Indus civilization

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Indus civilization

  1. 1. Indus Civilization<br />Mergarh, Political and Economic System, Religion, Social System, System of Writing, Fall of Civilization<br />
  2. 2. Fertile land along the rivers of Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra in the north<br />Dry Deccan Plateau in central India<br />Low mountain ranges called the Western and Eastern Ghats on the either side of India facing the seas<br />3 Divisions of South Asia<br />
  3. 3. Melting snow from Himalayas<br />Heavy rains<br />Silt deposit is left along the riverbanks after every flooding. The deposits make the land fertile and suitable for agriculture<br />Water source of Ganges, Indus and Brahmaputra<br />
  4. 4. Pre-Indus Neolithic village<br />Appeared in Baluchistan region (now Pakistan)<br />Sedentary (sitting or nonmigratory)<br />Engaged in agriculture and raised sheep, goats and oxen<br />Painted pottery, baked bread and made cereal<br />Their houses were made of clay bricks like the Sumerians<br />Mergarh<br />
  5. 5. Archaeologists(1922) discovered the remains of one of the cities in the Indus River<br />Monumental buildings<br />Houses made of bricks<br />Clay seals<br />Political and Economic Systems<br />
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  8. 8. Two most important cities of the Indus civilization (Dravidians)<br />Economic Activities<br />Agriculture<br />Built irrigation systems, canals and dikes to control flooding of the Indus River<br />Products: wheat, barley, melon, dates and cotton<br />Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa<br />
  9. 9. Economic Activities<br />Cotton was woven into cloth<br />Pottery, jewelry and tools<br />Sold in government bazaars <br />Carried by Dravidian ships, traded with the regions in the Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf<br />Continuation <br />
  10. 10. 2 main areas:<br />Citadel(the elevated fortress of the city)<br />Lower city proper<br />City<br />
  11. 11. Found in the western region of the city, erected on the brick platform with a height or 40 feet or 12 meters and is surrounded by walls<br />Inside, will find a large granary for grains, a marketplace and public bath<br />Citadel<br />
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  13. 13. Has streets in a grid-pattern arrangement and with residential blocks of almost the same size<br />Houses are made of baked bricks<br />The roof is flat and often constructed against the street.<br />Houses have one or more baths which is connected to the city’s underground plumbing system<br />Lower part of the City<br />
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  15. 15. Has streets in a grid-pattern arrangement and with residential blocks of almost the same size<br />Houses are made of baked bricks<br />The roof is flat and often constructed against the street.<br />Houses have one or more baths which is connected to the city’s underground plumbing system<br />
  16. 16. Mohenjo-Daro <br />
  17. 17. Excavated toys that indicates leisure and play<br />No weapons found imply absence of war and conflict<br />Dravidians have organized and centralized government<br />Dravidians had priest-kings as leaders<br />They were able to construct public works (irrigation, plumbing system and regular residential blocks) <br />Other facts<br />
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  19. 19. Dravidians worshipped gods and goddesses who represented forces of nature.<br />Animal and human-shaped statues were found. Ex. Bull<br />They worshiped a fertility goddess from whom all things sprung forth<br />Regilion<br />
  20. 20. Social Stratification<br />Those who lived in the citadels may have been members of the ruling class – priest-king and city officials<br />The traders, artisans and farmers lived outside the citadel<br />Farmers were tasked to build the dikes and canals for irrigations while the artisans made products out of bronze, silver, gold, copper, ivory, cotton and shells <br />Social System<br />
  21. 21. Scholars believed that the traders were the first to use the Indus system of writing.<br />Clay seals with pictograms of products<br />Evidence that there exist a trade between Sumer and Indus<br />System of Writing<br />
  22. 22. Dravidian traders and engineers had developed a uniform way of measuring and weighing things.<br />This is very evident in their same-sized residential blocks and grid-patterned streets.<br />Continuation<br />
  23. 23. After 1000 years of prosperity, Indus civilization slowly decayed.<br />Around 1750BCE, there was a decline in their quality of life.<br />Pottery became courser in their texture before<br />Fall of Civilization <br />
  24. 24. Caused by ecological factors such as deforestation, changes in flood occurrences and abrupt change in climate<br />New migrants came to the Indus valley in the later period<br />Nomadic groups from Northwestern Asia arrived sometime 1500 BCE<br />Among them were the Aryans who crossed the passes of Hindu Kush but not clearly whether they destroyed the Indus civilization<br />Theories of the Fall<br />
  25. 25. The cities of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa were slowly buried in mud.<br />Their legacy was recently excavated by archaeologists.<br />Continuation<br />

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