Rohit Talwar Aviation Futures - ATAG Conference - April 29th 2014


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Keynote speech to Aviation industry leaders on 'Aviation Futures Driving Forces, Global Challenges and Potential Disruptions' shaping the next 30 years. Highlighting major factors shaping the operating environment and decision making context for governments, businesses, aviation industry players and regulators over the next three decades. A particular emphasis on emerging disruptive and potentially transformative developments in science and technology.

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Rohit Talwar Aviation Futures - ATAG Conference - April 29th 2014

  1. 1. Aviation Futures - Driving Forces, Global Challenges and Potential Disruptions Rohit Talwar - CEO – Fast Future ATAG Global Sustainable Aviation Summit Geneva – April 29th 2014
  2. 2. Contents • Presentation p. 3 • About Fast Future p. 54 • Image Sources p. 63 • Background Notes p. 68
  3. 3. Business-Wide Forces Shorter, faster business cycles Talent shortages Disruptive innovation Rapid spread of science and technology advances
  4. 4. Can we Change our DNA? Play by the Rules of the Game Create a New Game
  5. 5. Our Research suggests airports need to see themselves an as ecosystem - An integrated portfolio of models Conceptual Model Infrastructure Model Revenue Model Customer Engagement Model Service Delivery Model Financing Model
  6. 6. ‘Future Proofed’ Organisations Work on 3 Horizons in Parallel 1-12 Months Operational Excellence 4-10 Years Creating the Future 1-3 Years Drive for Innovation Efficiency, Growth
  7. 7. The Future is Being Created Now...
  8. 8. Economic and Political Uncertainty and Turbulence are the ‘New Normal’
  9. 9. Continued Global Shifts Of Influence, Wealth and Power to Emerging Markets
  10. 10. Socio-Demographic Shifts are Reshaping Society Free education is a game changer
  11. 11. Sustainability Issues Will Play a Bigger Role in Decision Making
  12. 12. Urban Futures – Chaordic Nightmare...
  13. 13. ...or Resource-Efficient Utopia
  14. 14. Citizens Have an Expanded Role e.g. Crowd Funded Bridge - Rotterdam
  15. 15. Automation is Accelerating… ....and eliminating jobs
  16. 16. Disruptive Innovation is the Goal e.g. Qualcomm $10M Tricorder X-Prize
  17. 17. Core TechnologiesUsed by Pioneers Now Pioneered by 2015 Pioneered by 2025 Personal Technology Mobile phones 3G / 4G smartphones Augmented reality Gesture recognition Intelligent software assistants Mind control headsets 3D displays (Glasses free) Intelligent interfaces Flexible screens Digital currency 5G phones Biologically embedded electronics Eyewear embedded screens Intelligent brain-computer interfaces Streamlining the Passenger Journey Biometrics –voice / facial / handprint recognition Quick-response (QR) codes RFID Interactive displays Near field communications (NFC) Temporary airports Biometric signature – heartbeat pattern Body language recognition Robotics and automated services Virtual airports NFC integrated into all travel documents and passports Use of human genomic profiles Enhancing the Passenger Experience Social media Passenger-polling systems Hybrid platforms (i.e. Google Wave) Interactive surfaces Virtual worlds Vertical farming (basic) Next generation cinematic experiences: 6D and beyond Real-time language translation Reality mining Wearable displays Immersive web 3D printing Biomimetic Design Haptics technology Touchable holograms Vertical farming (advanced) Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Infrastructure Wireless broadband Cloud computing Telepresence Big Data Machine learning Ambient / Embedded intelligence – the ‘Internet of Things’ Grid computing MANETS (Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks) Swarm intelligence Intelligent web Semantic web Machine vision Optical computers Collective intelligence
  18. 18. Our Technologies are Evolving From the Desktop...
  19. 19. Portable and Mobile ...
  20. 20. Wearable...
  21. 21. Embedded...
  22. 22. ... to Grown and Grafted...
