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Information Technology ELA GARG Roll num-318 Firoz Anjum Roll num-326
E-Waste Electronic waste(e-waste) can be defined as electronic equipments or products connects with power plug, batteries which have become obsolete due to:1. Advancement in Technology2. Changes in Fashion, Style and Status3. Changing Configuration4. Attractive Offers from Manufacturers5. Small Life of Equipments6. Nearing the end of their useful life
Is It Hazardous Waste E-waste contains several different substances and chemicals, many of which are toxic and are likely to create adverse impact on environment and health, if not handled properly. However, classification of E-Waste as Hazardous or Otherwise shall depend upon the extent of presence of Hazardous constituents in it. Constituents of E-Waste:• Hazardous Materials• Valuable Materials
Sources of Constituent Health EffectsE-Waste (Hazardous)Solder in printed circuit Lead (PB) •Damage to central andboards, glass panels and peripheral nervous systems,gaskets in computer blood systems and kidneymonitors damage. •Affects brain development of children.Chip resistors and Cadmium (CD) •Toxic irreversible effects onsemiconductors human health. •Accumulates in kidney and liver. •Causes neural damage.Relays and switches, printed Mercury (Hg) •Chronic damage to thecircuit boards brain. •Respiratory and skin disorders due to bioaccumulation in fishes.
Sources of Constituent Health EffectsE-Waste (Hazardous)Front panel of CRTs Barium (Ba) Short term exposure causes: Muscle weakness; Damage to heart, liver and spleen.Cabling and computer Plastics including PVC Burning produces dioxin. Ithousing causes Reproductive and developmental problems; Immune system damage;Motherboard Beryllium (Be) Carcinogenic (lung cancer) Inhalation of fumes and dust. Causes chronic beryllium disease. Skin diseases such as warts
Valuable MaterialsSources of Constituent UsesE-Waste (Valuable)Cable, Housing Plastics InsulationFunnel Glass in CRTs Lead, Gold Metal joining, connectivityCRT Mercury, Zinc Batteries and SwitchesCRT connectors Aluminum, Copper, Conductivity, Silver, Iron Magnetic
Management Of E-Wastes It is estimated that 75% of electronic items are stored due to uncertainty of how to manage it. These electronic junks lie unattended in houses, offices, warehouses etc. and normally mixed with household wastes, which are finally disposed off at landfills. This necessitates implementable management measures. In industries management of e-waste should begin at the point of generation. This can be done by waste minimization techniques and by sustainable product design. Waste minimization in industries involves adopting: Inventory management, Production-process modification, Volume reduction, Recovery and reuse
Inventory Management Proper control over the materials used in the manufacturing process is an important way to reduce waste generation. By reducing both the quantity of hazardous materials used in the process and the amount of excess raw materials in stock, the quantity of waste generated can be reduced. Developing review procedures for all material purchased is the first step in establishing an inventory management program Another inventory management procedure for waste reduction is to ensure that only the needed quantity of a material is ordered.
Production-Process Modification Changes can be made in the production process, which will reduce waste generation. Potential waste minimization techniques can be broken down into three categories: i) Improved operating and maintenance procedures, ii) Material change and iii)Process-equipment modification.
Volume Reduction• Volume reduction includes those techniques that remove the hazardous portion of a waste from a non- hazardous portion.• The techniques that can be used to reduce waste- stream volume can be divided into 2 general categories: 1) Source Segregation 2) Waste concentration
Sustainable Product Design Minimization of hazardous wastes should be at product design stage itself keeping in mind the following factors. 1) Rethink the product design 2) Use of renewable materials and energy 3) Use of non-renewable materials that are safe
E-waste DisposalMethods• Recycle• Landfill• Incineration• Recovery And Reuse
Recycling Technologies The state-of-the-art recycling of e-waste comprises three steps: Detoxication
Hard Drives Hard drives, in whole and shredded form, are sent to an aluminium foundry for processing into aluminium ingots. The majority of aluminium ingots are used within the automotive industry. Toner and Ink Cartridges Toner and Ink cartridges are packaged in a sealed box and returned to industry recyclers. Some will be remanufactured into new cartridges, and the remainder that can’t be remanufactured will be separated into plastic and metal and returned to the recycle chain as raw materials. CD ROMs, Sound & Memory cards For copyright and security reasons these products are shredded before being sent to plastic and metal recyclers.
Recovery and Reuse This technique could eliminate waste disposal costs, reduce raw material costs and provide income from a salable waste. Waste can be recovered on-site, or at an off-site recovery facility, or through inter industry exchange. A number of physical and chemical techniques are available to reclaim a waste material such as reverse osmosis, electrolysis, condensation, electrolytic recovery, filtration, centrifugation etc. For example, a printed-circuit board manufacturer can use electrolytic recovery to reclaim metals from copper and tin-lead plating bath.
Management Option Considering the severity of the problem, it is imperative that certain management options be adopted to handle the bulk e-wastes. Following are some of the management options suggested for the government, industries and the public.
Responsibilities Of Government1. Governments should be responsible for providing an adequate system of laws, controls and administrative procedures for hazardous waste management2. Governments should set up regulatory agencies in each district, which are vested with the responsibility of co- ordinating and consolidating the regulatory functions of the various government authorities regarding hazardous substances.3. Governments must encourage research into the development and standard of hazardous waste management, environmental monitoring and the regulation of hazardous waste-disposal.4. Governments should enforce strict regulations and heavy fines levied on industries, which do not practice waste prevention and recovery in the production facilities.
Responsibilities of Industries1. Generators of wastes should take responsibility to determine the output characteristics of wastes and if hazardous, should provide management options.2. Manufacturers, distributors, and retailers should undertake the responsibility of recycling/disposal of their own products3. All personnel involved in handling e-waste in industries including those at the policy, management, control and operational levels, should be properly qualified and trained.
Responsibilities Of Citizen Waste prevention is perhaps more preferred to any other waste management option including recycling. Donating electronics for reuse extends the lives of valuable products and keeps them out of the waste management system for a longer time. But care should be taken while donating such items i.e. the items should be in working condition. E-wastes should never be disposed with garbage and other household wastes. This should be segregated at the site and sold or donated to various organizations.
While buying electronic products opt for those that: are made with fewer toxic constituents use recycled content are energy efficient are designed for easy upgrading or disassembly utilize minimal packaging offer leasing or take back options have been certified by regulatory authorities. Customers should opt for upgrading their computers or other electronic items to the latest versions rather than buying new equipments.
References A report on “Electronics Waste (2012). “Dumping e-waste is illegal now”, The Indian Express, New Delhi, Tue May 01 2012, 03:57hrs http://www.indianexpress.com/news/dumping-ewaste-is- illegal-now/943872/ Internet Google
Can anyone say thatElectronic Waste is anIllegal Offence or not?
YesIts an illegal Offence in INDIA from 1st May 2012. So from now onwards stop it.