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E waste


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E waste

  1. 1. Go Green
  2. 2. SASIKUMAR VK ; Professor [ BTE ] , METS School Of Engineering KRISHNADAS;AJAL.A.J ; Assistant Professor [ CSE ] ,Assistant Professor [ ECE ] , SAHRDAYA CETFISAT - KOCHI PAPER TITLE
  3. 3. e-waste: DefinitionAr e those electronicequipments/ products thatconnect with power plug,batteries which have becomeobsolete due to : - advancement in technology - changes in fashion, style and status - nearing the end of their useful life
  4. 4. ELECTRONIC WASTEElectronic waste, "e-waste" or"Waste Electrical and ElectronicEquipment" ("WEEE") is awaste consisting of any brokenor unwanted electrical orelectronic appliance.It is a point of concernconsidering that manycomponents of such equipmentare considered toxic and are notbiodegradable.
  5. 5. • Washing Machine • Cartridges• Mobile Phones • Military electronic• Computers • Mother board• Servers • Alarm• Telecom • Sirens• TV • Automobile Catalytic• Calculators Converter• Audio • Sensor• Scanners • CD• Printers • Security Device• Air Conditioner• Microwave Classification: types of e-waste
  6. 6. E-waste at the manufacturers gates! Photo | September 5, 2005
  7. 7. What is E-Waste…  E-Waste constitutes end of life electronic and electrical equipment  Hazardous: Contains toxic elements and has to be treated in an environmentally friendly manner  Data security: Business, Financial and legal data might be extracted by unscrupulous recyclers  Regulatory: E -Waste should be given to only CPCB approved recyclers  Source for Metals: Less energy intensive and cheaper source for base and precious metals. Lowers the carbon footprint  Sustainable: As the demand for metals is growing recycling would play a major part in ensuring sustainable development 11
  8. 8. Why is eWaste a Problem? Increasing Increased More Human Rapid Consumer More Hazardous HealthTechnology Electronic eWaste Materials Risks Changes Purchases Landfilled
  9. 9. The e-waste problem
  10. 10. The e-waste problem
  11. 11. source:
  12. 12. International cooperation in e-waste management Dakar Guiyu Bangalore Bogotá Cape Town 30
  13. 13. Sustainable Recycling Industries(new programme funded by Swiss SECO)) Policies & Standards for Responsible Recycling (global) India South Africa Hazardous substances in Recycling of cooling and freezing (WEEE) plastics appliances Ghana & Egypt Sustainable management of e-waste Life Cycle Inventories (Brazil, Egypt, India, South Africa) 31
  14. 14. E-waste is the fastest groing waste stream 2012 total: ~45 mln tonnes Source: Huisman 2012 32
  15. 15. Key message 1 E-waste is the fastest groing waste stream 33
  16. 16. Key message 2 E-waste can contain hazardoussubstances and its improper treatment leads to adverse effects for human health and the environment 34
  17. 17. Hazardous substances in EEESubstance Occurence in EEE Possible adverse effectsPBDEs, PBBs Flame retardants in plastics Hormonal effects, under thermal treatment possible formation of dioxines and furanesPolychlorinated Condensers, transformers Cancer, effects on the immune system, reproductivebiphenyls (PCB) system, nervous system, endocrine system and other health effectsChlorofluorocarbo Cooling units, insulation foam deleterious effect on the ozone layer -> increasedn (CFC) incidence of skin cancer / genetic damageAmericium (Am) Smoke detectors radioactive elementAntimony Flame retardants in plastics carcinogenic potentialArsenic gallium arsenide inlight emitting skin diseases, decrease nerve conduction velocity, lung diodes cancer brain swelling, muscle weakness, damage to the heart, liverBarium Getters in CRT and spleenCadmium NiCd-batteries, fluorescent layer symptoms of poisoning (weakness, fever, headache, chills, (CRT screens), printer inks and sweating and muscular pain), lung cancer and kidney toners damage irritating to eyes, skin and mucous membranes, DNAChromium VI Data tapes, floppy-disks damage vomiting, diarrhea, convulsions, coma or even death, CRT screens, batteries, printed appetite loss, abdominal pain, constipation, fatigue,Lead wiring boards sleeplessness, irritability and headache Fluorescent lamps, some alkaline brain and liver damageMercury batteries, switches 35 © Empa/Switzerland, 20 July 2009