  23. 23. …and totally Connected via ‘The Internet of Everything’ “What happens when the smartest thing in the room is the room itself?” Madeleine Albright
  24. 24. An Immersive Multi-Sensory Internet is Emerging
  25. 25. Speech / gesture / image recognition, integrated analytics, knowledge management, image / video / voice mining, client self-service, intelligent documents, expertise systems, collaboration, secure email, virtual assistants, intelligent agents and collective intelligence Artificial Intelligence is Going Mainstream
  26. 26. Collective and Collaborative
  27. 27. Data: Death or Glory
  28. 28. ‘Magic’ and Science are Blurring Mapping and Uploading the Human Brain Cognitive, Genetic, Physical and Electronic Enhancement of the Human Body The biological era is emerging
  29. 29. The Biological Era is Here
  30. 30. Science is Opening up New Horizons
  31. 31. ‘Big Science’ is the Battleground
  32. 32. New Ideas are Reshaping Industries
  33. 33. Rapid Execution e.g. Superfast Construction Ark Hotel - Dongting Lake - China
  34. 34. Whole System Change for Driverless
  35. 35. Embracing New Paradigms – e.g. Hyperloop
  36. 36. Virtual Collaboration Novel and Adaptive Thinking Social Intelligence Trans Disciplinarity New Media Literacy Computational Thinking Design MindsetCross Cultural Competency Sense MakingCognitive Load Management
  37. 37. Assets: ‘Usership’ vs. Ownership
  38. 38. Innovation: e.g.
  39. 39. Revenue: E.g. Auctions £3088 £8791.50 £81
  40. 40. In-Flight Upgrade Auctions
  41. 41. Pay by the Pound
  42. 42. Menu Pricing Economy, Classic, Classic Plus Refunds, Flexibility, Seat Assignment, Baggage, IFE, FFP Credit, Food and Beverage
  43. 43. From Classes and Segments to Choices on the Service Spectrum • Experience • Service • Seat • Food and Beverages • Boarding • Entertainment • Language • FFP Miles • Luggage • Lounge • Offers • Transport • +++
  44. 44. ‘Agony and Ecstasy’ Based Search
  45. 45. Flight Personalisation – SeatExpert / SeatGuru
  46. 46. Reverse Auction - Back Bid
  47. 47. Transparency and Price Guarantees
  48. 48. Management - Tackling Complexity • Customer Interface • Process • Organisation • Information / Systems • Regulatory • Human
  49. 49. Conclusions – Total Sustainability • Foresight / Curiosity • Sense making • Accelerated learning • Tolerance of uncertainty • Scenario thinking • Coping with complexity • Networking
  50. 50. About Fast Future
  51. 51. Fast Future – Core Services • Live Events - Speeches, briefings and workshops for executive management and boards of governments, investment funds, development agencies , companies, airlines, airports, hotels, venues, CVB’s and associations • Future Insights - Customised research on emerging trends, future scenarios, technologies and new markets • Immersion - ‘Deep dives’ on future trends, market developments, emerging issues and technology advances • Strategy - Development of strategies and business plans • Innovation - Creation of business models and innovation plans • Engagement - Consultancy and workshop facilitation
  52. 52. Fast Future • Research, consulting, speaking, leadership • 5-20 year horizon - focus on ideas, developments, people, trends and forces shaping the future • Clients – ING, ABN Amro, Laing O’Rourke – Marks and Spencer – Airports - Aeroports de Paris / Schiphol Group – Vancouver Airport Services – Industry Associations – ICCA, ASAE, PCMA, MPI – Corporates - GE, Nokia, Pepsi, IBM, Intel, Orange, O2, Siemens, Samsung, GSK, SAPE&Y, KPMG, Amadeus, Sabre, Travelport, Travelex, ING, Santander, Barclays, Citibank, DeutscheBank – Governments - Dubai, Finland, Nigeria, Singapore, UK, US – Convention Bureaus – Seoul, Sydney, London, San Francisco, Toronto, Abu Dhabi, Durban, Athens, Slovenia, Copenhagen – Convention Centres – Melbourne, Adelaide, Qatar, QEIICC – Hotels - Accor Group, Preferred, – Intercontinental – PCO’s - Congrex, Kenes
