Venues –The 2020 Perspective CCE Annual ConferenceBirmingham July 21st 2011        Rohit Talwar     CEO – Fast Future   ro...
ContentsPresentation               p3About Fast Future          p 48Image Sources              p 58
Convention 2020•   Purpose - Global strategic foresight study to help the meetings industry    look at itself from the out...
Growth is not Guaranteed…
The Market is Very Competitive...
…Thinking is Back in Fashion
Demographic Destinies 2 billion more people in 40 years –Demographics is Driving Economics            448    739 691      ...
Generational Diversity        Lifespans are IncreasingDeveloped economy ‘under50’s’ have 90% chance ofliving to 100.Aubrey...
Business Model / ROI Innovation        Free or Fantastic
What I Want – When I Want
Barriers to Effectiveness       What do you consider are the biggest problems today that stop          conferences and exh...
Factors influencing the decision    to attend in 2020 (03/10)Imagine your life in 2020, what are the factors that would en...
Less but Bigger?    By 2020, compared to today, I expect there to be fewer but larger       conferences and exhibitions co...
More, Smaller and Specialized?By 2020, compared to today, I expect there to be a greater choice of manymore smaller, highl...
Event Design Priorities 2011 Extend use of      Increase      Retain existing  social media     networking     sponsors an...
Association Event Priorities 2011  Demonstrate        Differentiate    Identify benefits /event benefits to   events in th...
Event Management Strategies            2015 Greater focus   Stronger focus      Increased on capturing           on       ...
Alternative Event Business           Models 2015 Presentations      All sessions       Sponsorshipstreamed live to   avail...
Event Agency Priorities 2011Attract new     Maintain the       Maximizecustomers     existing customer    delegate        ...
Event Agency Strategies 2015 Develop solutions        Look more like             Focus on which help clients        manage...
Venue 2020 SurveyWhich Region are you Based in?
Venue 2020Top 5 Country of Residence
Venue Strategy, Management and           OwnershipThe highest strategic priorities for venues in the next three years are ...
Venue Strategy, Management and           Ownership      The highest strategic priorities for venues by 2020 will be toCrea...
Venue Operations and FacilitiesThe highest strategic priorities for venues in the next three years are to   Keep up with m...
Venue Operations and Facilities      The highest strategic priorities for venues by 2020 will be to  Keep up with meeting ...
Market StrategiesOver the next decade, which of the following service and market facing strategiesdo you expect Venues to ...
Finance   What financial strategies do you expect to see venues adopt by 2020?  Focus on developing          Provide incen...
What are the key drivers that will havethe greatest influence on the design of   new venues in the next decade? Flexibilit...
Which of the following Technology     Strategies do you expect venues to        adopt in the coming decade?Connectivity - ...
Which of the following revenue earningactivities do you expect to see venues     adopt over the next decade?Carry advertis...
What do you think will be the key longterm differentiators of successful venues          over the next decade? Flexibility...
Over the next decade, publicly funded centres will be expected to play afar greater role in supporting the local community...
Over the next decade, venues will increasingly be expected to offer more in-depth and comprehensive event design advice   ...
As client budget pressures increase, venues will increasinglybe expected to offer direct financial support or underwriting...
As the boundaries (start and end points) of events start to blur and event owners seek to increase participant engagement ...
Over the next decade, in the face of intense competition,there will be growing pressure to provide the core facility for  ...
Collaborative Design - LIFT
Collaborative Events – Gastro
PCMA Learning Lounge
Silent Conference – Globe Forum
Trade Show Innovation• Routes / Network• Health Industry Distributors• United Food Processors
Food InspirationReinventing the Trade Show          http://www.borev.net/imf.jpg
Adelaide               Venue Owned ExperiencesImage source: Adelaide Convention Centre
Venue 2020 - Conclusions• Demand will hold up• Innovation required in  formats, business models,  capability and technolog...
Next Steps from Now to Dec 2011• Venue Strategies• Destination  Strategies• Technology  Timeline• Association Events• Corp...
Next Steps – How Can You Get           Involved?• Future Reports – Give us Feedback• Take part in Pulse Surveys• Contribut...
About Fast Future                    48
Fast Future –    Travel and Meetings Industry              Services• Live Events - Speeches, briefings and workshops for e...
Fast Future•   Research, consulting, speaking, leadership•   5-20 year horizon - focus on ideas, developments,    people, ...
Future Convention Cities Initiative•   Members - Cities aiming to be global leaders in delivery of business events•   Focu...
