Poultry2 2010

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  • In a pasture poultry production system the pens are moved daily. The pasture is then usually left for another year. Generally cages are 10 feet by 10 feet in size. An eight-week production cycle requires 3500 square feet. That equates to approximately 10 percent of an acre for each pen
  • In a pasture poultry production system the pens are moved daily. The pasture is then usually left for another year. Generally cages are 10 feet by 10 feet in size. An eight-week production cycle requires 3500 square feet. That equates to approximately 10 percent of an acre for each pen
  • Poultry2 2010

    1. 1. Introduction to Animal Science POULTRY Lecture 2 Dr. Jacquie Jacob Modified by Tony Seykora
    2. 2. CHICKENS(Gallus domesticus)
    3. 3. Red Jungle Fowl(Gallus gallus spadiceus) Domestication of chickens is believed to have occurred as early as 3200 B.C.
    4. 4. Chickens were first domesticated for cockfighting
    5. 5. COCKFIGHTING It is legal to raise fighting birds in all states, but as of 2008 illegal to fight in all of them. The last three states to allow cockfighting were: Louisiana, Oklahoma, and New Mexico Trio of fighting chickensOld English Game Chickens
    6. 6. COCKFIGHTINGIf May 2010, a cocking fighting ring was broken up in Lino Lakes, Minnesota.
    7. 7. Weight = 2 lb Eggs/yr = 10-12 JUNGLE FOWLMEAT PRODUCTION PUREBRED EGG PRODUCTION
    8. 8. EGG INDUSTRY Egyptian and Chinese records show thatfowl were laying eggs for man in 1400 B.C.
    9. 9. Ranking of States for eggs in 2008 Billion of eggs4.Iowa 14.45.Ohio 7.16.Pennsylvania 6.57.Indiana 6.58.California 5.211. Minnesota 2.8
    10. 10. TABLE EGG INDUSTRY• Industry is consolidating into a few players: – 1987 there were 2500 Commercial egg producers – In 2003, 260 companies represented 95% of all the layers in the U.S. • 65 companies with 1 million plus layers – 9 companies with >5 million layers
    11. 11. Yet many people have a few chickens in the backyard!
    12. 12. Quite the chicken coop!!
    13. 13. U.S. EGG INDUSTRYBREEDERS Hatching eggs HATCHERY FEED MANUFACTURING Pullet chicks REPLACEMENT PULLETS Laying hens LAYING FLOCKS Eggs WHOLESALERS / RETAILERS
    14. 14. U.S. EGG INDUSTRYBREEDERS Hatching eggs HATCHERY FEED MANUFACTURING Pullet chicks REPLACEMENT PULLETS Laying hens LAYING FLOCKS Eggs WHOLESALERS / RETAILERS
    15. 15. EGG STRAINS
    16. 16. BREEDERS• The commercial egg industry in the U.S. is dominated by the Single Comb White Leghorn – High rate of lay – Early maturity – Good feed efficiency – Relatively small body size – Adaptability to diverse climates – Lay white-shelled eggs • The most widely demanded shell color among consumers
    17. 17. Single Comb White Leghorn SCWL Single Comb White ear lobes Yellow skin and shanks
    18. 18. BREEDERS• In some areas of the U.S. (e.g., New England) brown eggs are more popular – Rhode Island Red, New Hampshire, and Plymouth Rock based lines
    19. 19. BREEDERS• Following WWII some breeders turned to methods similar to those used so successfully in producing hybrid seed corn – Selected inbred lines of chickens, developed by generations of mating closely related birds, were crossed – The very uniform progeny were called ‘inbred hybrids’ – System still used today
