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Final india powerpoint Final india powerpoint Presentation Transcript

  • Early Civilizations Of India Chapter 7 Section 3
  • Background:Indus Valley Civilization
    Grew in fertile river valley
    Largest of the world’s early civilizations
    Lasted about 1,000 years from 2500 B.C. to 1500 B.C.
  • Planned Cities
    Archaeologists have excavated several cities along the Indus River and Arabian Coast, such as the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo- Daro.
    Each city was carefully laid out with:
    Straight streets
    A walled fortress to protect city
    Warehouses to hold food supplies
    Had separate districts for home and public buildings
    This level of urban planning suggests that the government was well organized
    Archaeologists think that the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were built as capitals of a strong empire
    Lie 350 miles apart
    Other towns were in between
  • Farming and trade
    Rulers of the Indus Valley civilization collected taxes in the form of food
    Most people were farmers
    They grew barley, wheat, peas, and sesame
    Had cattle, sheep, goats and water buffalo
    Probably the first people to grow cotton and domesticate, or tame, chickens
    Merchants of the Indus Valley civilization traded with people of the Middle East.
    Through trade, ideas passed back and forth
  • Unsolved Puzzles
    Hundreds of small clay seals were found in the Middle East
    Archaeologists state that they came from the Indus Valley.
    Pictographic writing and figures of animals were carved on the seals
    Scholars have been unable to decipher, or determine the meaning, of the writing
    Deciphering this ancient script might help us learn about the religion of the Indus Valley.
    Statues of women have been found that suggest people worshipped a mother goddess.
    Other statues suggest animals had a religious importance
    This idea influence later civilizations
  • Decline of Indus Valley Civilization
    No one knows for sure what caused the decline
    By about 2000 B.C., the cities showed signs of decay
    Towns were abandoned
    Broken streets
    Homes were divided into small tenement-like apartments
    Until recently scholars thought that the Indus Valley was conquered by invaders
    New evidence suggests that the decline was originally due to natural causes
    Climate was too dry to support farming so people went hungry
    Indus River changed course which affected food production
    Soil exhaustion due to extensive years of farming
    People migrated to other parts of the Indian Subcontinent
    Scholars think the Dravidian people, who now live in southern India, may be descendents from the Indus Valley civilization.
  • Aryan Civilization
    The Aryans spread out across the northern plains- most of the information we know about them comes from the Vedas, which are oral religious traditions; hymns, prayers and ceremony rituals
    Vedas today are still part of Indian life
    Religious Beliefs
    - Aryans developed a written language called Sanskrit and their religious oral traditions were written down
    - Aryans worshipped many gods
    >the most important was Indra, a warrior god- he had many positive characteristics
    >the god Varuna governed the workings of the universe and punished sinners
    - Aryan worship centered around sacrifices which they believed if they were generous enough and offered correctly, the gods would reward them with wealth, healthy children, long life and success in war
  • Villages
    Aryans were both farmers and herders and they placed great value on cattle
    People measured wealth in terms of cattle
    - the Vedas compared the Earth to a cow, rain is like the cow’s milk and the sun is calf
    Rajahs, or hereditary chiefs, ruled villages
    - a council of warriors assisted the Rajah
    - the chief priest also held great power and carried out sacrifices to the gods
    Social Classes
    Aryans divided people into four social classes, called varna
    Social Class
    Brahmans - at the top of society; included priests
    Kshatriyas – warriors
    Vaisyas – landowners, merchants, and herders
    Sudras – servants and peasants who waited on others
    Over time, the social classes of the Aryans developed into a more rigid system of caste; social groups based on birth
  • Arrival of the Aryans
    The arrival of the nomadic and warlike people, the Aryans, contributed to the collapse of the Indus Valley
    The Aryans came to India through the Hindu Kush Mountains from the Caucascus Mountains
    They came in contact with the Middle East and learned how to make iron tools and weapons
    The Aryan migration took hundreds of years
    - they overran the towns and cities of the Indus valley with their weapons and horse-drawn war chariots
    Over time, the Aryans absorbed ideas from the Indus valley civilization
  • Ancient Animals of India
    Mostly inhabited the prehistoric Indo-Gangetic plains and Deccan plateau
    15  species of elephant-like creatures
    -Gomphotheres: boar-sized elephants with tusks on upper and lower jaw and no trunk
    -Mastodons: similar to the Gomphotheres but 10 ft. tall
    -Stedodonganesa: closely resembles the present day elephant
    -In north India lived the largest creature ever to live 
    -Baluchiterium: stood 18 ft. all, weighed as much as five modern day elephants, however he was harmless
    Smilodori: large, muscular cat with saber-like teeth
    -One of the most dangerous and vicious predators
    Parasuchus: fresh water crocodile that grew to lengths of 30 ft, maintained 30 sharp teeth, and came on land to hunt animals in the open plains
  • India One Million Years Ago
    Wandering men and woman settled on the plains
    -Lived in caves where they painted scenes from their hunts
    -Hunted bison and pigs
    -Used stone tools to skin their prey
    Himalayas stood as the largest barrier
    Secrets of agriculture were discovered near rivers such as Karnataka and the Narmada Valley
    Acquired the skill of grinding and polishing stone implements to make sickles and axes
    Wove baskets and created pots from clay
  • Early Indian Civilizations
    Most famous ancient cities of India:
    -Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa
    Located in the Indus River Valleys, the cities were divided by 350 miles
    Communicated through a river boat system
    The streets of the cities were laid out in a grid
    Courtyards surrounded the houses of the wealth
    Advanced drainage and water supply systems supported the people
    System of language united the people
    -remains un-deciphered till today
    Discovered cotton and the taming of the jungle fowl (chicken)
    Traded extensively with the Persian Gulf at the mouth of the Indus
    Maintained extremely peaceful relations