  53. 53. Our Services Bespoke research; Identification & Analysis of Future Trends, Drivers & Shocks Accelerated Scenario Planning, Timelining & Future Mapping Identification of Opportunities for Innovation and Strategic InvestmentStrategy Creation & Development of Implementation Roadmaps Design & Facilitation of Innovation, Incubation & Venturing Programmes Expert Consultations & Futures Think Tanks Personal Futuring for Leaders and Leadership Teams Public Speaking, In- Company Briefings, Seminars and Workshops
  54. 54. Example Projects • Public and private client research e.g. : – Reinventing the Airport Ecosystem – Development of Market Scenarios, emerging trends and strategies for key clients – Government and OECD Scenario Projects – e.g. Migration 2030, Future of Narcotics, Chemical Sector, Family 2030 – Scenarios for the global economy for 2030 and the implications for migration – Designing Your Future (Published August 2008) – book written for the American Society of Association Executives & The Center for Association Leadership – Global Economies – e.g. The Future of China – the Path to 2020 – The Shape of Jobs to Come – Emerging Science and Technology Sectors and Careers – Winning in India and China – The Future of Human Resources – Exploiting the Future Potential of Social Media in UK Small to Medium Enterprises – Convention 2020 – the Future of Business Events – Future Convention Cities Initiative – Maximising Long-term Economic Impact of Events – One Step Beyond – Future trends and challenges for the events industry – Hotels 2020: Beyond Segmentation – Future Hotel Strategies – The Future of Travel and Tourism in the Middle East – a Vision to 2020 – Future of Travel and Tourism Investment in Saudi Arabia
  55. 55. Hotels 2020 – Objectives • Identify key drivers of change for the globally branded hotel sector over the next decade • Examine the implications for:  Hotel strategy  Brand portfolio  Business models  Customer targeting  Innovation
  56. 56. • Global strategic foresight study to help the meetings industry prepare for the decade ahead - Industry-wide sponsors • Multiple outputs Nov 2009 – December 2011 • Current studies on future strategies for venues and destinations Convention 2020
  57. 57. Rohit Talwar • Global futurist and founder of Fast Future Research. • Award winning speaker on future insights and strategic innovation – addressing leadership audiences in 40 countries on 5 continents • Author of Designing Your Future • Profiled by UK’s Independent Newspaper as one of the Top 10 Global Future Thinkers • Led futures research, scenario planning and strategic consultancy projects for clients in telecommunications, technology, pharmaceuticals, banking, travel and tourism, environment, food and government sectors • Clients include 3M, BBC, BT, BAe, Bayer, Chloride, DTC De Beers, DHL, EADS, Electrolux, E&Y, GE, Hoover, Hyundai, IBM, ING, Intel, KPMG, M&S, Nakheel, Nokia, Nomura, Novartis, OECD, Orange, Panasonic, Pfizer, PwC, Samsung, Shell, Siemens, Symbian, Yell , numerous international associations and governments agencies in the US, UK, Finland, Dubai, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia and Singapore. • To receive Fast Future’s newsletters please email
  58. 58. • 50 key trends • 100 emerging trends • 10 major patterns of change • Key challenges and choices for leaders • Strategic decision making framework • Scenarios for 2012 • Key futures tools and techniques • Published August 2008 • Price £49.95 / €54.95/ $69.95 • Email invoice request to Designing Your Future Key Trends, Challenges and Choices
  59. 59. Image Sources
  60. 60. Image Sources p.1 Page: 1. Left, right: 3. Clockwise: 4. 5. 6. 7. From left to right: 8. 9. Left, right: 10. 11. Clockwise:
  61. 61. Image Sources p.2 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 22. 23. Clockwise: 24. Clockwise: 26. 27. 28. 29.
  62. 62. Image Sources p.3 30. 31. 32. Top, bottom: 33. 34. Clockwise: 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. Left, right: 42. Top, bottom: 44. 45.
  63. 63. Image Sources p.4 46. 47. 48. Top, bottom: 49. 50. 51. 52. 53.
