displays. I like that! </li></ul>
    41. 46. Impact of Displays on Social Media
    42. 47. Influence of Rank & Role
    43. 48. Influence of Team Membership
    44. 49. Influence of competition Wii Tournaments
    45. 50. Future Work: Algorithms <ul><li>Location / Proximity detection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Near / far </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proxemics, biosemiotics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Priority queue management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People, streams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommender System </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Module management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Space, time, displays </li></ul></ul>
    46. 51. Future Work: Modules <ul><li>Other sources of content </li></ul><ul><li>Other interaction modalities </li></ul><ul><li>Other dimensions of experience </li></ul>
    47. 52. Future Work: Interfaces & Interactivity <ul><li>Interfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signup page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Display interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrator interface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interactivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touchscreens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other? </li></ul></ul>
    48. 53. Future Work: Replicability and Sustainability <ul><li>Deployments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nokia: NY, Dallas, Helsinki, LA … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academia: UMich, UMN, Stanford, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>?: Yahoo!, Flickr, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobiquitous Marketing (Mobile + Ubiquitous) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holistic approach to engagement marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-promotional opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contextual advertising in physical world </li></ul></ul>
    49. 54. Future Work @ Strands Labs Seattle New Content Sources (http://beta.strands.com) New Physical Spaces (“third places”)
    50. 55. Related Work: Commercial Awareness / Interactions at Events Digital Signage Captivate TV ClearChannel, et al. RippleTV
    51. 56. Related Work: OneKeyAway / MatchlinC <ul><li>OneKeyAway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singles mixers in LA / SF Bay area; since May 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>64 true-false questions about sex, religion, drug use, how you spend your spare time, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I just want to get people together and talk about relationships … to discuss the questions, talk about their habits and personality traits. I think the device facilitates that.” – Edwin Duterte </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MatchlinC: personality compatibility device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a mini “relationship advisor” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrared “zapping” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three color codes (stoplight): red, amber, green) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reminiscent of Lock & Key, Lovegety, Meme Tags </li></ul>
    52. 57. Related Work: partyStrands (1) New Year’s Eve Times Square, NYC Paul Van Dyk Crystal Ballroom, Portland Buda del Mar Bar Madrid http://www.partystrands.com http://blog.mystrands.com/category/partystrands
    53. 58. Related Work: partyStrands (2)
    54. 59. Related Work: Research (1) <ul><li>Meme Tags (MIT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal display : display for other people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RF + LEDs + programming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CityWall (Helsinki IIT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-touch display in city center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flickr photos tagged with “helsinki” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactions with display vs. through display </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Twitterspaces (Indiana U) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large display in campus lounge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic visualization of group “tweets” (Twitter) </li></ul></ul>
    55. 60. Related Work: Research (2) <ul><li>PlasmaPoster (FXPAL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive community bulletin board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate, conference, café contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opinionizer (Sussex) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared display at social events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction through typed input </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamo (Sussex) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High school setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction via USB disk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AgentSalon (ATR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction via PalmGuides (PDAs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversations mediated by animated agents </li></ul></ul>Public and Situated Displays O’Hara, Perry, Churchill, Russell
    56. 61. Thanks! <ul><li>For more information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://interrelativity.com/joe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://gumption.typepad.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.slideshare.net/gumption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C4 made possible by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ben Congleton (U. Mich), Max Harper (U. Minn) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nokia Context, Content & Community (C3) team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All my former colleagues at Nokia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future work being made possible by Strands [Labs [Seattle]] </li></ul>Yogi Patel Sameer Ahuja Shelly Farnham Richie Hazlewood
    57. 62. Backup
    58. 63. Related Work: Alone Together Two Hours of Joint Solitude http://www.coffeegeek.com/opinions/cafestage/10-19-2005 Alone Together http://blogs.parc.com/playon/
    59. 64. Related Work: Addictive Games <ul><li>Amy Jo Kim, Social Architect, Shufflebrain </li></ul><ul><li>“ Putting the Fun in Functional: Applying Game Mechanics to Functional Software” </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives for games, communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchanges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customization </li></ul></ul>http://www.shufflebrain.com/etech2007.html
    60. 65. Early proactive displays Dangling String (PARC) Bus Mobile (UC Berkeley)
    61. 66. Proactive Displays in the large Sunset @ 200MHz (PARC) Love Board (Hachiko Crossing)
    62. 67. Proactive Displays on the road Alaris E-boards (www.alaris.net)
    63. 68. Proactive displays, circa 2054
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