  18. 18. Improper treatment of e-waste(e.g. India / China)
  19. 19. Issues related to improper treatment of e-wasteRef: Sepúlveda, A, Schluep M, et al. 2010. A review of the environmental fate and effects of hazardous substancesreleased from electrical and electronic equipments during recycling: Examples from China and India. EnvironmentalImpact Assessment Review. 30(1):28–41. 37
  20. 20. Example dioxine emissions from cable burning■ Dioxine emission from cable burning is one of the main issues in many developing countries■ Observation Accra/Ghana ■ ~200 kg cable are burnt per hour ■ 10-20% from e-waste (rest mainly from cars)■ Extrapolated to West Africa 3-7 % of total European Dioxine emissions to air 38
  21. 21. Key message 3 E-waste contains valuable resources which offers opportunities for urban mining and job creation 39
  22. 22. At least 57 elements are used in EEE Nicht gleich Wert (Source: Behrendt et al. 2007) 40
  23. 23. Primary vs. secondary ore deposits Primary Ore Secondary Ore [g/t] [g/t] Device PWB Gold 9 280 1’400 Palladium 5 73 370 Platinum 3 3 14 Source: Empa, Graedel Gallium 100 23 118 Lithium 7’000-20’000 10’000-20’000 (Battery) 41
  24. 24. What Are The Toxic Components? Electronic Waste Recycling
  25. 25. Status of end of life computers
  26. 26. What’s Inside your PC ? PVC (polyvinyl chloride) - Cable insulation, plastic cases PBDEs (Polybrominated diphenyl ethers ) added to plastic case wire insulation Beryllium - Power supply boxes which contain silicon controlled rectifiers Lead – CRT’s {screen, frit,neck } PC’s {batteries, printed wiring boards} Lithium - Li-batteries Mercury provide back-lighting in LCDs, in some alkaline batteries and switches
  27. 27. Lead in CRT’sOf the amount of lead contained in a PC, the majority is embedded in glass that makes up themonitor’s cathode ray tube (CRT).A CRT is comprised of a panel (the monitor face), the funnel, the neck and the frit.The majority of the lead is found in the frit, which is the material used to hold panel tofunnelThe total lead in a CRT constitutes, on average, 2.08 pounds for a 17 inch monitor7 Panel CRT 0-2% lead Frit 65-75% lead Funnel glass 22-25% lead Neck(that holds the electron gun) 28-30% lead
  28. 28. End of life TV sets
  29. 29. Current e-Waste Handling… Circuit Board Open Burning Cable Burning in Open Acid Stripping CRT Cracking & DumpingAll content is the proprietary and confidential property of ATTERO Recycling, not to be copy or distributed. 11/04/12 48
  30. 30. E Waste Recycling Process… E-WASTE SEGREGATION GLASS SHREDDING PLASTIC ALUMINIU NON- IRON M FERROUS NON- RECYCLABLE METALLURGICAL RECYCLABLE PROCESS Pyrolysis METALS CARBON Furnace Oil Gas BLACKAll content is the proprietary and confidential property of ATTERO Recycling, not to be copy or distributed. 11/04/12 49
  31. 31. Pollution control equipments (i) CRT dismantling area hood
  32. 32. Pollution control equipments (ii)cyclone and dust collector 6 m high chimney
  33. 33. Storage of hazardous wastebatteries, condensators and tapes CRT glasscapacitors
  34. 34. Modern Recycling PlantsAll content is the proprietary and confidential property of ATTERO Recycling, not to be copy or distributed. 11/04/12 53
  35. 35. Occupational safety and health equipments fire extinguisherprotective glass, and first aid kitmask and gloves
  36. 36. 1 . Segregation and storagestorage of received material
  37. 37. 2. Storage (i)storage boxes for large size segregated material
  38. 38. 3.Functional testingservice room computer testing
  39. 39. 4. Dismantlingdismantling of non-functional appliances dismantling of CRT tubes
  40. 40. 5.Scrap recoverysegregation of CPU tools used for dismantling and segregationcomponents
  41. 41. Why Do We Need National Legislation?Current eWaste regulations create uneven regulatory regime • Some states/localities have already enacted legislation • Difficult for manufacturers to comply state-to-state • Only large-quantity generators are regulated • Majority of eWaste created by households & smaller quantity generators – not currently regulated Electronic Waste Recycling
