Sir Francis Drake becomes the first Englishman to sail around the world. 1577 Francisco Vasquez de Coronado explores the s...
Explorers to the New World Rene-Robert de La Salle explores the Mississippi River from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexi...
Explorers Explored Florida looking for the Fountain of Youth Spanish Juan Ponce de Leon 1513 Led expedition across Panama ...
Traveled to the mouth of the Mississippi River and claimed it for France French Robert LaSalle 1682 Explored Northern  Mis...
Spanish Settlements <ul><li>Two men called Viceroys ruled the Spanish empire in the New World for the king of Spain. Each ...
Spanish Conquest of the New World <ul><li>The Spanish brought the new crops of sugar cane, coffee, and cereal grains to th...
 
 
Coronado’s March
Montezuma  <ul><li>Montezuma  or  Moctezuma  [mok–] , 1480?–1520, Aztec emperor (c.1502–1520). He is sometimes called Mont...
Chocolate <ul><li>&quot;The divine drink, which builds up resistance and fights fatigue. A cup of this precious drink  [co...
Pizarro conquers the Incas <ul><li>Atahualpa sensed that his Spanish captors were greedy and offered a room full of gold a...
St. Augustine, Europe’s oldest permanent settlement in North America   <ul><li>On August 28, the Feast Day of Saint August...
St. Augustine <ul><li>The mainland of the North American continent was first sighted by the Spanish explorer and treasure ...
Treaty of Tordesillas Papal Line  of Demarcation 1494 <ul><li>Upon returning to Spain in 1493 after his first voyage, Chri...
Bartholomeo de las Casas <ul><li>Bartholomew de Las Casas was born in Seville, Spain in 1474. He was a young man of wealth...
<ul><li>More disheartened, Bartholomew returned to Hispaniola and in 1522, freed his own slaves and requested entrance int...
Prayer to Bartholomew de Las Casas <ul><li>Righteous God, You filled Bartholomew with a zeal for justice for the Native Pe...
Pope’ or  Po'pay   <ul><li>Photo courtesy Clear Light Publishing/Marcia Keegan  -- Herman Agoyo and Joe S. Sando, editors ...
The Real Scoop <ul><li>In the 17th century, Spain maintained New Mexico as a Franciscan enclave dedicated to converting it...
<ul><li>Primogeniture—first born son inherits everything </li></ul><ul><li>Encomienda system—fort/mission/school/slave fac...
CABEZA DE VACA <ul><li>IN 1528, CABEZA DE VACA AND THE CREW OF THE NARVAEZ EXPEDITION WERE SHIPWRECKED ALONG THE UPPER TEX...
Father Junipero Serra  (1713-1784)   <ul><li>Father Junipero Serra (Miguel Jose Serra) was one of the most important Spani...
Serra founded the following missions: <ul><li>LOWER CALIFORNIA Serra was president of the following missions. (all founded...
Spanish Place Names     Hispanic Heritage from Coast to Coast   <ul><li>The Spanish were among the first Europeans to expl...
<ul><li>La Brea  (California): &quot;tar.&quot; The tar pits in this famous part of Los Angeles have yielded amazing fossi...
Spanish Words in English <ul><li>Others,such as tuna, which comes from the Spanish atún,are variations of the original.  O...
<ul><li>Sailing the Spanish Main  Hurricane,tobacco,and hammock came to English from the Caribbean. In the 17th and 18th c...
<ul><li>U.S. Hispanic/Latino Population </li></ul><ul><li>The 1990 census counted a total of 22.3 million Hispanics living...
Why We Are Not Called Columbia <ul><li>A Florentine explorer named Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512) claimed to have made four ...
