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Cap2

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  • 1. Wr= Vhswhpehu 4:/ 5336 Sdjh= 4 +Fkdswhu khdg=,Fdsðwxor 5= t H{hufðflr 514= Dv gxdv sduwðfxodv hvwær vxvshqvdv sru r gh frpsulphqwrv , d sduwlu gh xp srqwr frpxp1 Vxdv pdvvdv vær 6 h vxdv fdujdv vær ^1 Sdud fdofxodu r åqjxor txh fdgd frugd id} frp d yhuwlfdo edvwd qrwdu txh ghyhprv whu/ ghfrpsrqgr iruêdv vreuh fdgd sduwðfxod 6} c A ULt w ' f ^2 A t? w c ' f eZ0f E2, t? w2 Dvvlp/ A ' 6} tiU w h ^2 6} |@? w ' eZ0f E2, t? w2 gh prgr txh t?
  • 2. w ^2 ' ULt w SZ0f 6},2 rx t?
  • 3. w  |@?
  • 4. w ^2 ' ' c ULt
  • 5. w tiU2 w  n |@?2 w SZ0f 6},2 txh ì r uhvxowdgr ghvhmdgr1 Qrwh txh/ vh w  / hqwær srghuðdprv hvfuhyhu *
  • 6. ^2 w' SZ0f 6},2 t H{hufðflr 515= Dv fdujdv vær ' ' 2 e f3b h '2 ' cfD e f3b 1 D vhsdudêær ì o ' e e f32 61 Dvvlp/ d iruêd hqwuh hodv vhuä ' '2 c e f3H 8 ' ' ' eZ0f o2 eZ e HHDe e f32 e S e f3e f32 ' c ' cfDS e f3D ZDSSSDS Vh dv hvihudv vær srvwdv hp frqwdwr/ d fdujd vh uhglvwulexl gh prgr txh whuhprv xpd fdujd oðtxlgd wrwdo ljxdo d 'A ' D e f3b h fdgd hvihud fduä frp xpd fdujd ljxdo ã phwdgh ghvwh ydoru1 Dvvlp/ d iruêd fduä ' '2 22D e f3H 8 ' ' ' eZ0f o2 eZ e HHDe e f32 e S e f3e ' n2S e f3D
  • 7. Wr= Vhswhpehu 4:/ 5336 Sdjh= 5 t H{hufðflr 517= Whprv xp r lqqlwdphqwh orqjr/ frp ghqvlgdgh xqliruph gh fdujd b sru xqlgdgh gh frpsulphqwr1 D lqwhjudo sdud r fdpsr hoìwulfr/ sdud xp srqwr d xpd glvwåqfld O gd olqkd/ fd +sru vlphwuld whprv dshqdv r fdpsr udgldo hp frrughqdgdv o floðqgulfdv/ frorfdprv r srqwr vreuh r sodqr 5 ' f sru frqyhqlíqfld, ] nu  b .o Eo ' *4 _5 ' eZ0f u 3u do 2 n 5 2 o
  • 8. *2  2u  2 ' *4 S ' *4 t ' eZ0f u -2 -2 n u2 eZ0f u -2 - n  u  ' c 2Z0f -2 txh ì r uhvxowdgr surfxudgr1 t H{hufðflr 518= +d, Whprv xp glvfr flufxodu gh udlr -/ frp xpd ghqvlgdgh vxshufldo gh fdujd j xqliruph1 Sdud ghwhuplqdu r fdpsr hoìwulfr hp xp srqwr vreuh r hl{r gr glvfr d xpd glvwåqfld 5 gh vhx sodqr edvwd frorfdu 4 Eo c w c 5 ' jB E5 c gh prgr txh +hp xp srqwr txdotxhu Eoc wc 5, ]  jB E5 ) E5c oc w ' o _o _w _5 ' eZ0f T MO c O M o o ] n ] 2Z ] - j o ' t _o _w _5 eZ0f 3 f f Eo c o n E5 c 5 2 2 Qr srqwr Efc fc 5 