Groundwater and CO2CRC - insights from the Otway project and monitoring activities
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Groundwater and CO2CRC - insights from the Otway project and monitoring activities

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The Groundwater and Storage interactions project arose out of a meeting on the shoulder of the Greenhouse Gas Technologies Conference in Amsterdam in 2010. It was decided to concentrate initially on ...

The Groundwater and Storage interactions project arose out of a meeting on the shoulder of the Greenhouse Gas Technologies Conference in Amsterdam in 2010. It was decided to concentrate initially on the Australian Flagships projects. On 3 May 2011 Australian researchers and government agencies met and presented their work to date.

In these slides, Allison Hortle, Senior Researcher, Petroleum Hydrogeology, Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (CO2CRC), presents Groundwater and CO2CRC - Insights from the Otway Project and Monitoring Activities

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Groundwater and CO2CRC - insights from the Otway project and monitoring activities Groundwater and CO2CRC - insights from the Otway project and monitoring activities Presentation Transcript

  • Groundwater and CO2CRC- Insights fromthe Otway Project and Monitoring ActivitiesAllison HortleSenior Researcher, Petroleum HydrogeologyCooperative Research Centre Presenting to: GCCSIfor Greenhouse Gas Groundwater Thematic Working GroupTechnologies (CO2CRC) Initial Workshop © CO2CRC Canberra, 3 May, 2011 All rights reserved
  • M&V Goals• To monitor the freshwater aquifers to demonstrate that they are unaffected by the injection and storage of CO2• To set-up a long term sentinel monitoring system• To combine the hydrogeology and the geochemistry with the atmospheric and soil gas program to develop a methodology for an integrated surface and sub-surface monitoring system• Create public confidence in “decarbonisation” technology and demonstrate that this technology can co-exist with existing exploitable resources
  • Concept of the CO2CRC Otway Project Fluid Sampling Field Lab. Supercritical CO2 from Buttress-1 80% CO2 : 20% CH4
  • Monitoring at the CO2CRC Otway site δ
  • Schematic Stratigraphic Column of Otway Basin Port Campbell Limestone Aq.• Unconfined to semi-confined• Major local freshwater source; dairy,irrigation, domestic, etc Dilwyn Formation Aquifer• Confined, freshwater• Future urban water resource• Limited current use Waarre Aq.
  • Groundwater Monitoring Stations • 24 Port Campbell Limestone • 3 Dilwyn Aquifer • 5 Pre-injection sampling trips • 4 Post-injection sampling trips
  • Monitoring groundwater levels Cap• Install downhole pressure and Cable permanently temperature sensors installed Steel Cable• Provide real-time measurements of fluctuations in water levels Waterlevel 5-10m• Bi-annual downloads Datalogger Screen
  • Field Sampling• At each site, pumped water was monitored for: –pH, Eh, EC, DO and temperature through a flow cell until stable readings were acquired• A set of samples were field titrated for alkalinity• A set of samples were analysed for reduced Fe2+ through the portable mass spectrophotometer• Sets were obtained for comparison of field and lab results to determine if field processing is necessary
  • Pt Campbell Groundwater Composition
  • Water levels in the Dilwyn Confined Aquifer
  • Outcomes to date• Groundwater composition has not changed between pre- and post- injection• No evidence of any changes in water level or temperature associated with CO2CRC activities• All data has been given to landowners, consequently they are still very supportive• We have demonstrated that no change has occurred at any of the monitoring stations – this is not the same as evidence of containment
  • What is a monitoring network?• Monitor pre-existing wells, both groundwater and petroleum• Under what circumstances will these installations “see” changes related to CO2?• What volume, how far away from leak, what impacts?• How do you define an acceptable detection limit? pH, pressure, HCO3?
  • Groundwater Monitoring Cap• Standard practice, inexpensive, off-the Cable permanently shelf tools installed Steel Cable• Provide real-time measurements of fluctuations in water levels and Waterlevel temperature and conductivity 5-10m Datalogger• Still produce large amounts of data Screen
  • Permanent Downhole Monitoring• Becoming more standard in oil & gas industry• Real-time monitoring of pressure, temperature and possibly fluids• Much better reservoir management• Drawbacks are costs and longevity• Large amounts of data are produced, requiring complex and time-consuming analyses Schmidt, H.S., Nordtvedt, J-E., Nygaard, O. and Erskine, S., 2002, Reservoir management of gas fields using permanent sensors, World Oil, April, 2002, Vol. 223, No. 4, http://www.worldoil.com/April- 2002-Reservoir-management-of-gas-fields-using-permanent-sensors.html
  • Cranfield, EOR, USA (SEACARB)• PDS in injection interval, PT, and• AMZI: 120m above injection zone, changes in pressure in injection zone are not apparent in AZMI• Groundwater: geochemical sampling of aquifers at 70- 100m; Ag, Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb, Se, Zn (Cations), F-, Cl-, SO42-, Br-, NO3-, PO43- (Anions), TOC, TIC, pH, Alkalinity, VOC, dC13. http://bittooth.blogspot.com/2010/03/carbon-sequestration-sites-and-their.html
  • Ketzin, Germany (CO2SINK)• Atmospheric monitoring: tunable diode laser system for CO2 and methane• Gas monitoring: surface soil flux (20 stations), methane @ 2 m (10 wells)• Groundwater: 2 multisensor monitoring wells Wuerdemann, et al., 2010
  • Summary• Groundwater can be monitoring using geochemistry or pressure; pressure propagates further than CO2 plume• Tools for monitoring groundwater pressures (heads) are off-the-shelf, cheap, long-lived and effective for monitoring changes in pressure, temperature and activity• Tools for monitoring reservoir interval pressures are also off-the-shelf, but more expensive and longevity is less than 10 years• Continuous monitoring is possible, but expensive and requires complex analysis combined with a very good geological model and field history
  • CO2CRC ParticipantsSupporting Partners: The Global CCS Institute | The University of Queensland | Process Group | Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Government of South Australia | CANSYD Australia Established & supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program
  • Naylor area Pre-production potentiometric surface
  • Onshore Otway Basin: declining pressure with time Naylor-1 Croft-1
  • Hydrographs from the Unconfined Aquifer Date 1/10/00 13/02/02 28/06/03 9/11/04 24/03/06 0 2 ~3.5m 4Depth (metres) 6 BORE 141239 BORE 141240 BORE 141241 8 10 12
  • Long-term Monitoring of Deep Aquifer Reduced Water Levels in Deep Bores (relative to AHD) Date 14/11/84 23/01/87 2/04/89 11/06/91 19/08/93 28/10/95 5/01/98 15/03/00 24/05/02 1/08/04 10/10/06 18/12/08 0 Pump test 5 BORE 84288 BORE 84290 10 BORE 84291 BORE 85937 Test impacts BORE 85942 15Depth (metres) 20 25 30 35
  • Groundwater Resources in Victoria