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Spanish Explorers

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Spanish Explorers

  1. 1. Sir Francis Drake becomes the first Englishman to sail around the world. 1577 Francisco Vasquez de Coronado explores the southwestern United States and discovers the Grand Canyon. 1540 Hernando De Soto explores the southeastern United States 1539 – 1542 Jacques Cartier discovers the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes 1534 Francisco Pizarro defeats the Inca Empire 1533 Hernando Cortez defeats the Aztec Empire. 1521 Ferdinand Magellan and his crew sail around the world. 1519 – 1522 .Vasco Nunez de Balboa discovers the eastern shore of the Pacific Ocean.  Juan Ponce de Leon searches for the Fountain of Youth in Florida. 1513 Amerigo Vespucci returns from his explorations of the New World.  American continents named after him by German mapmaker. 1502 John Cabot discovers Newfoundland while he searches for the Northwest Passage 1497 Columbus sails to the New World. 1492 Bartholomeu Dias discovers the southern tip of Africa. 1487 Prince Henry the Navigator builds school for sailors. 1450 Marco Polo goes to China. 1271- 1295 Leif Erickson discovers North America. 1002 Eric the Red discovers Greenland 982 Ptolemy creates the first flat map of the world 120 AD Chinese invent the first compass. 1st century AD
  2. 2. Explorers to the New World Rene-Robert de La Salle explores the Mississippi River from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. 1682 Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet explore the Mississippi River. 1673 Sir Francis Drake becomes the first Englishman to sail around the world. 1577 Francisco Vasquez de Coronado explores the southwestern United States and discovers the Grand Canyon. 1540 Hernando De Soto explores the southeastern United States. 1539 – 1542
  3. 3. Explorers Explored Florida looking for the Fountain of Youth Spanish Juan Ponce de Leon 1513 Led expedition across Panama and found the Pacific Ocean Spanish Vasco de Balboa 1513 First to travel to West Indies around Africa Portuguese Vasco Da Gama 1498 Explored the shores of Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and Labrador Italian John Cabot 1497-1498 Sailed to West Indies and South America Italian Amerigo Vespucci 1497-1503 Made 4 voyages to West Indies and Caribbean Islands Italian Christopher Columbus 1492-1504 First European to round the Cape of Good Hope Portuguese Bartholomeu Dias 1487-1488 Created navigation school in Sagres, Portugal Explored the western African coastline Portuguese Prince Henry 1394-1460 Traveled to the Far East, to what was known then as Cathay or China-Made men want to travel there through his book Italian   Marco Polo 1271-1295 First European to reach North American Mainland Norse Leif Ericson Around 1000 Achievement Nationality Explorer Date
  4. 4. Traveled to the mouth of the Mississippi River and claimed it for France French Robert LaSalle 1682 Explored Northern  Mississippi River French Marquette and Louis Joliet 1672 Explored Hudson Bay, Hudson River, and Hudson Strait English Henry Hudson 1609-1611 Explored eastern coast of North America and the coast of the St. Lawrence River to Lake Huron-Reached Lake Champlain French Samuel de Champlain 1603-1616 First English to sail around the world-Defeated the Spanish Armada- Claimed California for England English Sir Frances Drake 1577-1580 Explored American Southwest Spanish Francisco Vazquez de Coronado 1540-1542 Explored American Southeast-Discovered the Mississippi River Spanish Hernando De Soto 1539-1541 Traveled St. Lawrence River French Jacques Cartier 1534-1542 Conquered Peru Spanish Francisco Pizarro 1523-1535 Searched for a Northwest Passage Italian Giovanni da Verranzano 1523 Conquered Aztecs in Mexico Spanish Hernando Cortez 1519-1521 Commanded first globe circling voyage Portuguese Ferdinand Magellan 1520-1521
  5. 5. Spanish Settlements <ul><li>Two men called Viceroys ruled the Spanish empire in the New World for the king of Spain. Each controlled one area. One Viceroy controlled for the Kingdom of New Spain. This included Mexico, the islands of the West Indies, and North America. The other Viceroy controlled the Kingdom of Peru. This also included Panama and the Spanish land in South America. The Viceroys made sure the king's laws were followed and taxes were collected. They had little authority on their own; all important matters had to be referred to the King/Queen. The concept of local government did not exist. </li></ul><ul><li>Conquistadors were usually second-born sons of nobility who had the ambition and education, but no titles, lands, or wealth. They were seasoned soldiers from