fdprv frp ] - j 2o j kS 2 l ) E5c oc w ' S _o ' - n 52 c 5 e0f f o2 n 5 2 20f Sdud hqfrqwudu r fdpsr/ edvwd qrwdu txh/ sru vlphwuld/ vö ghyhprv whu r fdpsr qd gluhêær 5/ gh prgr txh O Y) j 5 . ' c 5 ' c S 2 5 Y5 20f - n 52 Djrud whprv xp flolqgur flufxodu uhwr gh udlr - h dowxud u/ rulhqwdgr dr orqjr gr hl{r 51 Vxd ghqvlgdgh yroxpìwulfd gh fdujd ì 4 E5 ' 4f n q5 hp uhodêær ã ruljhp qr fhqwur gr flolqgur1 Sdud dfkdu d iruêd vreuh xpd fdujd sxqwliruph ^
  • 9. Wr= Vhswhpehu 4:/ 5336 Sdjh= 6 qr fhqwur gr flolqgur/ edvwd hqfrqwudu r srwhqfldo qd ruljhp/ ghsrlv r fdpsr . O h qdophqwh d iruêd/ sru vlpsohv pxowlsolfdêær1 Dvvlp/ r srwhqfldo fd ] nu*2 ] 2Z ] -  4 n q5 ) Efc fc 5 ' t f o _o _w _5 ' eZ0f 3u*2 f f o2 n E5 c 5 2 ] nu*2 t  ' E4f n q5 - 2 n E5 c 5 2 c E5 c 5 _5 20f 3u*2 Id}hqgr/ sruwdqwr % # u $ O q u u u2 u . ' .5 M 5'f 5 ' c -2 n n -2 t?3 c 20f 2 2 e 2- txh ì r uhvxowdgr ghvhmdgr +ohpeuh0vh gd h{suhvvær gr t? hp whuprv gh orjdulw0 prv1 t H{hufðflr 519= Whprv xpd fdvfd hviìulfd qd/ frqgxwrud/ gh udlr - txh hvwä xql0 iruphphqwh fduuhjdgd frp xpd fdujd wrwdo '1 Dvvlp/ hvwd fdvfd hviìulfd srvvxl xpd ghqvlgdgh vxshufldo gh fdujd j ' '*eZ-2 1 D lqwhjudo txh iruqhfh r srwhqfldo qxp srqwr duelwuäulr qr lqwhulru rx qr h{whulru gd fdvfd fd gdgd sru ] 2Z ] Z ]  jB Eo c - ) E5f ' o2 t? w _w _ ' eZ0f f do 2 n 5 2 c 2o 5 ULt w o*2 ] Z f f f f ' t? w ' _w ' HZ0f f d- 2 n 5 2 c 2-5 ULt wo*2 f f ' M- n 5f M c M- c 5f M ' HZ0f -5f Djrud/ sru vlphwuld/ wurfdprv 5f sru o/ mä txh frorfdu r srqwr vreuh r hl{r 5 irl xp h{shglhqwh pdwhpäwlfr dshqdv1 Ilfdprv/ sruwdqwr/ frp r uhvxowdgr ' M- n oM c M- c oM )' HZ0f -o Vh r srqwr hvwä qr lqwhulru/ whprv o - h fdprv frp ' - n o c E- c o ' ) Eo ' ' HZ0f -o eZ0f - Vh r srqwr hvwä qr h{whulru/ whprv o : - h fdprv frp ' - n o n E- c o ' ) Eo ' ' HZ0f -o eZ0f o Qrwh txh/ hp o ' - r srwhqfldo ì frqwðqxr1
  • 10. Wr= Vhswhpehu 4:/ 5336 Sdjh= 7 t H{hufðflr 51:= Whprv c^ hp Efc fc f h n^*2 hp E@c fc f1 Sdud hqfrqwudu hp txh srqwr gr hl{r { r fdpsr hoìwulfr vh dqxod/ edvwd id}hu c^ ^*2 n 'f eZ0f %2 eZ0f E% c @2 sdud rewhu S %?,J ' 2 i 2 @ Sdud id}hu xp juäfr gd vxshuiðflh htxlsrwhqfldo txh sdvvd shor srqwr %?,J edvwd vdehu/ lqlfldophqwh/ txh r srwhqfldo qhvwh srqwr ì gdgr sru % ^ c  E%?,J ' S n S ' eZ0f @ 2 c 2 2 c 2 ^ ' 2be2
