Groundwater and CO2CRC- Insights fromthe Otway Project and Monitoring ActivitiesAllison HortleSenior Researcher, Petroleum...
M&V Goals• To monitor the freshwater aquifers to demonstrate that they are  unaffected by the injection and storage of CO2...
Concept of the CO2CRC Otway Project                               Fluid Sampling                                  Field La...
Monitoring at the CO2CRC Otway site                                δ
Schematic Stratigraphic Column of Otway    Basin    Port Campbell Limestone Aq.•   Unconfined to semi-confined• Major loca...
Groundwater Monitoring Stations                             • 24 Port Campbell                               Limestone    ...
Monitoring groundwater levels                                     Cap• Install downhole pressure and                   Cab...
Field Sampling•   At each site, pumped water was monitored    for:     –pH, Eh, EC, DO and temperature     through a flow ...
Pt Campbell Groundwater Composition
Water levels in the Dilwyn Confined Aquifer
Outcomes to date• Groundwater composition has not changed between pre- and  post- injection• No evidence of any changes in...
What is a monitoring network?• Monitor pre-existing wells, both groundwater and petroleum• Under what circumstances will t...
Groundwater Monitoring                                             Cap• Standard practice, inexpensive, off-the           ...
Permanent Downhole Monitoring• Becoming more standard in  oil & gas industry• Real-time monitoring of  pressure, temperatu...
Cranfield, EOR, USA (SEACARB)• PDS in injection interval, PT,  and• AMZI: 120m above injection  zone, changes in pressure ...
Ketzin, Germany (CO2SINK)• Atmospheric monitoring:  tunable diode laser system  for CO2 and methane• Gas monitoring: surfa...
Summary• Groundwater can be monitoring using geochemistry or  pressure; pressure propagates further than CO2 plume• Tools ...
CO2CRC ParticipantsSupporting Partners: The Global CCS Institute | The University of Queensland | Process Group | Lawrence...
Naylor area Pre-production potentiometric surface
Onshore Otway Basin: declining pressure with time                                      Naylor-1   Croft-1
Hydrographs from the Unconfined Aquifer                                              Date                 1/10/00       13...
Long-term Monitoring of Deep Aquifer                                          Reduced Water Levels in Deep Bores (relative...
Groundwater Resources in Victoria
Groundwater and CO2CRC - insights from the Otway project and monitoring activities
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Groundwater and CO2CRC - insights from the Otway project and monitoring activities

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The Groundwater and Storage interactions project arose out of a meeting on the shoulder of the Greenhouse Gas Technologies Conference in Amsterdam in 2010. It was decided to concentrate initially on the Australian Flagships projects. On 3 May 2011 Australian researchers and government agencies met and presented their work to date.

In these slides, Allison Hortle, Senior Researcher, Petroleum Hydrogeology, Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (CO2CRC), presents Groundwater and CO2CRC - Insights from the Otway Project and Monitoring Activities

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Groundwater and CO2CRC - insights from the Otway project and monitoring activities