the Reconquista and convinced that their way of life was superior to all others. They believed in “the Cross or the Sword” and were soldiers and leaders who helped take over the land from the Indians. They treated the Indians like slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries were Catholic priests. They built missions throughout Spanish territory. The missions were built like forts because the Indians often attacked them. Many Indians lived on large farms owned by the Spanish. They were enslaved and converted to Christianity in the encomienda system. The large farms were called haciendas. </li></ul><ul><li>The first cattle, horses, and cowboys were started by the Spanish, not to mention excellent CA wines, planted from Spanish grapes. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Spanish Conquest of the New World <ul><li>The Spanish brought the new crops of sugar cane, coffee, and cereal grains to the New World. The Indians introduced the Spanish to tobacco, potatoes, corn, chocolate from cacao beans, and squash. </li></ul>
  7. 9. Coronado’s March
  8. 10. Montezuma <ul><li>Montezuma or Moctezuma [mok–] , 1480?–1520, Aztec emperor (c.1502–1520). He is sometimes called Montezuma II to distinguish him from Montezuma I (ruled 1440–69), who carried on conquests around Tenochtitlán . His reign was marked by incessant warfare, and his despotic rule caused grave unrest. When Hernán Cortés arrived in Mexico he was thus able to gain native allies, notably in the province of the Tlaxcala. Montezuma, believing the Spanish to be descendants of the god Quetzalcoatl , tried to persuade them to leave by offering rich gifts. That failing, he received them in his splendid court at Tenochtitlán in Nov., 1519. Cortés later seized him as a hostage and attempted to govern through him. In June, 1520, the Aztec rose against the Spanish. Montezuma was killed, although whether by the Spanish or the Aztec is not certain. His successor died a few months later and was replaced by Cuauhtémoc . Montezuma's name is linked by a legend to fabulous treasures that the Spanish appropriated and presumably lost at sea. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Chocolate <ul><li>&quot;The divine drink, which builds up resistance and fights fatigue. A cup of this precious drink [cocoa] permits a man to walk for a whole day without food.&quot; Montezuma II (1502-1520) </li></ul>When the Spaniards, under Hernán Cortés, arrived in 1519, the Aztec civilization was at its height. However, many subject Indian groups, rebellious against Aztec rule, were only too willing to join the Spanish. Initially, the invaders were aided by the fact that the Aztec believed them to be descendants of the god Quetzalcoatl. Montezuma, the last of the independent Aztec rulers, received Cortés, who made him prisoner and attempted to rule through him. The Aztec revolted, Montezuma was killed, and Tenochtitlán was razed (1521). Cuauhtémoc, last of the emperors, was murdered (1525), and the Spanish proceeded to subjugate Mexico.
  10. 12. Pizarro conquers the Incas <ul><li>Atahualpa sensed that his Spanish captors were greedy and offered a room full of gold as ransom, or payment for his release. Pizarro agreed, and the Incas brought gold and silver statues, jewelry, and artwork from all over the empire. The Spanish ordered the Incas to melt everything down into gold bars. Pizarro received word about the capture and killing of Huáscar. He put Atahualpa on trial for treason for his brother's murder and for plotting against the Spanish. Treason is working against one's own country or government. Atahualpa was found guilty and was executed on August 29, 1533. With the death of its leader, the Inca Empire soon fell. </li></ul>
  11. 13. St. Augustine, Europe’s oldest permanent settlement in North America <ul><li>On August 28, the Feast Day of Saint Augustine, Don Pedro Menendez de Aviles first sighted the coast of Florida. Twelve days later, on September 8, he stepped ashore, planted the Spanish flag into the sandy soil and, with soldiers and settlers who had traveled with him and Timicuans who greeted his arrival watching, Menendez founded a new city and named it St. Augustine. The year was 1565. From that day until today, the City of St. Augustine has continued to survive and thrive, making it the longest continually inhabited European founded city in the United States, or more commonly called the &quot;Nation’s Oldest City.&quot; </li></ul>The Castillo de San Marcos, built 1672-1695, served primarily as an outpost of the Spanish Empire, guarding St. Augustine, the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States, and also protecting the sea route for treasure ships returning to Spain.