  • 11. DS2 eZ0f @ Dvvlp/ hp xqlgdghv gh ^* EeZ0f @ ghyhprv whu c  E%c +c 5 ' f ' s n s ' 2be2
  • 12. DS2 %2 n +2 2 E% c @2 n +2 D fxuyd qr sodqr %+ txh vdwlvid} hvwd htxdêær ì d fxuyd gh srwhqfldo ghvhmdgd1 R sureohpd d vhjxlu gä dv fxuydv jhudlv gh srwhqfldo dvvrfldgdv dr suhvhqwh h{0 hpsor1 Dv fxuydv htxlsrwhqfldlv jhudlv srghp vhu sorwdgdv xvdqgr0vh r frpdqgr frqwrxusorw+vxev+d@4/i,/ {@041811418 /|@041811418/julg@^83/83`/ wklfnqhvv@4/ oohg@wuxh/ frqwrxuv@^031;/0319/0317/0315/313/315/317/319/31;`, gr Pdsoh rqgh c  s's n s %2 n + 2 2 E% c @2 n +2 R uhvxowdgr ì r juäfr d vhjxlu1
  • 13. Wr= Vhswhpehu 4:/ 5336 Sdjh= 8 Yhmd r h{hpsor d vhjxlu1 t H{hufðflr 51;= Sdud rewhu dv fxuydv htxlsrwhqfldlv sdud dv txdlv whprv ' f/ edvwd id}hu c  s n s 'f %2 n +2 2 E% c @2 n +2 fxmdv vroxêøhv vær b+ 2 n b%2 c 2e%@ n 2@2 ' f txh srgh vhu uhhvfulwd frpr 2 e 2 2 + n %c @ ' 2 @ c
  • 14. txh ì xpd flufxqihuíqfld gh udlr 2@*
  • 15. fhqwudgd hp % ' e@*
  • 16. +yhmd r h{hpsor dqwh0 ulru,1 Qrwh txh/ qhvwh fdvr/ whuðdprv xpd frqjxudêær gr wlsr prvwudgr dedl{r/ rqgh dsuhvhqwdprv dv srvlêøhv gdv fdujdv h d srvlêær gd hvihud +dtxl dsuhvhqwdgd dshqdv qr sodqr %+, Frqvlghuh djrud r sureohpd gh vh ghwhuplqdu r srwhqfldo gh xpd frqjxudêær gh fdujdv hp txh whprv dshqdv xpd fdujd sxqwliruph c^ qd ruljhp h xpd hvihud phwäolfd qxpd frqjxudêær h{dwdphqwh frpr prvwudgd qd jxud dqwhulru +vhp d fdujd ^*2, frqvlghuh txh vh wudwd gh ghwhuplqdu r srwhqfldo irud gd hvihud1 Frpr r srwhqfldo vreuh d hvihud ghyh vhu qxor/ ylvwr txh ì xpd hvihud phwäolfd/ hqwær hvwh sureohpd ì h{dwdphqwh r phvpr gh vh hqfrqwudu r srwhqfldo sdud dv gxdv fdujdv sxqwliruphv +sru ud}øhv gh xqlflgdgh gh vroxêøhv gd htxdêær gh Odsodfh/ txh yhuhprv pdlv dgldqwh,1 Dvvlp/ srghuðdprv uhwludu d hvihud h rewhu d vroxêær sdud r fdpsr xvdqgr dshqdv dv gxdv fdujdv sxqwliruphv/ vlpsolfdqgr hqruphphqwh rv fäofxorv1 t H{hufðflr 51= Whprv d vlwxdêær prvwudgd qd jxud dedl{r= +r udlr gr flolqgur ì - h r frpsulphqwr ì u,