  42. 42. RE-MANUFACTURING is next best : Dis-assemble old eqpt and use parts for repair of similar items or use in new items, e.g. old memory and hard drives into simpler CPUs for schools. RE-USE IS THE BEST POLICY even for defective items : cell-phones for SMS for deaf & dumb, keyboard + monitor for typing classes, VCR used as VCP, TVs downgraded, washing - machines for manual use.Industrial eWaste from control panels or phone exchanges for ? ? ? ? ?
  43. 43. eWaste Recycling is a thriving business in India Copper, silver, gold, platinum, palladium are recovered in secrecy by highly polluting methods: burning of PCBs, treatment with acids or cyanide salts, mostly from imported scrap. Gas displays & tubes are dumped.
  44. 44. INDIA NEEDS AMANDATORYe -TAKE - BACK POLICYlike the EU’s Directive 94/62/EC of 1994,or EU’s 1998 Ordinance on Avoidance & Recovery of Packaging Waste.In Germany, Duales System (a Ltd Co) organises the nationwide collection, sorting & recycling of post-consumer packaging, funded pro-rata by user firms. See
  45. 45. The European Waste StrategyReduce the Reduce thehazardousnes impacts on thes of waste environment Reduce the amount of waste
  46. 46. bizarre crafts created from e-waste.
  47. 47. EXTENDED PRODUCER RESPONSIBILITY EPREPR means full life-cycle accountability:Producers of products must be madefinancially, physically and legallyresponsible for their products till the end.This encourages reduced resource and energy use + pollution prevention thru less hazardous & more recyclable mat’ls.
  48. 48. Manufacturer ResponsibilitiesNotify Retailers About Covered Products (April 1st each year and per DTSC regulations)Provide Information to Consumer – Where To Recycle – How to Recycle – Where to Return – How to Dispose – Provide Toll-Free Number & Internet Web Site (
  50. 50. … Please !!!
  51. 51. EFFECTS ON HUMANS: In a study spearheaded by the EWG, researchers at two major lab-oratories found an average of 200 industrial compounds, pollutants, and other chemicals in 10 newborn babies, with a total of 287 chemicals found in the group.
  52. 52. Cadmium in Plastics in cables batteriesLead in solder joints
  53. 53. Burning of Circuit Board on stove
  54. 54. WASTE AS A RESOURCE: WASTE MANAGEMENTe - Waste Recycling is athriving business in India
  55. 55. Producer Responsiblity in practice - producers view design recycling manufacturing how to close the gap ? use / service market 77
  56. 56. Producer Responsiblity in practice - producers view design for recycling recycling Use of recycled technology materialsdevelopment cost advantage use / service market 78
  57. 57. Processes1. Collection and storage2. Segregation3. Functional Testing4. Dismantling5. Scrap recovery
  58. 58. 2. Storage (ii)storage bins for small size segregated materialflat wires CPUs plastic from watches
  59. 59. Process flow Collection of e-waste Segregation and Sale to metal Metal scrap storage recycler Sale to plastic Plastic scrap Examination of recycler Eventual add of Eventual refurbishment or components refurbishment reuse possibilities Sale to authorized Batteries battery recyclersManufacture of new Sale to second Dismantling products hand market Large e-waste CRT glass recycler PCB Boards of low Sale to PCB Recovery of and high quality smelters Recovery of scrap reusable components Non recyclable Storage until hazardous waste hazwaste landfill is (e.g. backup tapes) operational (TSDF)
  60. 60. Collection , Transportation and Recycling of Dry Waste ( e – WASTE COLLECTION UNIT ) Hou nts se ura to H ou Resta se Airport RECYCLING House to House Hotel n CENTRE tio y Sta Indu stri lwa es Rai als Ins pit tit Hos ut es
  61. 61. e-Waste: GrowthThree categories of WEEE account foralmost 90% of the generation:Large Household appliances: 42.1%Information and communications: 33.9%technology equipmentConsumer Electronics: 13.7%
  62. 62. Pollution Control Equipment Chimney with hood (height 6 m) CRT dismantling chamber with vacuum Cyclone and dust collector Separate storage for hazardous wastesAir pollution monitoring certificate available from certified Laboratory.