  12. 14. St. Augustine <ul><li>The mainland of the North American continent was first sighted by the Spanish explorer and treasure hunter Don Juan Ponce de Leon on Easter, March 27, 1513. He claimed the land for Spain and named it La Florida , meaning &quot;Land of Flowers&quot;. Between 1513 and 1563 the government of Spain launched six expeditions to settle Florida, but all failed. the French succeeded in establishing a fort and colony on the St. Johns River in 1564 and, in doing so, threatened Spain's treasure fleets whic h sailed along Florida's shoreline returning to Spain. As a result of this incursion into Florida, King Phillip II named Don Pedro Menendez de Aviles, Spain's most experienced admiral, as governor of Florida, instructing him to explore and to colonize the territory. Menendez was also instructed to drive out any pirates or settlers from other nations, should they be found there. </li></ul><ul><li>When Menendez arrived off the coast of Florida, it was August 28, 1565, the Feast Day of St. Augustine. Eleven days later, he and his 600 soldiers and settlers came ashore at the site of the Timucuan Indian village of Seloy with banners flying and trumpets sounding. He hastily fortified the fledgling village and named it St. Augustine. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizing brilliant military maneuvers, Menendez destroyed the French garrison on the St. Johns River and, with the help of a hurricane, also defeated the French fleet. With the coast of Florida firmly in Spanish hands, he then set to work building the town, establishing missions to the Indians for the Church, and exploring the land. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, St. Augustine was founded forty-two years before the English colony at Jamestown, Virginia, and fifty-five years before the Pilgrims landed on Plymouth Rock in Massachusetts - making it the oldest permanent European settlement on the North American continent. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Treaty of Tordesillas Papal Line of Demarcation 1494 <ul><li>Upon returning to Spain in 1493 after his first voyage, Christopher Columbus contacted Pope Alexander VI (a Spaniard by birth) to report his discoveries. Acting as the great European arbiter of the day, the pope then issued a bull (decree) that divided the New World lands between Spain and Portugal by establishing a north-south line of demarcation 100 leagues* west of the Cape Verde Islands. Undiscovered non-Christian lands to the west of the line were to be Spanish possessions and those to the east belonged to Portugal. </li></ul><ul><li>News of this decision was not warmly greeted by the Portuguese, who argued that previous agreements conflicted with the pope's decision. </li></ul><ul><li>In the spring of 1494, representatives of Spain and Portugal met in the Spanish town of Tordesillas and negotiated a mutually satisfactory solution to their dispute. The line of demarcation was relocated to a position 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands. (It was impossible during this age to determine precisely the impact of this agreement on account of the nagging difficulty of establishing longitude accurately.) However, Portugal emerged with an enhanced position by gaining a larger portion of South America (Brazil). Even with this modification, Spain had gained control (on paper) of most of the New World. </li></ul><ul><li>The pope granted his official recognition of this agreement in 1506. Spain and Portugal, with a few exceptions, remained loyal to the terms of the treaty; the Portuguese would expand deep into Brazil beyond the demarcation line, but Spain did not object. The natives of these regions, needless to say, were not consulted about the assignment of their homelands to others and competing powers in Europe totally ignored the line. </li></ul><ul><li>For years following 1494, the Spanish lamented their consent to the treaty, convinced that they had received the short end of the stick. Their initial discoveries in the New World yielded little mineral wealth, but much disease and discomfort. Their evaluation of this bargain with Portugal changed dramatically in the 1520s as the riches from Aztec Mexico began to be exploited. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Bartholomeo de las Casas <ul><li>Bartholomew de Las Casas was born in Seville, Spain in 1474. He was a young man of wealth and social position when Columbus returned in 1492 from the New World, bringing a captive Indian as a trophy. The young de Las Casas took his law degree at the University of Salamanca, where the Dominicans were already wrestling with the problems of social injustice brought about by the conquest. In 1502 he accompanied his father to Hispaniola (now the Dominican Republic and Haiti). A typical young Spanish grandee, with a large amount of property on the island of Hispaniola, Bartolomew was atypically kind to the Native People who were slaves on his plantation. However the thought of slavery never really bothered him. It seemed at the time an eminently sensible method of colonizing a new land, and for many years while injustice flared on all sides, he paid little attention to the social injustice of the colonial system. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1510, the Order of Preachers arrived in Hispaniola from Spain. From almost the beginning they began to preach against the entire system of slavery. The Spanish colonists were amazed, then angry and finally began to work at ways of having the Dominicans removed. They banned together and sent petitions to the King requesting that the friars be sent home. Bartholomew de Las Casas was one of the colonists who heard Father Anthony Montesinos preach against slavery. While at that time he was not prepared to give up his slaves, he did realize with greater clarity the injustices he and the other Spaniards were committing against the Native People. After a time of prayerful reflection he gave the responsibility of running his plantation to a friend and expressed a desire to become a priest. Consequently he was the first priest to celebrate his first Mass in Hispaniola. </li></ul><ul><li>Soon after his ordination he was assigned as chaplain to the army invading Cuba. Despite the promises made to him assuring a fair use of force; he witnessed a horrible massacre of the Native People. Totally disillusioned, he sailed for Spain the next year, and in 1515 he presented the case of the Native People to the Council of the Indies. For two years de Las Casas pleaded the cause of the conquered people and asked that the king stop the senseless violence. King Ferdinand, wishing to avoid the entire situation, sent de Las Casas back to Hispaniola with the title &quot;Protector of the Indians&quot; and with a great many laws to rectify the matter. It soon became clear to Bartholomew that laws without backing were futile words. So in less than a year, de Las Casas was sailing back to Spain to ask for support for the laws he had been given. After consulting with Charles the V, de Las Casas realized that King Ferdinand had no intention of forcing the colonialist to obey. </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>More disheartened, Bartholomew returned to Hispaniola and in 1522, freed his own slaves and requested entrance into the Dominican Order. He received the habit. He spent the next eight years of his life praying, reflecting and writing. Of the many works that he accomplished in his life, his writings have had the greatest impact on subsequent generations. </li></ul><ul><li>Since traffic in slavery was then a common practice through out the world, de Las Casas at first endorsed the importing of Africans slaves to the colonies, but quickly repented of his decision. He again confessed this mistake as a sin on his deathbed. </li></ul><ul><li>The intelligentsia of Europe maintained the legitimacy of the inhuman slave traffic and strove to negate the influence of de Las Casas. Undaunted by almost universal opposition, the intrepid liberator crossed the Atlantic fourteen times to persuade the Spanish Cortes to enact humanitarian laws for the peaceful civilization and conversion of the Native People. He was admired and supported in his efforts by the Emperor Charles V and by the Dominican professors at the University of Salamanca. Chiefly through his efforts the famous New Laws were enacted in 1542-43. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1544 de Las Casas was appointed bishop of the Mexican province of Chiapas. But he was so frustrated by the powerful landholders that he retired in Spain in 1547. </li></ul><ul><li>Bartholomew de Las Casas spent the remaining years of his life in retirement at the convent of Our Lady of Athocha in Madrid. Rarely speaking anymore, he spent his days writing. At the age of ninety he wrote his last defense of the Native People, explaining the rights of personal property of non-Christians. He died in 1566, not realizing his hopes of true equality and humanitarian treatment of the Native People. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Prayer to Bartholomew de Las Casas <ul><li>Righteous God, You filled Bartholomew with a zeal for justice for the Native People of the New World. </li></ul><ul><li>Help us to be people of justice, </li></ul><ul><li>ready to defend the rights of the poor, neglected and displaced peoples of our world. </li></ul><ul><li>Give us Your grace so that we may create a New World Order of peace and justice for all. </li></ul><ul><li>We ask this prayer </li></ul><ul><li>through our Lord Jesus Christ Your Son, our Lord, </li></ul><ul><li>who lives and reigns with you in the unity of the Holy Spirit, </li></ul><ul><li>God forever and ever. </li></ul><ul><li>Amen </li></ul>
  17. 19. Pope’ or Po'pay <ul><li>Photo courtesy Clear Light Publishing/Marcia Keegan -- Herman Agoyo and Joe S. Sando, editors of ''Po'pay: Leader of the First American Revolution'' (Clear Light Publishing, 2005), stand in front of the statue of Po'pay that will represent New Mexico in the National Statuary Hall in Washington, D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>SANTA FE, N.M. - The year 2005 is quickly becoming the ''Year of Po'pay.'' The leader of the Pueblo Revolt of 1680 is the subject of a new book, ''Po'pay: Leader of the First American Revolution,'' written by Pueblo members and leaders, while a marble tribute will soon honor Po'pay in the National Statuary Hall at the U.S. Capitol in Washington. </li></ul>