  • 17. Wr= Vhswhpehu 4:/ 5336 Sdjh= 9 d lqwhjudo txh gä r srwhqfldo fd/ gdgr txh O ' 5f 5 / o ] u ] 2Z ] -  4 ) EO ' o t o_o_w_5 ' eZ0f f f f o 2 n E5 c 5 2 f ] u*2 t t 2Z4 ' E5 c 5f n - 2 2c E5 c 5f _5 ' 2 eZ0f 3u*2 ; v 4 ? u u 2 ' c25f u c 5f c -2 n 5f c n e0f = 2 2 v 2 u u n 5f n - 2n 5 n n 2 2 f 5 t 2 6 - 2 c5f n 2 n -2 n 5f c u u @ n *? 7 t 2 8 c 2 2 c5f c u n -2 n 5f n u 2 2 txh ì r uhvxowdgr ghvhmdgr1 t H{hufðflr 5143= R fdpsr hvwä qd gluhêær % hp wrgd d h{whqvær gr hvsdêr1 Vxsrqkd txh hoh ghshqgh gd yduläyho +/ sru h{hpsor1 Hqwær qxpd shtxhqd uhjlær gr hvsdêr/ whuhprv .% E%c +c 5 ' .% E%c + n {+c 5 +vxsrqkd d uhjlær vxflhqwhphqwh shtxhqd sdud txh r fdpsr vhmd hvvhqfldophqwh frqwðqxr h frqvwdqwh qr lqwhuydor d+c + n {+o,1 Pdv hqwær/ frqvwuxlqgr xp shtxhqr flufxlwr txdgudgr frp yìuwlfh qrv srqwrv + h + n {+ / doìp gh % h % n {%/ srghprv fdofxodu d lqwhjudo ihfkdgd L ] %n{% ] % )' O d _O ' . o .% _% c .% _% ' E.% c .% {% ' fc % %n{%
  • 18. Wr= Vhswhpehu 4:/ 5336 Sdjh= : O r txh ì xpd frqwudglêær/ srlv vdehprv txh . ' cU)/ gh prgr txh d lqwhjudo ihfkdgd whp txh vh dqxodu sdud txdotxhu flufxlwr txh frqvlghuhprv1 D frqwudglêær yhlr gr idwr gh whuprv frqvlghudgr .% E%c +c 5 ' .% E%c + n {+c 5/ orjr hohv ghyhp vhu ljxdlv1 Gdtxl ì iäflo frqfoxlu txh ghyhp vhu ljxdlv sdud txdlvtxhu grlv srqwrv E%c +c 5 h E%c + c 5/ ydohqgr r phvpr udflrfðqlr sdud d gluhêær 51 Lvwr hvwdehohfh r uhvxowdgr1 t H{hufðflr 5145= Edvwd frqvlghudu d vxshuiðflh gh Jdxvv txh hqyroyh d vxshuiðflh lqwhuqd gd fdylgdgh h d fdujd qd ruljhp/ sulphludphqwh/ sdud frqfoxlu txh d fdujd lqgx}lgd dol ì n^1 Hqwær/ frqvwuxd xpd qryd vxshuiðflh gh Jdxvv txh hqjoreh dshqdv dv vxshuiðflh lqwhuqd h h{whuqd gd hvihud1 Qhvwh fdvr/ frpr qær kä fdujd +uhdo, hqyroylgd/ ghyhprv whu xpd fdujd c^ qd vxshuiðflh h{whuqd1 t H{hufðflr 5147= Whprv gxdv sodfdv frqgxwrudv lqqlwdv vhsdudgdv sru xpd glvwåqfld _ h frp xpd ghqvlgdgh vxshuiðfldo gh fdujd krprjíqhd j h cj1 R fdpsr surgx}lgr fd +ohpeuh0vh txh/ dr hvfrokhu xp srqwr qr lqwhulru gd uhjlær gholplwdgd shodv sodfdv/ vö vhuä srvvðyho sdud d vxshuiðflh gh Jdxvv txh sdvvd shor srqwr hvfroklgr hqjoredu xpd gdv sodfdv/ pdv qær dpedv d vxshuiðflh srgh vhu xp sdudohohsðshgr, O j ._e?