Hotels 2020 – Objectives• Identify key drivers of change  for the globally branded hotel  sector over the next decade• Exa...
Rohit Talwar•   Global futurist and founder of Fast Future Research.•   Award winning speaker on future insights and strat...
Designing Your Future           Key Trends, Challenges and Choices• 50 key trends• 100 emerging trends• 10 major patterns ...
Our Services                                   Bespoke research; Identification &                                   Analys...
Example Projects•   Public and private client research e.g. :     – Development of Market Scenarios, emerging trends and s...
Example Clients
Image Sources
Image Sources p.1Page1.   Top to Bottom     1. http://www.squaremeal.co.uk/venues/uk/view/24273/Aston_Business_School_Conf...
Image Sources p.217.   Left to Right      1. http://www.simonblog.com/2010/02/01/iphone-os-3-2-may-support-video-call-conf...
Image Sources p.325.   Left to Right      1. http://www.techday.co.nz/itbrief/news/businesses-see-technology-as-key-differ...
Image Sources p.431.   Left to Right      1. http://sunrisepos.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/Copy-of-digital-signage2.jpg...
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Rohit Talwar Venues - a 2020 Perspective - CCE Conference Birmingham 21 07 11

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Rohit Talwar Venues - a 2020 Perspective - CCE Conference Birmingham 21 07 11

  1. 1. Venues –The 2020 Perspective CCE Annual ConferenceBirmingham July 21st 2011 Rohit Talwar CEO – Fast Future rohit@fastfuture.com www.convention-2020.com
  2. 2. ContentsPresentation p3About Fast Future p 48Image Sources p 58
  3. 3. Convention 2020• Purpose - Global strategic foresight study to help the meetings industry look at itself from the outside in and prepare for the decade ahead• Outputs – Regular themed reports and surveys 09/2009 - 12/2011• Partners - Sponsored by leaders across the industry
  4. 4. Growth is not Guaranteed…
  5. 5. The Market is Very Competitive...
  6. 6. …Thinking is Back in Fashion
  7. 7. Demographic Destinies 2 billion more people in 40 years –Demographics is Driving Economics 448 739 691 5231 344 1998 4157 729 1030 585 2010 2050 Source : United Nations
  8. 8. Generational Diversity Lifespans are IncreasingDeveloped economy ‘under50’s’ have 90% chance ofliving to 100.Aubrey de Grey suggestswe could live to 500 or 1000What are the implicationsfor venues and eventdesign?What kind of opportunitieswill be created?
  9. 9. Business Model / ROI Innovation Free or Fantastic
  10. 10. What I Want – When I Want
  11. 11. Barriers to Effectiveness What do you consider are the biggest problems today that stop conferences and exhibitions from being fully effective?697 respondents (03/10) No. of Respondents
  12. 12. Factors influencing the decision to attend in 2020 (03/10)Imagine your life in 2020, what are the factors that would encourage you to attend live events such as conferences and exhibitions? % of Respondents
  13. 13. Less but Bigger? By 2020, compared to today, I expect there to be fewer but larger conferences and exhibitions covering wide topics, industrysectors, or "communities of interest" - with less choice of which events to attend, but much more choice within the events themselves. 49% 1085 respondents
  14. 14. More, Smaller and Specialized?By 2020, compared to today, I expect there to be a greater choice of manymore smaller, highly specialized conferences, exhibitions and meetings - there will be much more competition from events wanting me to attend. 79% 1090 respondents
  15. 15. Event Design Priorities 2011 Extend use of Increase Retain existing social media networking sponsors andaround an event opportunities exhibitors
  16. 16. Association Event Priorities 2011 Demonstrate Differentiate Identify benefits /event benefits to events in the proof of value for potential face of increased sponsors and delegates competition exhibitors
  17. 17. Event Management Strategies 2015 Greater focus Stronger focus Increased on capturing on emphasis on thethe knowledge personalization overall ‘meeting generated at and maximizing architecture’ to an event individual ensure delivery learning against objectives
  18. 18. Alternative Event Business Models 2015 Presentations All sessions Sponsorshipstreamed live to available on a based on level of the web pay per view interest or actual basis after the business event generated
  19. 19. Event Agency Priorities 2011Attract new Maintain the Maximizecustomers existing customer delegate base satisfaction
  20. 20. Event Agency Strategies 2015 Develop solutions Look more like Focus on which help clients management developing a deepcapture and re-use consultancies – understanding of the knowledge providing a range of client businessgenerated at events additional consulting strategies and and research services priorities
  21. 21. Venue 2020 SurveyWhich Region are you Based in?