  64. 64. Background Notes
  65. 65. The Ark Hotel • Builders in China put up the Ark Hotel - a 30-storey 183,000-square-foot hotel in 15 days / 360 hours. None of the workers suffered any injuries during the construction process. • The hotel was built on Dongting lake in the Hunan Province, by Broad Group, a Chinese construction company which specialises in sustainable architecture. Tests suggest that the building should be able to withstand a magnitude 9 earthquake. The China Academy of Building Research claims the hotel is five times more quake-resistant than conventional buildings. • All the materials were prefabricated and sections were built to specification off-site, so there was very little wastage during the construction process. Source: Daily Mail, 09/01/2012:
  66. 66. The Ark Hotel • Reportedly, the builders took just 46 hours to finish the main structural components and another 90 hours to finish the building enclosure. • The structure is soundproofed and thermal-insulated. There is air quality monitoring in every room. • The pervious record of the same firm is was a smaller 15-story building constructed in just six days. Source: Daily Mail, 09/01/2012:
  67. 67. Land Airbus - China • Inhabitat (2013) reports that TBS China has unveiled the Land Airbus – a giant car-swallowing bus that could potentially hit the streets of China. • The vehicle is longer than previous versions, it can bend around corners, and it travels along rails to enable smaller vehicles to pass underneath. • The innovative urban transportation solution has a high-tech interior that is entered via a glass elevator that drops down at air lift stations. While passengers are getting on and off the vehicle, there is no hold up in traffic – cars just keep going under the Land Airbus. • TBS China claims that, compared to Metro, the new public transportation vehicle would cost less, have a shorter construction period and almost match passenger capacity. Source: Inhabitat, 09/15/13:
  68. 68. Hyperloop - The Future of Travel • Hyperloop is a conceptual system that could transport passengers in pods at near-supersonic speed – the vision of billionaire entrepreneur Elon Musk. • This transport concept could provide a viable alternative to short-haul travel, high-speed rail and travelling by car. • Hyperloop could reduce the journey time between Los Angeles and San Francisco to just 30 minutes, compared to 75 minutes by plane and 5.5 hours by car. • The concept is based on pods travelling through a low-pressure tube that would be suspended above the ground. Source: Future Travel Experience, 15/08/2013:
  69. 69. Hyperloop - The Future of Travel • Pods would have a compressor on the front to pass the air to the rear and some of the air would be used to create a cushion underneath the pod on which it could ride. Electric induction motors at the beginning, middle and end points of the tube would be used to accelerate and decelerate the pods. • Musk believes the whole system could run on solar power, ticket prices should be as low as $20. • The Hyperloop could reduce travel times greatly and provide excellent passenger experience. However, one of the biggest challenges is that much of the technology that is needed for Hyperloop to become a reality doesn’t yet exist. Source: Future Travel Experience, 15/08/2013:
  70. 70. Hyperloop - The Future of Travel • Development costs for the project are estimated at $6Bn - ten-times less than the cost of the high-speed rail link between San Francisco and LA. Much more than that would be needed for developing and testing new technologies. • Also, the preliminary concept envisages a system of tubes and capsules that would travel directly above the California highway between LA and San Francisco. • It is not clear how long will it take to convince the government and the public that a building a futuristic transport system directly above a highway is a sensible and safe idea. Source: Future Travel Experience, 15/08/2013:
  71. 71. Frontier Airlines – A La Carte Pricing Model • In December 2013 Frontier Airlines became the first U.S. airline to unveil a new “menu-pricing” fare structure, in which passengers can choose from among three different pricing levels: Classic Plus, Classic, and Economy. • Classic Plus ticket – costs about $55 more than a Classic ticket on a New York-Los Angeles one-way flight; it’s fully refundable, and includes priority boarding, advanced seat assignments, two free checked bags, free DirecTV, a 150-percent frequent flier mileage credit, a snack and a "premium" beverage. • Classic ticket – costs about $25 more than the Economy ticket, gets passengers advanced seat assignments, two free checked bags, free DirecTV, and a 125-percent frequent flier mileage credit. Ticket change fees are $50, down from the normal $100. Source:, 22/12/13:,10316/
  72. 72. Frontier Airlines – A La Carte Pricing Model • Economy – no free perks included in this category, or increased mileage earnings. Frontier charges economy passengers $15 for the first checked bag, and $25 for the second. Snacks on long flights are $3. • Air Canada has had a similar price structure for years. some U.S airlines are rumored to be thinking about moving in this direction, including American Airlines. • Menu pricing has proven to be a money-maker for Air Canada and is very popular among passengers. Source:, 22/12/13:,10316/