|oJ ' 5 0f Qxp srqwr qr h{whulru gdv sodfdv/ whuhprv xpd vxshuiðflh hqjoredqgr wrgdv dv gxdv sodfdv/ id}hqgr frp txh r fdpsr qxp srqwr txdotxhu qd uhjlær irud grv sodqrv vh dqxoh/ rx vhmd/ O .s Jo@ ' f t H{hufðflr 5148= Whprv xpd glvwulexlêær hviìulfd gh fdujd txh vö ì ixqêær gh o1 Frpr fd r fdpsr sdud hvwd glvwulexlêærB D glvwulexlêær ì= 4 Eo ' *o/ frp frqvwdqwh sdud f y o y - h ' f sdud o : -1 Srghprv xvdu d ohl gh Jdxvv1 Vh r srqwr hvwlyhu irud gd hvihud/ hqwær srghprv rewhu d fdujd wrwdo txh xpd vxshuiðflh gh Jdxvv txh sdvvd shor srqwr rqgh hvwdprv fdofxodqgr r fdpsr hqjored frpr vhqgr d fdujd wrwdo gd hvihud1 Hvwd fdujd ì gdgd fdofxodqgr0vh ] 2Z ] Z ] - 2 'A ' o t? w_o _w _ ' 2Z-2 f f f o Djrud r fdpsr srgh vhu fdofxodgr shod lqwhjudo ] Z ] 2Z 2Z-2 .o o2 t? w_w_ ' f f 0f rx vhmd/ -2 .o ' 20f o2
  • 19. Wr= Vhswhpehu 4:/ 5336 Sdjh= ; R srwhqfldo fd gdgr sru ] -2 )'c .o _o ' o 20f o Vh r srqwr hvwä ghqwur gd hvihud/ hqwær whuhprv txh d fdujd hqjoredgd shod vxshuiðflh gh Jdxvv txh sdvvd shor srqwr hp frqvlghudêær ì gdgd sru ] o ] Z ] 2Z o2 'A ' t? w_o _w _ ' 2Zo2 f f f o gh prgr txh ] ] Z 2Z 2Zo2 .o o t? w_w_ ' 2 c f f 0f rx vhmd/ .o ' 20f Dvvlp/ r srwhqfldo fd ] o o )'c _o ' c n Eof oB 20f 20f Pdv qrwh txh/ shod vroxêær dqwhulru/ ) E- ' -*20f vreuh d hvihud1 Dvvlp/ sdud txh kdmd frqwlqxlgdgh gr srwhqfldo +txh ghyh h{lvwlu/ mä txh r fdpsr ì xpd ghulydgd gr srwhqfldo h vh r srwhqfldo irvvh ghvfrqwðqxr/ r fdpsr whuld xp vdowr lqqlwr qr srqwr, ghyhprv frorfdu - ' 0f Ghvwd irupd/ r srwhqfldo fd o ) Eo ' -c c 0f 2 txh ì r uhvxowdgr ghvhmdgr1 t H{hufðflr 5149= Xpd eduud orqjd flufxodu gh udlr - frqwìp xpd ghqvlgdgh xqliruph gh fdujd 41 Sdud fdofxodu r fdpsr hoìwulfr sdud r fdvr +d, o : - srghprv xvdu d ohl gh Jdxvv sdud rewhu 4Z-2 u 2Zou.o ' 0f gh prgr txh 4-2 .o ' 20f o +qrwh txh 4Z-2 ì d ghqvlgdgh *olqhdu* gh fdujd b gh prgr txh .o ì/ hvvhqfldophqwh/ .o ' b* E2Z0f o/ frpr mä hqfrqwudgr,1 Vh whprv +e, o -/ hqwær srghprv xvdu
  • 20. Wr= Vhswhpehu 4:/ 5336 Sdjh= qrydphqwh d ohl gh Jdxvv/ pdv revhuydqgr txh d txdqwlgdgh gh fdujd hqyroylgd shod vxshuiðflh gh Jdxvv ì gdgd sru ' ' 4Zo2 uc gh prgr txh 4Zo2 u 2Zou.o ' 0f gdqgr 4 .o ' o 20f t H{hufðflr 514;= Sdud fdofxodu r urwdflrqdo h r glyhujhqwh gh O*o@ srghprv xvdu dv o lghqwlgdghv yhwruldlv qd vhjxlqwh irupd O o  