  22. 22. Venue 2020Top 5 Country of Residence
  23. 23. Venue Strategy, Management and OwnershipThe highest strategic priorities for venues in the next three years are to:Create a more flexible set Differentiate themselves in Identify new markets e.g. of service offerings in the face of increased emerging industry sectors, response to customer competition professions and demands associations
  24. 24. Venue Strategy, Management and Ownership The highest strategic priorities for venues by 2020 will be toCreate a more flexible set Differentiate themselves in Identify new markets e.g. of service offerings in the face of increased emerging industry sectors, response to customer competition professions and demands associations
  25. 25. Venue Operations and FacilitiesThe highest strategic priorities for venues in the next three years are to Keep up with meeting Retain and recruit the right Create lower cost technologies and identify talent operating and purchasing those that will add value models for customers
  26. 26. Venue Operations and Facilities The highest strategic priorities for venues by 2020 will be to Keep up with meeting Increase the flexibility of Retain and recruit the righttechnologies and identify how venue space can be talent those that will add value configured for customers
  27. 27. Market StrategiesOver the next decade, which of the following service and market facing strategiesdo you expect Venues to adopt as they seek to compete in a more intense globalenvironment? Adopt environmental best Enter into international Seek to differentiate practices as an expected alliances with other themselves on service and standard rather than as a independent venues to bid customer experience source of competitive for multi-year convention advantage contracts from associations and other event owners
  28. 28. Finance What financial strategies do you expect to see venues adopt by 2020? Focus on developing Provide incentives to Offer greater financialancillary revenue streams encourage repeat bookings support to attract incoming events
  29. 29. What are the key drivers that will havethe greatest influence on the design of new venues in the next decade? Flexibility in use of Supporting a wide range Flexibility in use of meeting rooms of possible future concourses / foyers / technology solutions public spaces
  30. 30. Which of the following Technology Strategies do you expect venues to adopt in the coming decade?Connectivity - offer free Wi-Fi Marketing – offer 3D visuals, Event Intelligence – Adopt to delegates and exhibitors virtual world showcases and smart tagging (e.g. RFID) of online venue ‘walkthroughs’ trade show booths, to showcase what is on offer delegates and meeting rooms to enable production of accurate information on visitor behaviour
  31. 31. Which of the following revenue earningactivities do you expect to see venues adopt over the next decade?Carry advertising in public Host live entertainment Create their own or joint areas targeted at the such as concerts and ventured consumer demographic attending theatre performances focused events such as each event food and wine fairs, seasonal retail events and local craft fairs
  32. 32. What do you think will be the key longterm differentiators of successful venues over the next decade? Flexibility in use of the Staff, quality attitude and Ability to help event owners facility capability generate additional revenue streams
  33. 33. Over the next decade, publicly funded centres will be expected to play afar greater role in supporting the local community – for example providing low or no cost facilities for activities such as local art exhibitions, community meetings and social functions 60 56 50 40 30 24 19 20 10 2 0 178 Respondents Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree
  34. 34. Over the next decade, venues will increasingly be expected to offer more in-depth and comprehensive event design advice and will seek to use this as a competitive differentiator 60 57 50 40 30 26 20 15 10 2 0 180 Respondents Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree
  35. 35. As client budget pressures increase, venues will increasinglybe expected to offer direct financial support or underwriting to attract the largest events 60 56 50 40 30 24 19 20 10 1 180 Respondents 0 Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree
  36. 36. As the boundaries (start and end points) of events start to blur and event owners seek to increase participant engagement before and after the event, venues will increasingly need to provide solutions that support such social media engagement 60 57 50 40 31 30 20 12 10 1 0 181 Respondents Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree
  37. 37. Over the next decade, in the face of intense competition,there will be growing pressure to provide the core facility for free and cover the costs through other revenue streams 60 50 50 40 37 30 20 11 10 2 0 Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly 179 Respondents disagree
  38. 38. Collaborative Design - LIFT
  39. 39. Collaborative Events – Gastro
  40. 40. PCMA Learning Lounge
  41. 41. Silent Conference – Globe Forum
  42. 42. Trade Show Innovation• Routes / Network• Health Industry Distributors• United Food Processors
  43. 43. Food InspirationReinventing the Trade Show http://www.borev.net/imf.jpg
  44. 44. Adelaide Venue Owned ExperiencesImage source: Adelaide Convention Centre
  45. 45. Venue 2020 - Conclusions• Demand will hold up• Innovation required in formats, business models, capability and technology• Focus on ‘enabling business’• Personalisation is key• ‘Total sustainability’ agenda
  46. 46. Next Steps from Now to Dec 2011• Venue Strategies• Destination Strategies• Technology Timeline• Association Events• Corporate Events
  47. 47. Next Steps – How Can You Get Involved?• Future Reports – Give us Feedback• Take part in Pulse Surveys• Contribute Expert Papers• Run / Host a Workshop / Survey• Student Essay Competition• Suggest Research Topics - tell us what you’d like to see …• Ask about the sponsorship benefitsrohit@fastfuture.com www.convention-2020.com
  48. 48. About Fast Future 48
  49. 49. Fast Future – Travel and Meetings Industry Services• Live Events - Speeches, briefings and workshops for executive management and boards of hotels, airlines, airports, venues, CVB’s and associations• Future Insights - Customised research on emerging trends, future scenarios, technologies and new markets• Immersion - ‘Deep dives’ on future trends, market developments, emerging issues and technology advances• Strategy - Development of strategies and business plans• Innovation - Creation of business models and innovation plans• Engagement - Consultancy and workshop facilitation 49
  50. 50. Fast Future• Research, consulting, speaking, leadership• 5-20 year horizon - focus on ideas, developments, people, trends and forces shaping the future• Clients – Industry Associations – ICCA, ASAE, PCMA, MPI – Corporates - GE, Nokia, Pepsi, IBM, Intel, Orange, O2, Siemens, Samsung, GSK, SAPE&Y, KPMG, Amadeus, Sabre, Travelport, Travelex, ING, Santander, Barclays, Citibank, DeutscheBank – Governments - Dubai, Finland, Nigeria, Singapore, UK, US – Convention Bureaus – Seoul, Sydney, London, San Francisco, Toronto, Abu Dhabi, Durban, Athens, Slovenia, Copenhagen – Convention Centres – Melbourne, Adelaide, Qatar, QEIICC – Hotels - Accor Group, Preferred, – Intercontinental – PCO’s - Congrex, Kenes – Airports - Aeroports de Paris / Schiphol Group
  51. 51. Future Convention Cities Initiative• Members - Cities aiming to be global leaders in delivery of business events• Focus - Maximising long term economic benefit of events• Core Activities - Research, sharing of expertise and best practices• Engagement Model - Meet four time a year prior to major industry events• Management - Initiated and co-ordinated by Fast Future
  52. 52. Hotels 2020 – Objectives• Identify key drivers of change for the globally branded hotel sector over the next decade• Examine the implications for:  Hotel strategy  Brand portfolio  Business models  Customer targeting  Innovation
  53. 53. Rohit Talwar• Global futurist and founder of Fast Future Research.• Award winning speaker on future insights and strategic innovation – addressing leadership audiences in 40 countries on 5 continents• Author of Designing Your Future• Profiled by UK’s Independent Newspaper as one of the Top 10 Global Future Thinkers• Led futures research, scenario planning and strategic consultancy projects for clients in telecommunications, technology, pharmaceuticals, banking, travel and tourism, environment, food and government sectors• Clients include 3M, BBC, BT, BAe, Bayer, Chloride, DTC De Beers, DHL, EADS, Electrolux, E&Y, GE, Hoover, Hyundai, IBM, ING, Intel, KPMG, M&S, Nakheel, Nokia, Nomura, Novartis, OECD, Orange, Panasonic, Pfizer, PwC, Samsung, Shell, Siemens, Symbian, Yell , numerous international associations and governments agencies in the US, UK, Finland, Dubai, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia and Singapore.• To receive Fast Future’s newsletters please email rohit@fastfuture.com