  18. 20. The Real Scoop <ul><li>In the 17th century, Spain maintained New Mexico as a Franciscan enclave dedicated to converting its indigenous peoples to Christianity. In 1599 a rebellion in Ácoma was brutally suppressed by Juan de Oñate. The actions of the Spaniards shocked all of the pueblos and were not forgotten. Tensions increased among the Spanish soldiers seeking wealth, the priests needing wealth to build churches, and the Indians who had to produce the wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1644 and 1675 the Indians repeatedly rebelled against the better-armed and better-organized Spaniards, but these uprisings were quickly suppressed. In the1660s and 1670s drought and unusually high temperatures made life increasingly difficult for both the Indians and Spaniards. Spaniards seized Indian possessions and crops. </li></ul><ul><li>A decade of isolated unrest culminated in the unification of most pueblos and other communities against the Spaniards. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1680 the charismatic Tewa leader Popé coordinated a successful rebellion against the Spaniards, known as The Great Pueblo Revolt. Throughout the upper Rio Grande basin north of El Paso to Taos, Tewa, Tiwa, Hopi, Zuni and other Keresan-speaking pueblos, and even the non-pueblo Apaches simultaneously rose up against the Spanish. </li></ul><ul><li>The Spaniards who were able to escape fled to Santa Fe where they were besieged by a combined army of various tribes armed with Spanish weapons. After several days, the Spaniards broke through the siege and fled south to El Paso. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pueblo rebellion effectively ended Spanish rule in New Mexico for the next 12 years. However, Popé died and the de facto confederation of the pueblos fell apart. Since there were no Spanish troops to offer protection, the traditional enemies of the pueblos, the Apache and Navajo, launched their attacks. The succeeding Spanish governor of the territory, Diego de Vargas Zapata y Luján Ponce de León (ca. 1643-1704), began a successful military and political reconquest in 1692. The Spanish will win since disease decimated the pueblos. Pope will win the battle and lose the war. </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>Primogeniture—first born son inherits everything </li></ul><ul><li>Encomienda system—fort/mission/school/slave factory—converted enslaved natives to work on ranches/haciendas </li></ul><ul><li>Conquistador—Spanish soldier/adventurer/knight, but usually the younger sons </li></ul><ul><li>Hildago—young Spanish nobleman </li></ul><ul><li>Black robes—Jesuit priests who accompanied the conquistadors, set up missions, converted the natives </li></ul><ul><li>Peninsulare—Spanish born in Spain (Iberia) </li></ul><ul><li>Mestizo—mixed parents—Sp. and Native or African </li></ul><ul><li>Creole—pure Spanish parents, but born in the Americas </li></ul>Spanish Terms
  20. 22. CABEZA DE VACA <ul><li>IN 1528, CABEZA DE VACA AND THE CREW OF THE NARVAEZ EXPEDITION WERE SHIPWRECKED ALONG THE UPPER TEXAS COAST. THEY FOUND THEMSELVES AMONG THE KARANKAWAS OR RELATED PEOPLES , AND DE VACA CHRONICLED HIS EXPERIENCES. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1534, Cabeza de Vaca, Alonzo de Castillo, Andres Dorantes and his black Moroccan servant, Esteban, fled from the Native Americans. They wandered across Texas and Mexico for two years until a Spanish patrol found them and took them to Mexico City in 1536. </li></ul>
  21. 23. Father Junipero Serra (1713-1784) <ul><li>Father Junipero Serra (Miguel Jose Serra) was one of the most important Spanish missionaries in the New World. Born in Majorca on November 24, 1713, he joined the Franciscan Order at the age of 16. He soon gained prominence as an eloquent preacher and eventually became a professor of theology. His dream was to become a missionary to America. He arrived in Mexico City in 1750 to begin this new life. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1769 he established a mission at the present site of San Diego, California, the first of a number that would include San Antonio, San Buenaventura, San Carlos, San Francisco de Assisi, San Gabriel, San Juan Capistrano, San Luis Obispo, and Santa Clara. This was a herculean task considering that Father Serra was already in his fifties and suffered from a chronic ulcerated condition in one leg. Serra was ascetic and uncompromising in his zeal to convert the Indians to Christianity and to make his missions self sufficient. Inhabitants built their own homes, spun wool for garments, and pursued careers as masons, carpenters, blacksmiths, and millers; thousands of barrels of grain were kept in reserve supply, and herds of cattle, sheep, horses, and swine were maintained. </li></ul><ul><li>The ulcerated condition of Serra's leg eventually spread to his chest. At the age of 71, aware of his deterioration, he made a final visit to his missions. The well-known and beloved missionary died in Monterey, California, on August 28, 1784; his missions continued to flourish for another 50 years. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Serra founded the following missions: <ul><li>LOWER CALIFORNIA Serra was president of the following missions. (all founded by the Jesuits) 1. 1697 - Nuestra Señora de Loreto 2. 1699 - San Francisco Xavier 3. 1705 - Santa Rosalía de Mulegé 4. 1708 - San José de Comondú 5. 1720 - La Purísima Concepción de . . . . . . . .María Cadegomó 6. 1720 - Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe 7. 1721 - Santiago de las Coras 8. 1721 - Nuestra Señora de los Dolores 9. 1728 - San Ignacio 10. 1730 - San José del Cabo 11. 1733 - Todos Santos 12. 1737 - San Luís Gonzaga 13. 1752 - Santa Gertrudis 14. 1762 - San Francisco de Borja 15. 1767 - Santa María de Los Angeles </li></ul><ul><li>UPPER CALIFORNIA Serra was responsible for the founding of the first nine missions. 1) 1769 - San Diego de Alcalá 2) 1770 - San Carlos Borromeo 3) 1771 - San Antonio de Padua 4) 1771 - San Gabriel Arcángel 5) 1772 - San Luís Obispo de Tolosa 6) 1776 - San Francisco de Asís 7) 1776 - San Juan Capistrano 8) 1777 - Santa Clara de Asís 9) 1782 - San Buenaventura </li></ul>