  63. 63. Recycling rates of metals –Investigation of 62 different metals –The metals are grouped into four categories •9 ferrous metals: iron, manganese, nickel, chromium etc. •8 non-ferrous metals: aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, tin, magnesium etc. •8 precious metals: gold, silver, platinum, palladium, rhodium etc. •37 specialty metals: indium, gallium, lithium, tantalum, rare earth metals, tellurium etc. –Only a few metals, like iron and platinum, currently have an end-of-life recyclingrate of above 50% –The most important metric is the end-of-life recycling rate •A high end-of-life recycling rate for a metal indicates a high efficiency of the related post -consumer recycling system
  64. 64. Global Sustainability Sustainability “ability of a current generation to meet its needs without compromising the future generation to meet theirs” The Chalenge How to maintain the balance ? Society – preserve human health Economy – assure economic growth Environment – save the planetPractical Actions Work for the preservation of the planet Society – intelligent consumption Economy – environmental business Environment – green products and process
  65. 65. The problem recyclability toxicity energy
  66. 66. Assessment methodology & analysisComponent 1 Component 2 Product Waste Consume Collect Recover Dispose Function Material Energy Importers Manufacturers v v Consumer Collection 2nd hand Market Recyclers Inciniration Disposal Retailer & Trader
  67. 67. India generates close to500,000 tons e-waste p.a.Expected to touch a million ton by 2011
  68. 68. CAT ON THE WALL
  69. 69. Sources, Effects and Disposal of e-Waste - Special Focus On Four Metro Cities
  70. 70. WASTE PILING UPBroad break up appears as under:Mumbai : 50,000 tonsDelhi : 35,000Bangalore : 30,000Chennai : 25,000Kolkata : 19,000Ahmedabad : 14,000Hyderabad : 13,000Pune : 10,000Indore : 8,000
  71. 71. Collection & Recycling of Waste Materials
  72. 72. Import container unloading in New Delhi
  73. 73. Pollution from Recycling of Imported Waste  Acid bath to take metals from IC chips are removed from PCBPCB by using heat.
  74. 74. e-Waste Disposal Methods• Internal Reallocation• Sell at Auction• Sell to certified eWaste Buyers• Return to Originating Supplier, at no cost• Pay an eWaste Recycler to dispose
  76. 76. Reference
  77. 77. NEWTON’S WORDS The greatest discovery of Newton is the gravitationalforce. Newton always wondered at the absence of agravitational repulsive force. Such puzzles and wonders madehim realize the limitations of his model. This is clearly seenwhen he said, ”I am like a child playing on the shorewith pebbles and shells while whole ocean lies before me”
  78. 78. Let’s Jointly Sustain a Green Environment! All the precedents and working models are there before us. Let us now act ! Thank you. U can catch me @ content is the proprietary and confidential property of ATTERO Recycling, not to be copy or distributed. 11/04/12 104
  79. 79. Thank you for your attention
  80. 80. “Education is themanifestation ofperfection already inthe man”-Swami Vivekananda