  54. 54. Designing Your Future Key Trends, Challenges and Choices• 50 key trends• 100 emerging trends• 10 major patterns of change• Key challenges and choices for leaders• Strategic decision making framework• Scenarios for 2012• Key futures tools and techniques• Published August 2008• Price £49.95 / €54.95/ $69.95• Email invoice request to rohit@fastfuture.com
  55. 55. Our Services Bespoke research; Identification & Analysis of Future Trends, Drivers & Shocks Public Speaking, In- Company Briefings, Accelerated Scenario Seminars and Planning, Timelining & Workshops Future MappingPersonal Futuring forLeaders and Leadership Expert Consultations &Teams Futures Think Tanks Identification of Design & Facilitation of Opportunities for Innovation, Incubation Innovation and Strategic & Venturing Strategy Creation & Investment Programmes Development of Implementation Roadmaps
  56. 56. Example Projects• Public and private client research e.g. : – Development of Market Scenarios, emerging trends and strategies for key clients – Government and OECD Scenario Projects – e.g. Migration 2030, Future of Narcotics, Chemical Sector, Family 2030 – Scenarios for the global economy for 2030 and the implications for migration – Designing Your Future (Published August 2008) – book written for the American Society of Association Executives & The Center for Association Leadership – Global Economies – e.g. The Future of China – the Path to 2020 – The Shape of Jobs to Come – Emerging Science and Technology Sectors and Careers – Winning in India and China – The Future of Human Resources – Exploiting the Future Potential of Social Media in UK Small to Medium Enterprises – Convention 2020 – the Future of Business Events – Future Convention Cities Initiative – Maximising Long-term Economic Impact of Events – One Step Beyond – Future trends and challenges for the events industry – Hotels 2020: Beyond Segmentation – Future Hotel Strategies – The Future of Travel and Tourism in the Middle East – a Vision to 2020 – Future of Travel and Tourism Investment in Saudi Arabia – Aviation and Airports e.g. Aviation 2030
  57. 57. Example Clients
  58. 58. Image Sources
  59. 59. Image Sources p.1Page1. Top to Bottom 1. http://www.squaremeal.co.uk/venues/uk/view/24273/Aston_Business_School_Conference_Centre 2. http://www.cambridgenetwork.co.uk/object/news/62961/img/GirlguidingUK_TheMollerCentre.jpg4. http://www.piperreport.com/archives/Images/Medicare%20PFFS%20Plans.jpg5. Clockwise 1. http://www.myvenues.co.uk/scale_img.php?pic=NSP-BROOMGROVE0005.jpg&max=320&folder=venue_pics 2. http://www.venues-london.co.uk/venues/broadway_house/flash/NSPBROADWAY0001.jpg 3. http://www.latemeetings.com/images/venue/00167.jpg 4. http://www.weddingreview.co.uk/uploads/images/venues/processed/2009-08-27-2031-wyboston-lakes.jpg6. http://www.einstein.yu.edu/iphs/images/think_tank.jpg8. http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/aubrey_de_grey_says_we_can_avoid_aging.html9. http://www.eholidayindia.com/images/currency.jpg10. Left to Right 1. http://blog.core-ed.net/derekarchives/NokiaFanPhone.jpg 2. http://www.neonpunch.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/iphone_apps.jpg 3. http://www.geek.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Steve-Jobs-hologram-on-iPhone.jpg13. http://miceplaces.com/fileadmin/html_newsletters/emea200903/Qatar-National-Convention-C.png14. http://img125.imageshack.us/i/37922425e6c7b6607fcn5.jpg/15. Left to Right 1. http://www.masternewmedia.org/images/social_network_id469214_size440.jpg 2. http://newlycorporate.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/conversations_silhouettes_id228513_size450.gif 3. http://everyjoe.com/work/using-brand-sponsorship-for-events/16. Left to Right 1. http://expertaccess.cincom.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/success_ladder.jpg 2. http://michael.hightechproductmanagement.com/2006/03/got_competitive_differentiatio.html 3. http://nationwidecapitalgroupnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/Upward-Trend-Graph.jpg 59