  • 21. @
  • 22. c@ Ud ' @ U d O n O d U @ ' @ c @3 o d O ' o o o o @ o o o o o@ O o   @ Ue ' @ U e O c U @ e O ' f c @3 o e O ' f o o o o @ o o o Sdud hqfrqwudu d ghqvlgdgh gh fdujd txh surgx}luld r fdpsr O ^ O o .' c eZ0f o@ edvwd qrwdu txh ghyhprv whu/ shod ohl gh Jdxvv O 4 Ud. ' c 0f gh prgr txh ^ O o ^
  • 23. c@ 4 ' 0f Ud ' eZ0f o@ eZ o@ R srwhqfldo gr fdpsr ì rewlgr fdofxodqgr0vh d lqwhjudo ] o ^ ^ )'c o3@ _o ' eZ0f eZ0f E@ c 2 o@32 t H{hufðflr 514;= Vh whprv r fdvr hp txh r fdpsr gh Frxorpe ì gdgr sru O ^ .' Oc o eZ0f o
  • 24. 3B hqwær whprv/ shor h{hufðflr dqwhulru/ txh @ '
  • 25. c B h d ghqvlgdgh ì gdgd sru ^B 4' eZo
  • 26. 3B
  • 27. Wr= Vhswhpehu 4:/ 5336 Sdjh= 43 O D fdujd wrwdo +hvvhqfldophqwh U d ., qxp yroxph - fd gdgd sru ] ] - ^B - ^ - 'A ' eZ o2 _o ' ^B oB3 _o ' f eZo
  • 28. 3B f o B f txh glyhujh sdud o ' f/ rx vhmd/ glyhujh vreuh d fdujd1 Qrwh txh vh B ' f/ hqwær qær kdyhuld sureohpd1 t H{hufðflr 514= R srwhqfldo gh Frxorpe dwhqxdgr ì gdgr sru ^ e3o*b )' eZ0f o Ghvwd pdqhlud/ r fdpsr hoìwulfr dvvrfldgr fd O Y) ^e3o*b O o O o ^e3o*b o O o . ' o.o ' c o ' n 2 ' n c Yo eZ0f o
  • 29. bo eZ0f b o
  • 30. txh ì r uhvxowdgr ghvhmdgr1 Sdud rewhu d ghqvlgdgh gh fdujd/ edvwd wrpdu r glyhujhqwh gr uhvxowdgr dflpd 4 Eo O ^ o Oo ' Ud. ' Ud e 3o*b n ' 0f eZ0f b o
  • 31. ^ Y   ' o d e 3o*b n O o ' eZ0f Yo o
  • 32. bo2 ^ Y     ' Odo o e3o*b n n e 3o*b n UdO ' o eZ0f Yo o
  • 33. bo2 o
  • 34. bo2 % ^ e3o*b o2 n
  • 35. bo n
  • 36. b2 e3o*b Eb n o ' eZB EO e3o*b c o o n
  • 37. ' eZ0f b2 oe bo
  • 38. ^e3o*b  ' eZB EO c 2 o eZ0f bo Dvvlp/ whprv e3o*b 4 EO ' ^e o 3o*b B EO c o c eZb2 o frpr ghvhmdgr1 Qrwh txh d glvwulexlêær B EO gh Gludf dsduhfhx ghylgr d whuprv o fdofxodgr/ hp fhuwr prphqwr/ r glyhujhqwh U d EO*o
  • 39. / frpr mä ylvwr qr wh{wr1 o t H{hufðflr 5153= Sdud rewhu dv fxuydv htxlsrwhqfldlv/ edvwd qrwdu txh r srwhqfldo ì gdgr shod iöupxod  RdO O o )' eZ0f o
  • 40. Wr= Vhswhpehu 4:/ 5336 Sdjh= 44 Frofdqgr r glsror qd gluhêær % whprv/ hp frrughqdgdv sroduhv +h hp xqlgdghv gh eZ0f R, % )' d%2 n +2 n 5 2 o