  23. 25. Spanish Place Names Hispanic Heritage from Coast to Coast <ul><li>The Spanish were among the first Europeans to explore what is now the United States, and the first to found a permanent settlement here (St. Augustine, Florida, in 1565). From Alaska's Madre de Dios Island to Mexico, Maine, the United States is dotted with Spanish place names. Here are a few. </li></ul><ul><li>Alamo : &quot;poplar.&quot; This tall softwood tree gave its name to a number of U.S. places, including the memorable chapel-fort in Texas and the town of Los Alamos in New Mexico, where atomic bombs were produced. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcatraz Island (California): from álcatraces , pelican. A sizable pelican population once lived on this rocky island in the San Francisco Bay. </li></ul><ul><li>Boca Raton (Florida): from boca de ratónes , a Spanish term applied to nearby inlets. It translates as &quot;mouth of the mouse&quot; (not &quot;rat,&quot; which is rata ) and may refer to the jagged rocks at these inlets. It has also been suggested that ratónes was a term used for the pirates who might hide in such a place. </li></ul><ul><li>California : The state was named for a mythical land described in a popular Spanish novel from around 1500, Las sergas de Esplandián (The exploits of Esplandián) by Garcia Ordóñez de Montalvo. </li></ul><ul><li>Cape Canaveral (Florida): from cañaveral , canebrake. The promontory NASA made famous takes its name from the thickets of cane that grow in sandy areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Colorado : &quot;reddish.&quot; The state is named for the reddish color of mud found in the Colorado River. </li></ul><ul><li>El Paso (Texas): &quot;passage.&quot; The border city of El Paso lies at a small gap between the Rockies and the Juarez Mountains of Mexico. This narrow passage has made the city a hub for both north-south and east-west travel. </li></ul><ul><li>Florida : &quot;flowery.&quot; Some say that Spanish explorer Ponce de Leon named the land for the Spanish term for Easter, Pascua de Florida (Flowery Feast), because he first saw the land during the Easter season. Others believe he named it for the area's lush flowers. </li></ul><ul><li>Fresno (California): &quot;ash tree.&quot; The central Californian city and county are named for their abundant ash trees. </li></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>La Brea (California): &quot;tar.&quot; The tar pits in this famous part of Los Angeles have yielded amazing fossils for more than 100 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Las Cruces (New Mexico): &quot;crosses.&quot; The city is named for the burial ground of some 40 travelers who were killed by Apaches in 1830. </li></ul><ul><li>Las Vegas (Nevada): &quot;meadows.&quot; Before casinos and neon lights defined Las Vegas, the area was noteworthy as a desert oasis with artesian springs. </li></ul><ul><li>Los Angeles (California): &quot;angels.&quot; In 1781 Spanish settlers founded El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de Los Angeles de Porciúncula (The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels of Porciúncula). It became known as La Ciudad de los Angeles (City of Angels), and then just as Los Angeles. </li></ul><ul><li>Los Gatos (California): &quot;cats.&quot; At the time this western California city was founded, many wildcats roamed the area. </li></ul><ul><li>Montana : from montaña , mountain. Representative James M. Ashley of Ohio suggested using the Spanish word in honor of the territory's mountainous western part. </li></ul><ul><li>Nevada : &quot;snow-covered.&quot; The mountains in this western state are often capped with snow. </li></ul><ul><li>San Antonio (Texas): &quot;Saint Anthony&quot; (of Padua). On the feast day of St. Anthony in 1691, Spanish explorers found and named the eponymous river. Later the name was given to the city, which was founded in 1718. </li></ul><ul><li>San Francisco (California): &quot;Saint Francis&quot; (of Assisi). The city by the bay was once a Mexican village named Yerba Buena (Good Grass). In 1846, during the Mexican War, Commodore John Sloat captured and renamed the settlement for its San Francisco de Asís mission (better known as Mission Dolores ), which was founded in 1776. </li></ul><ul><li>Sangre de Cristo Mountains (Colorado and New Mexico): &quot;blood of Christ.&quot; This mountain range was named for the red glow cast on it by the setting sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Fe (New Mexico): &quot;holy faith.&quot; Spanish settlers founded this oldest U.S. capital nearly 400 years ago, as La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís (The Royal City of the Holy Faith of Saint Francis). </li></ul>