  1. 1. Groundwater and CO2CRC- Insights fromthe Otway Project and Monitoring ActivitiesAllison HortleSenior Researcher, Petroleum HydrogeologyCooperative Research Centre Presenting to: GCCSIfor Greenhouse Gas Groundwater Thematic Working GroupTechnologies (CO2CRC) Initial Workshop © CO2CRC Canberra, 3 May, 2011 All rights reserved
  2. 2. M&V Goals• To monitor the freshwater aquifers to demonstrate that they are unaffected by the injection and storage of CO2• To set-up a long term sentinel monitoring system• To combine the hydrogeology and the geochemistry with the atmospheric and soil gas program to develop a methodology for an integrated surface and sub-surface monitoring system• Create public confidence in “decarbonisation” technology and demonstrate that this technology can co-exist with existing exploitable resources
  3. 3. Concept of the CO2CRC Otway Project Fluid Sampling Field Lab. Supercritical CO2 from Buttress-1 80% CO2 : 20% CH4
  4. 4. Monitoring at the CO2CRC Otway site δ
  5. 5. Schematic Stratigraphic Column of Otway Basin Port Campbell Limestone Aq.• Unconfined to semi-confined• Major local freshwater source; dairy,irrigation, domestic, etc Dilwyn Formation Aquifer• Confined, freshwater• Future urban water resource• Limited current use Waarre Aq.
  6. 6. Groundwater Monitoring Stations • 24 Port Campbell Limestone • 3 Dilwyn Aquifer • 5 Pre-injection sampling trips • 4 Post-injection sampling trips
  7. 7. Monitoring groundwater levels Cap• Install downhole pressure and Cable permanently temperature sensors installed Steel Cable• Provide real-time measurements of fluctuations in water levels Waterlevel 5-10m• Bi-annual downloads Datalogger Screen
  8. 8. Field Sampling• At each site, pumped water was monitored for: –pH, Eh, EC, DO and temperature through a flow cell until stable readings were acquired• A set of samples were field titrated for alkalinity• A set of samples were analysed for reduced Fe2+ through the portable mass spectrophotometer• Sets were obtained for comparison of field and lab results to determine if field processing is necessary
  9. 9. Pt Campbell Groundwater Composition
  10. 10. Water levels in the Dilwyn Confined Aquifer
  11. 11. Outcomes to date• Groundwater composition has not changed between pre- and post- injection• No evidence of any changes in water level or temperature associated with CO2CRC activities• All data has been given to landowners, consequently they are still very supportive• We have demonstrated that no change has occurred at any of the monitoring stations – this is not the same as evidence of containment
  12. 12. What is a monitoring network?• Monitor pre-existing wells, both groundwater and petroleum• Under what circumstances will these installations “see” changes related to CO2?• What volume, how far away from leak, what impacts?• How do you define an acceptable detection limit? pH, pressure, HCO3?
  13. 13. Groundwater Monitoring Cap• Standard practice, inexpensive, off-the Cable permanently shelf tools installed Steel Cable• Provide real-time measurements of fluctuations in water levels and Waterlevel temperature and conductivity 5-10m Datalogger• Still produce large amounts of data Screen
  14. 14. Permanent Downhole Monitoring• Becoming more standard in oil & gas industry• Real-time monitoring of pressure, temperature and possibly fluids• Much better reservoir management• Drawbacks are costs and longevity• Large amounts of data are produced, requiring complex and time-consuming analyses Schmidt, H.S., Nordtvedt, J-E., Nygaard, O. and Erskine, S., 2002, Reservoir management of gas fields using permanent sensors, World Oil, April, 2002, Vol. 223, No. 4, http://www.worldoil.com/April- 2002-Reservoir-management-of-gas-fields-using-permanent-sensors.html
  15. 15. Cranfield, EOR, USA (SEACARB)• PDS in injection interval, PT, and• AMZI: 120m above injection zone, changes in pressure in injection zone are not apparent in AZMI• Groundwater: geochemical sampling of aquifers at 70- 100m; Ag, Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb, Se, Zn (Cations), F-, Cl-, SO42-, Br-, NO3-, PO43- (Anions), TOC, TIC, pH, Alkalinity, VOC, dC13. http://bittooth.blogspot.com/2010/03/carbon-sequestration-sites-and-their.html
  16. 16. Ketzin, Germany (CO2SINK)• Atmospheric monitoring: tunable diode laser system for CO2 and methane• Gas monitoring: surface soil flux (20 stations), methane @ 2 m (10 wells)• Groundwater: 2 multisensor monitoring wells Wuerdemann, et al., 2010
  17. 17. Summary• Groundwater can be monitoring using geochemistry or pressure; pressure propagates further than CO2 plume• Tools for monitoring groundwater pressures (heads) are off-the-shelf, cheap, long-lived and effective for monitoring changes in pressure, temperature and activity• Tools for monitoring reservoir interval pressures are also off-the-shelf, but more expensive and longevity is less than 10 years• Continuous monitoring is possible, but expensive and requires complex analysis combined with a very good geological model and field history
  18. 18. CO2CRC ParticipantsSupporting Partners: The Global CCS Institute | The University of Queensland | Process Group | Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Government of South Australia | CANSYD Australia Established & supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program
  19. 19. Naylor area Pre-production potentiometric surface
  20. 20. Onshore Otway Basin: declining pressure with time Naylor-1 Croft-1
  21. 21. Hydrographs from the Unconfined Aquifer Date 1/10/00 13/02/02 28/06/03 9/11/04 24/03/06 0 2 ~3.5m 4Depth (metres) 6 BORE 141239 BORE 141240 BORE 141241 8 10 12
  22. 22. Long-term Monitoring of Deep Aquifer Reduced Water Levels in Deep Bores (relative to AHD) Date 14/11/84 23/01/87 2/04/89 11/06/91 19/08/93 28/10/95 5/01/98 15/03/00 24/05/02 1/08/04 10/10/06 18/12/08 0 Pump test 5 BORE 84288 BORE 84290 10 BORE 84291 BORE 85937 Test impacts BORE 85942 15Depth (metres) 20 25 30 35
  23. 23. Groundwater Resources in Victoria

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