Poultry prod


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Poultry prod

  1. 1. The Poultry Industry One of the fastest growing segments of the animal industry
  2. 2. Consumption <ul><li>Worldwide consumption of poultry is increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Per capita consumption of broilers is 90 pounds </li></ul>
  3. 3. Poultry <ul><li>generally accepted in most cultures </li></ul>
  4. 4. Largest Producers <ul><li>in the world are China </li></ul><ul><li>the countries of the former Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Broiler Industry <ul><li>Today, almost all of the poultry is raised in large operations </li></ul><ul><li>the term broiler refers to chickens which are about 7-8 weeks of age and are raised for meat </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Broiler Industry <ul><li>concentrated in the South East </li></ul><ul><li>leading states are Arkansas, Georgia, and Alabama </li></ul><ul><li>majority of broilers raised in this country are raised on contract </li></ul>
  7. 7. Broiler Houses <ul><li>raised in large houses where the birds spend most of their lives </li></ul><ul><li>designed to provide the ultimate in environmental conditions for the comfort of the birds. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Broiler Houses <ul><li>generally lighted 24 hours a day </li></ul><ul><li>helps cut down on cannibalism </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cannibalism <ul><li>according to research, fitting birds with red contact lenses helps to decrease cannibalism </li></ul><ul><li>not a common practice because of the cost. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Broiler Production <ul><li>process begins with the production of eggs that will be hatched into chicks. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents are selected from breeds that are large and muscular </li></ul>
  11. 11. Broiler Production <ul><li>different in appearance from those chickens used to produce eggs for consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Layers are selected on their ability to lay eggs </li></ul>
  12. 12. Broiler Production <ul><li>most are hybrids derived from mating of different breeds </li></ul><ul><li>usually mated through artificial insemination </li></ul><ul><li>results in heterosis or hybrid vigor </li></ul>
  13. 13. Hybrid Vigor <ul><li>the resulting offspring are healthier and outproduce the average of their parents. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Broiler Production <ul><li>most are white </li></ul><ul><li>colored birds have pigmentation spots in their skin which is undesirable to the consumer </li></ul>
  15. 15. Egg Production <ul><li>eggs are expelled from the hens body and the embryo develops outside the mother’s body. </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs are encased in a hard shell and can weigh several ounces </li></ul>
  16. 16. Egg Production <ul><li>most mammal eggs are microscopic </li></ul><ul><li>process begins with the release of the ovum (yolk) from the ovary </li></ul>
  17. 17. Egg Production <ul><li>if the female has been mated, the ovum will be fertilized within the infundibulum. </li></ul><ul><li>The albumin or white of the egg is secreted by cells in the magnum. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Egg Production <ul><li>Chalazae is formed </li></ul><ul><li>it is a ropelike substance which holds the yolk in place in the center of the egg. </li></ul><ul><li>Inner and outer shell membranes are formed in the isthmus </li></ul>
  19. 19. Egg Production <ul><li>the shell is formed in the uterus </li></ul><ul><li>in 18-20 hours the shell is completed and moves to the vagina and out of the hens body. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Egg Production <ul><li>hens prefer nesting boxes that are enclosed </li></ul><ul><li>gives the chickens a feeling of security </li></ul>
  21. 21. Egg Production <ul><li>some facilities collect eggs with the use of a conveyor belt </li></ul><ul><li>the egg rolls out of the nest box and onto the belt </li></ul>
  22. 22. Egg Production <ul><li>eggs must be kept clean and free from contamination </li></ul><ul><li>if the egg becomes soiled it will not be used for hatching </li></ul>
  23. 23. Egg Production <ul><li>dirt may be easily scrubbed off the egg </li></ul><ul><li>this process can press dirt into the shell and removes the protective coating on the egg </li></ul>
  24. 24. Egg hatching <ul><li>eggs are stored at 70-80 degrees until being placed in the hatchery </li></ul><ul><li>within 48 hours after incubation begins the embryo has developed a circulatory system </li></ul>
  25. 25. Egg hatching <ul><li>circulatory system sustains life by carrying nourishment from the yolk to the embryo </li></ul><ul><li>eggs are turned at least two times per day </li></ul>
  26. 26. Egg hatching <ul><li>turning eggs keeps the embryo from sticking to the inside of the shell </li></ul><ul><li>by the end of the first week, embryos are recognizable as chickens </li></ul>