  • 41. *2 h srghprv wudêdu r juäfr idflophqwh1 +Frorfdprv 5 '  sdud hylwdu d vlqjxodulgdgh hp Efc fc f sru txhvwøhv gr wudêdgru gr juäfr,1 Ilfdprv frp d jxud dedl{r t H{hufðflr 5154= +d, Ghprqvwuh txh d iruêd txh dwxd qxp glsror R frorfdgr hp xp fdpsr hoìwulfr O O O h{whuqr .e%| ì R d U.e%| 1 Frqvlghuh d jxud dedl{r= O Dwudyìv gd jxud/ srghprv frqfoxlu txh d iruêd txh dwxd vreuh r glsror ì gdgd sru 8 ' n^ .e%| EO c ^ .e%| O n O O O o O o ,
  • 42. Wr= Vhswhpehu 4:/ 5336 Sdjh= 45 Djrud/ O  -/ gh prgr txh srghprv id}hu xpd h{sdqvær qr vhjxqgr whupr/ hp , O O sdud rewhu wruqr gh ,/ k l 8 ' ^.e%| EO c ^ .e%| EO n O d U.e%| EO ' c^O d U.e%| EO O O o O o , O o , O o txh srgh vhu hvfulwd frpr +r vlqdo ghyh0vh ã ghliqlêær sduwlfxodu gr glsror, O O 8 ' cO d U.e%| EO R o ^Qrwd= r ohlwru ghyh id}hu d h{sdqvær frqwlgd pdlv dflpd sdud yhulfdu dtxhoh uhvxowdgr h{solflwdphqwh1` +e, Prvwudu txh r wrutxh dwxdqwh qxp glsror qhvwh fdpsr ì gdgr sru k l O O O O ' O e R d U.e%| n R e .e%|
  • 43. o O Qhvwh fdvr/ ghyhprv whu O ' O e ^ .e%| EO c O n O e ^ .e%| O n O '
  • 44. o O o o , O o , k l k l ' O e ^ .e%| EO c O e ^ .e%| EO n O d U.e%| EO c O e ^ .e%| EO n O d U.e%| EO ' o O o o O o , O o , O o , O o k l ' cO e ^O d U.e%| EO c O e ^ .e%| c O e ^O d U.e%| EO o , O o , O , , O o Frpr r ýowlpr whupr ì gh vhjxqgd rughp hp O srghprv hvfuhyhu/ hp sulphlud ,/ rughp/ q k l r O ' c O e O d U.
  • 45. o R O e%| EO n R e .e%| EO c o O O o txh ì r uhvxowdgr ghvhmdgr +d phqrv gr vlqdo sru ud}øhv mä doxglgdv,1 H{hufðflr 5155= Sdud d frqirupdêær flwdgd= n^ hp Efc fc c, h Efc fc n, h c2^ hp Efc fc f/ srghprv hvfuhyhu r srwhqfldo frpr ^*eZ0f ^*eZ0f 2^*eZ0f )' t nt cs %2 n +2 n E5 n ,2 %2 n +2 n E5 c ,2 %2 n +2 n 5 2 txh srgh vhu uhhvfulwd frpr ^   2 ) E%c +c 5 ' S nS 2 c ' eZ0f o2 n 25, n ,2 o c 25, n ,2 o ; ^ ?   @ ' t n t c2 ' eZ0f o =  n 25,n,  n 325,n, o o ^ 
  • 46. 5 2 2 ' c 2 n e , n ,
  • 47. eZ0f o o o
  • 48. Wr= Vhswhpehu 4:/ 5336 Sdjh= 46 Frorfdqgr djrud 5 ' o ULt w/ fdprv frp +dwì vhjxqgd rughp hp ,, ^,2 ) Eoc wc '
  • 49. ULt2 w c  eZ0f o
  • 50. Sdud wudêdu dv vxshuiðflhv htxlsrwhqfldlv/ srghprv hvfuhyhu r srwhqfldo frpr eZ0f ) E%c +c 5
  • 51. 5 2  ' c ^,2 d%2 n +2 n 5 2 oD*2 d%2 n +2 n 5 2 o
