Section 1 Notes
In 1922, archaeologists in northwestern
India made a huge discovery
Digging in the Indus River valley they
discovered ev...
The Indian subcontinent is a huge, wedge-
shaped peninsula extending into the Indian
Ocean
Today, it includes 3 of the w...
The Indian subcontinent is divided into
three major zones: the well-watered
northern plain, the dry triangular Deccan,
an...
The northern plain lies just south of the
mountains
This fertile region is water by mighty rivers:
the Indus (which give...
The most recognizable feature on any map
of India is the Deccan
This triangular plateau juts into the Indian
Ocean
The ...
The coastal plains are separated from the
Deccan by low-lying mountain ranges, the
Eastern and Western Ghats
Rivers and ...
Today, as in the past, a defining feature of
Indian life is the monsoon, a seasonal wind
In October, the winter monsoons...
The monsoon has shaped Indian life
Each year, people welcome the rains that
are desperately needed to water the crops
I...
The earliest Indian civilization emerged in
the Indus River valley in present-day
Pakistan about 2500BC
This civilizatio...
The two main cities, Harappa and
Mohenjo-Daro may have been twin
capitals
Both were large and were about three
miles in ...
The most striking feature of Harappa and
Mohenjo-Daro is that they were so
carefully planned
Each city was laid out in a...
Archaeologists have concluded that the
Indus Valley cities had a well-organized
government
Powerful leaders made sure th...
Most Indus Valley people were farmers
They great a wide variety of crops that
included wheat, barley, melons, and dates
...
 Some people were merchants and traders
 Their ships carried cargoes of cotton cloth,
grain, copper, pearls, and ivory c...
The peoples of the Indus Valley
civilizations were polytheistic
A mother goddess, the source of
creation, seems to have ...
 Began the excavation of Harappa and
Mohenjo-Daro in the 1940s
 Wheeler was a noted scientist but also had a
reputation ...
WH Chapter 3 Section 1 Notes
WH Chapter 3 Section 1 Notes
WH Chapter 3 Section 1 Notes
WH Chapter 3 Section 1 Notes
WH Chapter 3 Section 1 Notes
WH Chapter 3 Section 1 Notes
WH Chapter 3 Section 1 Notes
WH Chapter 3 Section 1 Notes
WH Chapter 3 Section 1 Notes
WH Chapter 3 Section 1 Notes
WH Chapter 3 Section 1 Notes
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WH Chapter 3 Section 1 Notes

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WH Chapter 3 Section 1 Notes

  1. 1. Section 1 Notes
  2. 2. In 1922, archaeologists in northwestern India made a huge discovery Digging in the Indus River valley they discovered evidence of a lost civilization believed to be 3500 years old The Indus River valley is located on the Indian subcontinent Subcontinent---large landmass that juts out from a continent
  3. 3. The Indian subcontinent is a huge, wedge- shaped peninsula extending into the Indian Ocean Today, it includes 3 of the world’s 10 most populous countries---India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh The northern border of the subcontinent is framed by the towering, snow-covered Hindu Kush and Himalaya mountain ranges
  4. 4. The Indian subcontinent is divided into three major zones: the well-watered northern plain, the dry triangular Deccan, and the coastal plains on either side of the Deccan
  5. 5. The northern plain lies just south of the mountains This fertile region is water by mighty rivers: the Indus (which gives India its name), the Ganges*, and the Brahmaputra These rivers and their tributaries carry melting snow from the mountains to the plains, making agriculture possible
  6. 6. The most recognizable feature on any map of India is the Deccan This triangular plateau juts into the Indian Ocean The Deccan lacks melting snows that feed the rivers of the north and provide water and irrigation As a result, much of the Deccan is arid, unproductive, and sparsely populated
  7. 7. The coastal plains are separated from the Deccan by low-lying mountain ranges, the Eastern and Western Ghats Rivers and heavy seasonal rains provide water for farmers People use the seas for fishing and as highways for trade
  8. 8. Today, as in the past, a defining feature of Indian life is the monsoon, a seasonal wind In October, the winter monsoons blow from the northeast and bring a flow of hot, dry air that withers crops In late May or early June, the wet summer monsoons blow from the southwest and drench the land with daily downpours
  9. 9. The monsoon has shaped Indian life Each year, people welcome the rains that are desperately needed to water the crops If the rains are late, famine and starvation may occur If the rains are too heavy, rushing rivers unleash deadly flooding
  10. 10. The earliest Indian civilization emerged in the Indus River valley in present-day Pakistan about 2500BC This civilization flourished for 1000 years then vanished without a trace Archaeologists have not fully uncovered many Indus Valley sites
  11. 11. The two main cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro may have been twin capitals Both were large and were about three miles in circumference Each was dominated by a massive hilltop structure, probably a fortress or temple Both cities had huge warehouses to store grain brought in from outlying villages
  12. 12. The most striking feature of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro is that they were so carefully planned Each city was laid out in a grid pattern All houses were built of uniform oven-fired clay bricks Houses had surprisingly modern plumbing systems, with baths, drains, and water chutes that led into sewers beneath the streets
  13. 13. Archaeologists have concluded that the Indus Valley cities had a well-organized government Powerful leaders made sure the people had a steady supply of grain The rigid pattern of building and the uniform brick sizes suggest government planners
  14. 14. Most Indus Valley people were farmers They great a wide variety of crops that included wheat, barley, melons, and dates They were the first people to cultivate cotton and weave its fibers into cloth
  15. 15.  Some people were merchants and traders  Their ships carried cargoes of cotton cloth, grain, copper, pearls, and ivory combs  By hugging the Arabian Sea coast and sailing up the Persian Gulf, Indian vessels reached the cities of Sumer  Contact with Sumer may have stimulated Indus Valley people to develop their own system of writing
  16. 16. The peoples of the Indus Valley civilizations were polytheistic A mother goddess, the source of creation, seems to have been widely honored Indus people also worshipped sacred animals, including the bull Some scholars think these early practices influenced later Indian beliefs, especially veneration for cattle
  17. 17.  Began the excavation of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro in the 1940s  Wheeler was a noted scientist but also had a reputation as a scoundrel  His scandals, self-promotion, and success--- combined with his manipulation of the press-- -drew thousands of visitors to his sites  Possibly more than any other person, Wheeler is responsible for the public’s fascination with the work of archaeologists

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