  60. 60. Image Sources p.217. Left to Right 1. http://www.simonblog.com/2010/02/01/iphone-os-3-2-may-support-video-call-conferencing-and-file-download/ 2. http://gadgetheat.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/surf-chair.jpg 3. http://msnbcmedia2.msn.com/j/msnbc/Components/Photos/070112/070112_virtual_reality_hmed_8a.hmedium.jpg18. Left to Right 1. http://www.blueskyuk.com/cm_images/New_Media_-_Web_Streaming_laptop.jpg 2. http://3.citynews-napolitoday.stgy.it/pictures/20100820/pay_per_view.gif 3. http://www.skylinetradeshowtips.com/what-is-an-acceptable-cost-per-lead/19. Left to Right 1. http://www.successpropublications.com/images/computr.jpg 2. http://www.1stwebdesigner.com/design/client-tactics-maintaining-existing-clients/ 3. http://www.philipgraves.net/should-you-care-about-customer-satisfaction.html20. Left to Right 1. http://images8.cpcache.com/product/religion+-+beliefs-recycling+symbol- recycling+knowledge/414904558v3_225x225_Front.jpg 2. http://sairamenterprise.com/images/Management_consultancy.jpg 3. http://blog.technicalmanagementinstitute.com/active_listening/23. Left to Right 1. http://www.seiservice.com/_images/Options-for-Server-Maintenance.jpg 2. http://www.getentrepreneurial.com/images/Differentiate%20To%20Be%20The%20Niche%20Business.jpg 3. http://gmn.mintel.com/images/2009.jpg24. Left to Right 1. http://www.lasersharks.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/04/2238136368279992.JPG 2. http://blogs.smh.com.au/enterprise/competition.jpg 3. http://profile.ak.fbcdn.net/hprofile-ak-snc4/41787_115063228519853_5847223_n.jpg 60
  61. 61. Image Sources p.325. Left to Right 1. http://www.techday.co.nz/itbrief/news/businesses-see-technology-as-key-differentiat/12366/ 2. http://vator.tv/images/attachments/141208201237growing_global_executive_talent.jpg 3. http://www.ononshipping.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/low-cost-carriers.jpg26. Left to Right 1. http://www.mpiweb.org/Libraries/ArticleThumbNails/Webinars-Icon_FutureOfMeetingTechnology.jpg 2. http://www.mpiweb.org/Libraries/ArticleThumbNails/Webinars-Icon_FutureOfMeetingTechnology.jpg 3. http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/pictures/2011/4/15/1302903822657/When-you-spot-talent-make-007.jpg27. Left to Right 1. http://webconferencingcouncil.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/going-green.jpg 2. http://a5.sphotos.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/188883_194059180634881_159040140803452_477934_3183211_n.jpg 3. http://www.smallbusinessdelivered.com/customer-service.jpg28. Left to Right 1. http://www.digecor.com/images/ancillary-revenue-bg.jpg 2. http://msptelemarketing.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/carrot-incentive.jpg 3. http://dotgiri.com/2009/02/04/simple-cost-cutting-techniques-and-methods-for-your-it-business/29. Left to Right 1. http://static.hometrend.org/2011/03/Meeting-Room-Office-Interior-Design.jpg 2. http://www.telepresenceoptions.com/images/teliris_interact_touchtable3.jpg 3. http://inhabitat.com/vancouver-convention-center-expands-on-green/wp- content/blogs.dir/1/files/east_facility_concourse.jpg30. Left to Right 1. http://newlyemerged.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/connectivity_image.jpg 2. http://www.knowtebook.com/uploaded/2008/05/3d-thumbnails.jpg 3. http://www.stronglink.cn/images/rfidnews.jpg 61
  62. 62. Image Sources p.431. Left to Right 1. http://sunrisepos.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/Copy-of-digital-signage2.jpg 2. http://www.yourengagement101.com/files/2011/04/concert-proposal1.jpg 3. http://www.bocaraton.com/images/Miami_Wine_Fair.jpg32. 1. http://www.inhabitat.com/wp-content/uploads/11905_3_090415_000571.jpg 2. http://www.greatpeople4events.co.uk/images/Conference-staff3.jpg 3. http://www.digecor.com/images/ancillary-revenue-bg.jpg34. http://designholeonline.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/08/dncinside.jpg35. http://www.marksinvestingblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/World_Currency_symbols1.jpg36. http://www.m3newmedia.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/social-media-marketing.jpg37. http://nerdnirvana.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/free-beer-tomorrow.jpg38. http://www.liftconference.com/files/images/lift10_poster_300px.jpg39. http://www.gastro2009.org/impressions/ind_exh/index.php?navId=27740. http://jeffhurtblog.com/2011/02/10/why-pcma-learning-lounge-worked/41. http://www.sustainablecitiesnet.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/CityChallenge_GlobeForum-600x263.png43. Left to Right 1. http://cdn.blisstree.com/files/2009/10/Chef-Zuma-Press-Michelle-sm.jpg 2. http://www.thechefalliance.com/userfiles/image/Chef/chef%202%20chefs%20prepping%20veggies.jpg44. Left to Right 1. http://ourlifeinoz.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/685375_thumbnail_280_sa_s_frist_state_wine_festival_2011_cellar_door_win e_festival_adelaide-v1.jpg 2. http://www.adelaidecc.com.au/files/5366-800x533.jpg45. Top to Bottom 1. http://conferences.theiet.org/railway-lecture/-images/main-feature-about.jpg 2. http://www.thinkconferences.co.uk/images/venues/cotswold-conference-01.jpg 62
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