  73. 73. Various Airline Pricing Schemes • ‘’Pay-by-the-pound’’ model is only one of several weird, possibly unwelcomed ways that flights might be priced down the line. • Before Samoa Air announced plans to introduce the model, Ryanair was speculating with a “fat tax” on overweight passengers. • Samoa Air CEO Chris Langton seems to agree that ‘’pay-as-you-weigh” structure “may provide significant benefits to airlines, passengers and society at large”. • Samoa Air flies very small planes (12-seaters), and its clientele tends to be on the heavy side. Passengers account for far larger percentage of the total mass than fliers do on the big planes flown by mainstream carriers. Source: TIME, 08/04/2013:
  74. 74. Various Airline Pricing Schemes • For the vast majority of airlines with hundreds of fliers in per flight weighing each passenger with baggage would be a logistical nightmare. Airlines could also face boycotts and charges of discrimination. • Therefore instead of weight-based pricing, passengers are more likely to encounter more and more “debundling” of airfares. • A study by IdeaWorks highlights three airline pricing models that aim to boost ancillary revenues. • One model is pure a la carte sales practised by low-fare carriers like Spirit Airlines, in which pretty much everything other than basic transportation costs extra and is priced individually. Source: TIME, 08/04/2013:
  75. 75. Various Airline Pricing Schemes • Other models present travellers with a range of pricing options that allow customers to pick (and pay for) the flight and package of services that best suit their needs. These fare structures have proven to be quite lucrative for airlines –the average Spirit passenger pays $103 in ancillary fees per round trip. • Other pricing models: • Variable pricing system – In this model passengers agree to pay based on the cost of fuel at the time of takeoff. Customers would pay one price when they book flights, and then later could be charged more if fuel prices rise between the time of purchase and departure. Source: TIME, 08/04/2013:
  76. 76. Various Airline Pricing Schemes • Personalised pricing model – in this model airfares that show up in web searches are determined partly on the individual’s travel and purchase history, as well as factors like one’s marital status and nationality. • Travel advocates argue that such a pricing scheme amounts to “profiling” and that it would particularly discriminate against business travellers and others that have limited flexibility with flight times. • The world’s biggest airlines are among those supporting Resolution 787, the proposed initiative that would allow such “personalized” pricing. Source: TIME, 08/04/2013:
  77. 77. The World’s Top Innovative Companies in Travel • 1. AIRBNB • The Fast Company rates Airbnb as the most innovative travel company for making the most of its hosts. By the summer of 2014, Airbnb is expected to usurp the InterContinental Hotels Group and Hilton Worldwide as the world's largest hotel chain--without owning a single hotel. • The startup allows users to rent out their spare rooms or vacant homes to strangers. It surpassed 10 million stays on its platform in 2013 and doubled its listings to 550,000 in 192 countries. The company also tripled revenue to an estimated $250 million. Source: Fast Company, 2014:
  78. 78. Luxury Travel Trends • Travellers engage in at least one of the following four activities while at an airport - eating (and drinking), shopping, working or relaxing. • A network of business-class lounges, duty-free shops and food courts have been developed to help travellers to better spend their time. Airlines are now seeking to distinguish their brands further by offering addition services designed to meet the demands and desires of their business- and first-class customers. • Luxury consumers’ desire to cram more value, information, entertainment and choice into each moment is growing exponentially. Travel time is a multi-tasking opportunity and airlines that stand out are the ones that allow their customers to go beyond the four aforementioned activities and experience something new. Source: Telegraph, 23/06/2013:
  79. 79. Luxury Travel Trends • Some airports, airlines and travel brands are servicing the growing need for immersive experiences while in transit. • 1) Virgin Atlantic – in February 2013 the airline opened the Gallery in the Air, enabling Upper Class passengers on the carrier’s New York to London routes to purchase original artworks by Ben Eine while on board. A selection of the British artist’s works were displayed at clubhouses in JFK, Newark and Heathrow airports, while passengers could view a virtual gallery tour of ten one-off pieces during their flight. The artworks were priced at £2,500 to £15,000, and could be purchased by placing a 25 per cent deposit with Virgin Atlantic cabin attendants. Source: Telegraph, 23/06/2013:
  80. 80. Luxury Travel Trends • 2) UA Cinemas opened an IMAX theatre in Hong Kong International airport in late 2012. Travellers with long layovers can watch IMAX movies in 2D or 3D. The IMAX theatre has the largest cinema screen in Hong Kong. • 3) The Museum Space at the Charles de Gaulle airport in Paris is designed to showcase French artistic and cultural heritage. The museum space was opened in January 2013 and offers free access to passengers. Exhibitions in the Museum Space change every six months. • 4) British Airways completed ‘UnGrounded’, an 11-hour innovation lab that took place during a transatlantic flight from San Francisco to London in March 2013. 100 participants chosen by the BA advisory board were tasked with designing a platform that addressed the misalignment of emerging science and technology talent and development opportunities. When the flight landed, participants presented their ideas at the annual Decide Now Act Summit. Source: Telegraph, 23/06/2013:
  81. 81. Luxury Travel Trends • 5) In May 2013 Quantas collaborated with publishing house Hachette on a collection of bespoke books entitled ‘Stories for Every Journey. Each book is designed to last for the duration of one of the airline’s routes and features a unique cover, as well as a foreword and a personal note from the Qantas CEO. The books are available for free to Qantas Platinum Fliers on a variety of routes. • 6) The Mexican government launched ‘Mayan Parade’ on 21 December 2012, an exhibition in airports across Europe and North and South America to celebrate Mayan culture at the end of the Mayan calendar. Artists from Mexico, the US, and Brazil were invited to decorate fibreglass statues of the Mayan emperor Pakal. Each sculpture features a QR code linking to augmented reality content on the exhibition. Source: Telegraph, 23/06/2013:
  82. 82. Luxury Travel Trends • 7) During 2013 SXSW conference and festival, American Airlines announced their ‘Napkin Pitch Contest’ onboard flights to Austin, Texas – where the festival takes place. Passengers were invited to outline an entrepreneurial venture on the airline’s branded napkins and submit it to their lounge at the Austin Convention Center or the Startup America Lounge at the Austin Hilton. • Apanel of business and innovation experts awarded winners with bundles of American Airlines air miles. • The Telegraph suggests that travellers increasingly seek unique status boosters from their travel experiences – not only at their destination but before and while getting there. Source: Telegraph, 23/06/2013:
  83. 83. Nextpedition – Surprise Vacation Planning • Nextpedition was developed by American Express, primarily targeting twentysomethigs, and creates trips based on a person’s travel profile without the person knowing where she/ he is going until the last minute. • A short survey is used to find a person’s travel sign. Then three of the top travel signs that suit are person are revealed, one of these can be chosen. The next step is to request a consultation plus connecting the Nextpedition Facebook app to a profile. A specialist plans the trip without revealing any details. Just before the trip, the traveller receives the necessary documents plus a digital handheld travel console which reveals the itinerary. • Domestic trips start at $1,000; Europe trips start at $2,500; 7-day minimum; booking must be done at least 30 days in advance. Source: Travel+Leisure, 04/05/2011:
  84. 84. Reinventing the Travel Space • These companies are reinventing the travel space: • Room 77: • Based on a concept that if customers can chose a seat on a plane, they should also be able to chose their room. Room 77 offers the chance to see what individual rooms within a hotel look like, and how to book that room. The database includes more than 560,000 rooms. • • Aims to capture the business of corporate travel for small business with 20 employers or less. There are over 40 million of these enterprises in the US alone. Source: Eye for Travel, 30/09/2011:
  85. 85. Reinventing the Travel Space • The hotel search facility enables travellers to find a business hotel with all the necessary requirements. • Gogobot: • Gogobot has already gained many national and international awards. The ethos of Gogobot is that when travellers plan a trip, they should get the advice and tips from the extended network of friends, family and colleagues, and from people who travel like them. • Hipmunk: • A brand new style of flight meta-search that aims to, in their own words, “take the agony out of travel planning.” It tells things that other meta-search sites don’t. Source: Eye for Travel, 30/09/2011:
  86. 86. Reinventing the Travel Space • like which will be “dark flights” for plane sleepaholics. It then shows in a clearer than clear capacity- the cheapest, the quickest, the shortest stopover, and more.’ • HotelTonight: • This is an app for iPhone and Android, which gives consumers the opportunity to book a same-day hotel whilst on the move, direct through their mobile phones. The business model is to use distressed hotel inventory to fill last minute rooms with last minute guests. Deals can knock off up to 70% of the usual hotel price. Source: Eye for Travel, 30/09/2011:
  87. 87. Reinventing the Travel Space • Backbid: • Allows travellers with flexible hotel reservations to post to Backbid and let other hoteliers in the same area offer them a cheaper rate or more incentives to move over the booking to them. • HotelTonight was the winner of the 2011 EyeforTravel North American Innovation Award, held as part of TDS North America. Hipmunk was the runner up. Source: Eye for Travel, 30/09/2011:
  88. 88. TINGO • Tingo is part of Trip Advisor and focuses on hotels. • With Tingo, consumers book the hotel whenever they want, and the service automatically re-books in the future at a lower price if the rate drops. No extra work's involved from user's side. Users get notified about lower price, rebooking and the difference refunded. • Price transparency is expected to become the norm, coming also to airlines and other parts of travel ecosystem. Source: Mashable, 07/12/12:
  89. 89. Additional Sources • Genetic profiling - • X Prize - Breakthrough innovation projects - • Google brain uploading - • Brain mapping projects - mapping-project-matters/ • Global Future 2045 (immortality) • Human enhancement - • Wearable technology – Google Project Glass - • Emotiv Epoc Brain-Computer Interface - • AI Essay Grading Software - computers-grading-essays-at-college-level.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 • Crypto currencies – – – – • Autonomous cars - – Working-on-Autonomous-Car.aspx –