  25. 27. Spanish Words in English <ul><li>Others,such as tuna, which comes from the Spanish atún,are variations of the original. Other food words are of American Indian origin, but came into English via Spanish. Tomato,for instance, is derived from the Spanish tomate,a corruption of the Nahuatl word tomatl. Chocolate comes from the Nahuatl word xocolatl. Potato comes from papa, meaning white potato in the Inca language, Quechua; and batata, sweet potato in the Taino Indian language of the Caribbean. Banana, on the other hand, entered Spanish from the West African languages of Wolof, Mandingo, and Fulani. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Names A number of animal words went directly from Indian languages into Spanish and then English.Puma originated in Quechua, while jaguar comes from yaguar, a word of the Guarani who live in what is now Paraguay, and iguana is a modification of iwana, used by the Arawak and Carib of the West Indies. </li></ul><ul><li>Riding Through the Desert When Americans began exploring the Southwest in the early 19th century they encountered an established Mexican culture, which has provided English with many everyday words. Some involve horseback riding, including rodeo, lasso, and lariat, since the horse was a key part of frontier life for both Mexicans and Americans. Ranch , a common English word today, hails from the Mexican Spanish ranch, meaning ranch, settlement, or meat ration. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, our whole idea of a cowboy derives from the Spanish—cattle and horses were introduced to the New World via the conquistadors—mustangs, saddles, stirrups, boots, lariats, guitars, chaps, and even the ten gallon hat. </li></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>Sailing the Spanish Main Hurricane,tobacco,and hammock came to English from the Caribbean. In the 17th and 18th centuries American and English traders plied the ports of the West Indies and South America. Weather often required extended stays in these ports, acquainting the English speakers with Spanish culture. In addition, buccaneers in search of treasure sailed &quot;the Spanish Main,&quot; the South American mainland from the Orinoco River in present-day Venezuela to Panama. It is likely they also acquired many Spanish words now used in English. </li></ul><ul><li>Common Words with Spanish Origins Alligator - el lagarto , the lizard Booby - bobo, silly or selfish, from the Latin for stammering, balbus Bronco - meaning wild or rough Cafeteria - cafetería , a coffee shop Cargo - cargar , to load Cigar, Cigarette - cigarro Comrade - camarada, old Spanish for barracks company or roommate Guerrilla - a small raiding party or fighting force Hoosegow - from juzgado, a tribunal or courtroom, past participle of juzgar, to judge Mustang - mestengo or mesteño , a stray animal Patio - courtyard in Spanish Peccadillo - a form of pecado, to sin Renegade - renegado, deserter or outlaw Savvy - saber, to know Tornado - tornar, to turn, tronada, thunderstorm Vamoose - vamos, let's go . Words with the same meaning in both languages include aficionado , armada, barracuda, mosquito, tobacco, and vanilla . </li></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>U.S. Hispanic/Latino Population </li></ul><ul><li>The 1990 census counted a total of 22.3 million Hispanics living in the United States. The list below identifies the percentage of that by national origin. NOTE: Hispanics may be of any race. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican61.2% </li></ul><ul><li>Puerto Rican12.1% </li></ul><ul><li>Cuban4.8% </li></ul><ul><li>Dominican2.4% </li></ul><ul><li>Other Hispanic3.9% </li></ul><ul><li>Spaniard*4.4% </li></ul><ul><li>Central American 6.0%     </li></ul><ul><li>Salvadoran42.7    </li></ul><ul><li>Guatemalan20.3    </li></ul><ul><li>Nicaraguan15.3    </li></ul><ul><li>Honduran9.9    </li></ul><ul><li>Panamanian7.0    </li></ul><ul><li>Costa Rican4.3    </li></ul><ul><li>Other Central American 2.1 </li></ul><ul><li>South American4.7%     </li></ul><ul><li>Colombian36.6   </li></ul><ul><li>Ecuadorian18.5    </li></ul><ul><li>Peruvian16.9    </li></ul><ul><li>Argentinean9.7    </li></ul><ul><li>Chilean6.6    </li></ul><ul><li>Other South American11.7 </li></ul><ul><li>*Includes those who reported “Spanish.” </li></ul>
  28. 30. Why We Are Not Called Columbia <ul><li>A Florentine explorer named Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512) claimed to have made four Atlantic voyages between 1497 and 1504, although only two have been confirmed. Following the 1501 voyage, Vespucci coined the phrase Mundus Novus —New World—to describe the region. The name stuck. Then, in 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemuller published an account of Vespucci’s voyages. It was Waldseemuller who used a Latinized form of Vespucci’s first name to label the region that Amerigo had explored. </li></ul><ul><li>Another theory is that the Viking/Scandinavian combination of land + Eric and a feminine ending = </li></ul><ul><li>Amt + Eric + a is how we got the name. </li></ul>

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