  27. 27. Egg hatching <ul><li>after two weeks, the chicks are covered with down </li></ul><ul><li>incubation takes about 21 days. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Egg hatching <ul><li>After hatching, chicks are removed from the incubator, dried off, cleaned, and placed in a warm dry environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The chicks are sexed and separated into groups. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Egg hatching <ul><li>At one day of age chicks are vaccinated and the beaks are trimmed to prevent canabalism. </li></ul><ul><li>Chicks are then placed in ventilated cardboard boxes to be shipped to the broiler house. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Egg hatching <ul><li>Before the chicks arrive at the broiler house it must be cleaned and disinfected. </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh bedding is placed in the house. </li></ul><ul><li>Heaters, called brooders are suspended from the ceiling to keep the birds warm. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Egg hatching <ul><li>Chicks are usually kept in the broiler house for seven to eight weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>At that time they weigh about 4 1/2 pounds and are ready for market. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Egg hatching <ul><li>When the broilers are transported to the processing plant, the house is again cleaned. </li></ul><ul><li>The bedding is very high in Nitrogen and is used for fertilizer, it may also be used as a source of protein in cattle rations. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Layer Industry <ul><li>Per capita egg consumption in the U.S. has drastically decreased over the past thirty years. </li></ul><ul><li>Even with the decrease in demand, the layer industry is quite strong. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Layer Industry <ul><li>Over 90% of eggs produced are by layers in cages. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common grouping is four hens per cage. </li></ul><ul><li>Some layers produce brown eggs and some produce white eggs. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Layer Industry <ul><li>Most eggs sold in the U.S. are white. </li></ul><ul><li>In commercial operations, lighting is used to stimulate the hormonal activity of the hens to increase their production of eggs. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Layer Industry <ul><li>They produce eggs naturally when the days are longer than the nights. </li></ul><ul><li>Most operations allow 14 - 15 hours of light per day. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Layer Industry <ul><li>As eggs are laid they roll onto a conveyor belt where they go to a work room where they are cleaned if necessary and refrigerated. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Layer Industry <ul><li>Eggs are coated with a thin coat of mineral oil to prevent carbon dioxide from escaping from within the egg. </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs are graded according to size and checked for cracks and interior spots by candling. </li></ul>
  39. 39. The turkey industry <ul><li>The sale of turkey is second to chicken in the overall sale of poultry meat. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1980 and 1990 turkey consumption increased 92% in the U.S. </li></ul>
  40. 40. The turkey industry <ul><li>Turkey represents a high quality, low cost, nutritious source of food protein. </li></ul><ul><li>One third of all turkey sales occur during the weeks around Thanksgiving and Christmas. </li></ul>
  41. 41. The turkey industry <ul><li>The modern white turkey is a descendant of the wild turkey and is result of a mutation which left the gene out for feather and skin pigmentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy muscled, broad breasted birds have been developed. </li></ul>
  42. 42. The turkey industry <ul><li>These highly developed birds are not efficient breeders. </li></ul><ul><li>The physical act of mating is difficult because of the weight of the birds and because of this they are reluctant to breed. </li></ul>
  43. 43. The turkey industry <ul><li>This problem is solved through artificial insemination. </li></ul><ul><li>They heavy breasted birds have another problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Their legs can’t support them when they reach a certain size and the weight of their breasts makes them tip over. </li></ul>
  44. 44. The turkey industry <ul><li>Turkeys are grown in confinement houses and on ranges. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Other poultry <ul><li>In some parts of the world ducks and geese make up a major portion of the poultry raised and consumed. </li></ul><ul><li>This is true in China and Southeast Asia. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Other poultry <ul><li>In some areas quail and pheasant are grown for the gourmet food and restaurant market and for release in the wild to stock the population for hunters. </li></ul>