    20. 20. SEX DETERMINATION• Sex-linked characteristics associated with feather growth – Slow feathering (K) is dominant to rapid feather (k) and is sex-linked • Example of an undesirable dominant characteristics that has been used to advantage by the breeder
    21. 21. SEX DETERMINATION• Rapid feathering – • Slow feathering – Primary and secondary Primaries and coverts are wing feathers are longer about the same length than the coverts
    22. 22. Parents (Genotype) (ZkZk) (ZKW) Phenotype - feathering Rapid Slow Sex Male Female Zk Zk ZK ZKZk ZKZk Slow feathering males W ZkW ZkW Rapid feathering females
    23. 23. FEMALE MALERapid feathering Slow feathering
    24. 24. MALE
    25. 25. FEMALE
    26. 26. FEMALE
    27. 27. MALE
    28. 28. MALE
    29. 29. FEMALE
    30. 30. MALE
    31. 31. Pedigree flocks (Pure lines) Male Line Female Line #1 #2 #3 #4Great-Grandparents ♂ x ♀ ♂ x ♀ ♂ x ♀ ♂ x ♀Grandparents ♂ +♀ ♂ +♀ ♂ +♀ ♂ +♀Expansion flocks (Inbreeding) ♂ x ♀ ♂ x ♀ ♂ +♀ ♂ +♀Parents ♂ x ♀ ♂ +♀ Commercial egg-laying pullet
    32. 32. U.S. EGG INDUSTRYBREEDERS Hatching eggs HATCHERY FEED MANUFACTURING Pullet chicks REPLACEMENT PULLETS Laying hens LAYING FLOCKS Eggs WHOLESALERS / RETAILERS
    33. 33. HATCHERY• Incubation period is 21 days• 100 degrees F is forced air, 102 degrees F if a still-air incubator is used• Humidity at 58-60%. Raise to 65% as eggs start to hatch• Turn eggs ½ turn 4-6 times per day. Do not turn within 3 days of hatching• Do not help chicks out of shells
    34. 34. U.S. EGG INDUSTRYBREEDERS Hatching eggs HATCHERY FEED MANUFACTURING Pullet chicks REPLACEMENT PULLETS Laying hens LAYING FLOCKS Eggs WHOLESALERS / RETAILERS
    35. 35. REPLACEMENT PULLETS• Temperature at 90-95 degrees for day old chicks and decreased 5 degrees per week.
    36. 36. • Chicks are placed on 3-4” of litter.• Hoovers guards keep chicks close to heat source so that they do not get chilled.
    37. 37. • Light is controlled from 12 to 20 weeks of age – preferred: decreasing day length• At 20 weeks of age pullets moved to laying house with increasing day length to promote laying eggs.
    38. 38. BEAK TRIMMINGBeak trimming prevents canibolism later on.
    39. 39. U.S. EGG INDUSTRYBREEDERS Hatching eggs HATCHERY FEED MANUFACTURING Pullet chicks REPLACEMENT PULLETS Laying hens LAYING FLOCKS Eggs WHOLESALERS / RETAILERS
    40. 40. Raising poultry waslabor intensive
    41. 41. FreeRangeChicken
    42. 42. Egg production is now highly mechanized
    43. 43. Typical production curveLighting is increased at 20 weeks of age to 12 hours andthen increased 15-20 minutes per week to a maximum of17 hours to promote egg production.
    44. 44. U.S. EGG INDUSTRYBREEDERS Hatching eggs HATCHERY Pullet chicks REPLACEMENT PULLETS Laying hens LAYING FLOCKS Eggs WHOLESALERS / RETAILERS
    45. 45. Aerial view: Sparboe complex Litchfield, MN 1 2 3 4 5 Laying houses 6 7 8 9 1011 In-line processing facility
    46. 46. In-line processing
    47. 47. Egg Quality• Interior quality determined by freshness and free from blood spots.