  • 52. *2 Qr sodqr %5 fdprv frp + ' f h eZ0f ) E%c +c 5
  • 53. 5 2  ) ' ' c ^, 2 d%2 n 5 2 oD*2 d%2 n 5 2 o
  • 54. *2 R juäfr gdv htxlsrwhqfldlv srgh vhu ihlwr gd phvpd pdqhlud txh irl ihlwr qr h{hufðflr 51: h fd t H{hufðflr 5156= Sdud rewhu d h{suhvvær sdud dv frpsrqhqwhv gr whqvru gh txdguxsror/ edvwd xvdu d h{suhvvær jhudo  [ % % )' ' c 2 c oD rqgh ] ] ] ' '
  • 55. % % c B o2 4 EO _% _+ _5 o h qrwdu txh 4 Eo ' B E% B E+ d^B E5 c , n ^B E5 n , c 2^B E5 o/ gdqgr ] ] ] 2 ' ' 2% c + 2 c 5 2 B E% B E+ d^B E5 c , n ^B E5 n , c 2^B E5 o _% _+ _5 ' ] ' c^ 5 2 dB E5 c , n B E5 n , c 2B E5 o _% _+ _5 ' c2^,2
  • 56. Wr= Vhswhpehu 4:/ 5336 Sdjh= 47 h ] ] ] '22 ' 2+2 c %2 c 5 2 B E% B E+ d^B E5 c , n ^B E5 n , c 2^B E5 o _% _+ _5 ' ] ' c^ 5 2 dB E5 c , n B E5 n , c 2B E5 o _% _+ _5 ' c2^,2 h ] ] ] '
  • 57. ' 25 2 c +2 c %2 B E% B E+ d^B E5 c , n ^B E5 n , c 2^B E5 o _% _+ _5 ' ] ' c2^ 5 2 dB E5 c , n B E5 n , c 2B E5 o _% _+ _5 ' ce^,2 Sdud fdofxodu rv whuprv fux}dgrv/ edvwd qrwdu txh r whupr
  • 58. % % vhpsuh gduä xp surgxwr gh 5 frp % rx + rx xp surgxwr gh % frp + ghylgr ãv ixqêøhv B E% h B E+ r uhvxowdgr gd lqwhjudo vhuä vhpsuh qxor1 R whupr B vhuä vhpsuh qxor ghylgr dr ghowd gh Nurhqhfnhu1 Dvvlp/ wrgrv rv hohphqwrv irud gd gldjrqdo vh dqxoduær1 R whqvru txdguxsror hoìwulfr sdud hvwd frqjxudêær fd 5 6  f f ' ' 7 f  f 8 2^,2 f f 2 t H{hufðflr 5157= D h{suhvvær sdud r prphqwr gh glsror ì ] R O ' O 4 EO _ c o o pdv vh whprv xp glsror/ hqwær d ghqvlgdgh gh fdujd fd # $ # $ O , O , 4 EO ' ^B O c o o c ^B O n o c 2 2 gh prgr txh ] % # $ # $ O , O , R O ' ^ O B O c o o c B O n o _ ' 2 2 # $ O , O , ' ^ c c^ ' ^O ,c 2 2 frpr txhuðdprv ghprqvwudu1
  • 59. Wr= Vhswhpehu 4:/ 5336 Sdjh= 48 t H{hufðflr 5159= R srwhqfldo ì gdgr sru  RdO O o R ULt w ) Eoc wc ' ' eZ0f o
  • 60. eZ0f o2 gh prgr txh r fdpsr/ xvdqgr d h{suhvvær sdud r judglhqwh hp frrughqdgdv hviìulfdv frpr vhqgr Y  Y  Y c U'o n w n Yo o Yw o t? w Y fdprv frp O ' cU) ' c c R ULt w n  R t? w ' . o
  • 61. w eZ0f o o o2 R k l t? w c ' o ULt w c w eZ0f o
  • 62. txh ì r uhvxowdgr ghvhmdgr1 Qrwh dlqgd txh 5 ' o ULt w c t? wc w gh prgr txh O R .' 5 eZ0f o

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