Introduction to Animal Science POULTRY Lecture 2 Dr. Jacquie Jacob Modified by Tony Seykora
Red Jungle Fowl(Gallus gallus spadiceus) Domestication of chickens is believed to have occurred as early as 3200 B.C.
Chickens were first domesticated for cockfighting
COCKFIGHTING It is legal to raise fighting birds in all states, but as of 2008 illegal to fight in all of them. The last three states to allow cockfighting were: Louisiana, Oklahoma, and New Mexico Trio of fighting chickensOld English Game Chickens
COCKFIGHTINGIf May 2010, a cocking fighting ring was broken up in Lino Lakes, Minnesota.
Weight = 2 lb Eggs/yr = 10-12 JUNGLE FOWLMEAT PRODUCTION PUREBRED EGG PRODUCTION
EGG INDUSTRY Egyptian and Chinese records show thatfowl were laying eggs for man in 1400 B.C.
Ranking of States for eggs in 2008 Billion of eggs4.Iowa 14.45.Ohio 7.16.Pennsylvania 6.57.Indiana 6.58.California 5.211. Minnesota 2.8
TABLE EGG INDUSTRY• Industry is consolidating into a few players: – 1987 there were 2500 Commercial egg producers – In 2003, 260 companies represented 95% of all the layers in the U.S. • 65 companies with 1 million plus layers – 9 companies with >5 million layers
Yet many people have a few chickens in the backyard!
BREEDERS• The commercial egg industry in the U.S. is dominated by the Single Comb White Leghorn – High rate of lay – Early maturity – Good feed efficiency – Relatively small body size – Adaptability to diverse climates – Lay white-shelled eggs • The most widely demanded shell color among consumers
Single Comb White Leghorn SCWL Single Comb White ear lobes Yellow skin and shanks
BREEDERS• In some areas of the U.S. (e.g., New England) brown eggs are more popular – Rhode Island Red, New Hampshire, and Plymouth Rock based lines
BREEDERS• Following WWII some breeders turned to methods similar to those used so successfully in producing hybrid seed corn – Selected inbred lines of chickens, developed by generations of mating closely related birds, were crossed – The very uniform progeny were called ‘inbred hybrids’ – System still used today
SEX DETERMINATION• Sex-linked characteristics associated with feather growth – Slow feathering (K) is dominant to rapid feather (k) and is sex-linked • Example of an undesirable dominant characteristics that has been used to advantage by the breeder
SEX DETERMINATION• Rapid feathering – • Slow feathering – Primary and secondary Primaries and coverts are wing feathers are longer about the same length than the coverts
Parents (Genotype) (ZkZk) (ZKW) Phenotype - feathering Rapid Slow Sex Male Female Zk Zk ZK ZKZk ZKZk Slow feathering males W ZkW ZkW Rapid feathering females
FEMALE MALERapid feathering Slow feathering
Pedigree flocks (Pure lines) Male Line Female Line #1 #2 #3 #4Great-Grandparents ♂ x ♀ ♂ x ♀ ♂ x ♀ ♂ x ♀Grandparents ♂ +♀ ♂ +♀ ♂ +♀ ♂ +♀Expansion flocks (Inbreeding) ♂ x ♀ ♂ x ♀ ♂ +♀ ♂ +♀Parents ♂ x ♀ ♂ +♀ Commercial egg-laying pullet
HATCHERY• Incubation period is 21 days• 100 degrees F is forced air, 102 degrees F if a still-air incubator is used• Humidity at 58-60%. Raise to 65% as eggs start to hatch• Turn eggs ½ turn 4-6 times per day. Do not turn within 3 days of hatching• Do not help chicks out of shells
CleanlinessGrade A: Clean Grade B: Moderate Grade B: Moderate localized stain scattered stain but covering less than covering less than 1/32 of the shell 1/16 of the shell
Cleanliness 1/4 1/4 1/16 1/16 1/8 1/8 1/32 1/32Grade A: Clean Grade B: Moderate Grade B: Moderate localized stain scattered stain but covering less than covering less than 1/32 of the shell 1/16 of the shell
CleanlinessDirty: Scattered Dirty: Localized Dirty: Prominentmoderate stains moderate stain staincovering more than covering more than1/16 of the shell 1/32 of the shell
EGG PRODUCTS• Commercial egg drying began in St. Louis, MO about 1880• The first commercial production of frozen whole eggs began in 1903• Separated eggs were available in 1912• The first commercial egg breaking machines were available in 1951
Egg breaking equipment: For further processing
EGG PRODUCTS• Processing of egg products includes breaking eggs, filtering, mixing, stabilizing, blending, pasteurizing, cooling, freezing, or drying and packaging• Egg products include whole eggs, whites, yolks and various blends with and without non-egg ingredients that are processed and pasteurized and may be available in liquid, frozen and dried forms
LIQUID EGG INDUSTRY• Beside dinner and restaurant tables, eggs are finding their way into 50+ processed products as ingredients.• In 2003, 206.9 million cases: – 60.9 million cases were further processed – 125.8 million cases (60.87%) for retail – 18.6 million cases (9.4%) for foodservice use – 1.6 million cases (0.8%) were exported
ISSUESAFFECTING theEGG INDUSTRY
ISSUES AFFECTING EGG INDUSTRY• Cholesterol – Technology for measuring cholesterol content in egg improved • Cholesterol not as high as first believed – Understanding of cholesterol and heart disease improved • It is the HDL and LDL that are important NOT cholesterol
ISSUES AFFECTING EGG INDUSTRY• Animal rights/animal welfare – Activists groups started attacking food outlets
REAL WELFARE CONCERNS• Hatchery – Chick processing: sexing, vaccinations - handled gently? – Disposal of males - humane? – Transport to farms - time, temperature, RH, ventilation, space, handled gently?
REAL WELFARE CONCERNS• Brooding and rearing – Delivery and placing in cages - handled gently? – Beak trimming - necessary? – Space allotment - too crowded? – Cages - too barren? – Catching for transport - handled gently? – Transportation to layer houses - time, temperature, RH, ventilation, space, handled gently?
REAL WELFARE CONCERNS• Layer houses – Delivery and placing in cages - handled gently? – Space allotment - too crowded? – Forced molting - starvation? – Cages - too barren? – No nests - behavioral deprivation? – Catching for slaughter - broken bones? – Transportation for slaughter - time, temperature, RH, ventilation, space, handled gently? – Slaughter - humane?
ALTERNATIVE HOUSINGConventional housing Alternative housing
ALTERNATIVE HOUSINGConventional housing Alternative housing
Cage-free systems Supply area Resting area Laying area Scratch area
Free Range Big Dutchman
ISSUES AFFECTING EGG INDUSTRY• Environmental pollution • Manure is typically spread on land as a fertilizer • High in P which can lead to pollution of surface waters