    48. 48. Air Cell Gauge
    49. 49. Air cell depth
    50. 50. Measuring Air Cell
    51. 51. Air Cell MeasurementAir cell gauge
    52. 52. Candled appearance of a blood spot
    53. 53. Egg Quality• Interior quality• Exterior quality
    54. 54. Exterior egg quality • Cleanliness • Egg shape • Shell texture • Shell thickness
    55. 55. Cleanliness Grade A eggs must be clean
    56. 56. CleanlinessGrade A: Clean Grade B: Moderate Grade B: Moderate localized stain scattered stain but covering less than covering less than 1/32 of the shell 1/16 of the shell
    57. 57. Cleanliness 1/4 1/4 1/16 1/16 1/8 1/8 1/32 1/32Grade A: Clean Grade B: Moderate Grade B: Moderate localized stain scattered stain but covering less than covering less than 1/32 of the shell 1/16 of the shell
    58. 58. CleanlinessDirty: Scattered Dirty: Localized Dirty: Prominentmoderate stains moderate stain staincovering more than covering more than1/16 of the shell 1/32 of the shell
    59. 59. Cleanliness – adhering material
    60. 60. Egg shape
    61. 61. Egg shape
    62. 62. Egg shape
    63. 63. Shell texture – calcium deposits
    64. 64. Shell texture – ridges
    65. 65. Shell texture – roughness
    66. 66. Shell texture – body checks
    67. 67. Shell thickness
    68. 68. TABLE EGG INDUSTRY• Designer eggs – Increased omega-3 fatty acids – Increased vitamin E• Specialty eggs – Cage-free – Free-range – Pasture-fed – Fed vegetarian diets – Organic
    69. 69. EggInnovations
    70. 70. Gold Circle
    71. 71. EGG PRODUCTSWhich egg is fresher?
    72. 72. EGG PRODUCTS• Commercial egg drying began in St. Louis, MO about 1880• The first commercial production of frozen whole eggs began in 1903• Separated eggs were available in 1912• The first commercial egg breaking machines were available in 1951
    73. 73. Egg breaking equipment: For further processing
    74. 74. EGG PRODUCTS• Processing of egg products includes breaking eggs, filtering, mixing, stabilizing, blending, pasteurizing, cooling, freezing, or drying and packaging• Egg products include whole eggs, whites, yolks and various blends with and without non-egg ingredients that are processed and pasteurized and may be available in liquid, frozen and dried forms
    75. 75. LIQUID EGG INDUSTRY• Beside dinner and restaurant tables, eggs are finding their way into 50+ processed products as ingredients.• In 2003, 206.9 million cases: – 60.9 million cases were further processed – 125.8 million cases (60.87%) for retail – 18.6 million cases (9.4%) for foodservice use – 1.6 million cases (0.8%) were exported
    76. 76. ISSUESAFFECTING theEGG INDUSTRY
    77. 77. ISSUES AFFECTING EGG INDUSTRY• Cholesterol – Technology for measuring cholesterol content in egg improved • Cholesterol not as high as first believed – Understanding of cholesterol and heart disease improved • It is the HDL and LDL that are important NOT cholesterol
    78. 78. ISSUES AFFECTING EGG INDUSTRY• Animal rights/animal welfare – Activists groups started attacking food outlets
    79. 79. REAL WELFARE CONCERNS• Hatchery – Chick processing: sexing, vaccinations - handled gently? – Disposal of males - humane? – Transport to farms - time, temperature, RH, ventilation, space, handled gently?
    80. 80. REAL WELFARE CONCERNS• Brooding and rearing – Delivery and placing in cages - handled gently? – Beak trimming - necessary? – Space allotment - too crowded? – Cages - too barren? – Catching for transport - handled gently? – Transportation to layer houses - time, temperature, RH, ventilation, space, handled gently?
    81. 81. REAL WELFARE CONCERNS• Layer houses – Delivery and placing in cages - handled gently? – Space allotment - too crowded? – Forced molting - starvation? – Cages - too barren? – No nests - behavioral deprivation? – Catching for slaughter - broken bones? – Transportation for slaughter - time, temperature, RH, ventilation, space, handled gently? – Slaughter - humane?
    82. 82. ALTERNATIVE HOUSINGConventional housing Alternative housing
    83. 83. ALTERNATIVE HOUSINGConventional housing Alternative housing
    84. 84. Cage-free systems Supply area Resting area Laying area Scratch area
    85. 85. Free Range Big Dutchman
    86. 86. Pasture poultry
    87. 87. Pasture poultry
    88. 88. ISSUES AFFECTING EGG INDUSTRY• Environmental pollution • Manure is typically spread on land as a fertilizer • High in P which can lead to pollution of surface waters
    89. 89. QUESTIONS?

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