Human reproduction


Published on

These are a mix of three different powerpoints that I found as public knowledge on the Internet. Some things have been added and credit was given if it was attached to the original powerpoint.

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Human reproduction

  1. 1. Human Reproduction♀ ♂♀ ♂
  2. 2. Battle of the sexes!!!Are males andfemales all thatdifferent?Well…..YesAndNo!
  3. 3. AnatomyMale Female
  4. 4. Similarities2 pouchesTesticlesOvariesStart out inside bodyTesticles “descend” before birthFetus begins with “starter parts” thatcould develop into either gender.
  5. 5. Around 7thWeek…Baby’s body is “told” by DNA to becomeeither male or female.“Unused” parts disintegrate“Used” parts continue development
  6. 6. Male or Female???DNA determines baby’s genderXX = FemaleXY = MaleDepends on which egg & sperm gettogether.Father determines baby’s gender.
  7. 7. Anatomy – similaritiesFunction – VERY different!MaleUncomplicatedProduce sperm2-4 MILLIONevery dayFemaleVery Complicated!One eggOnce a monthCareful coordinationof hormones & bodyTiming perfect!
  8. 8. FemalesOvaries2 pouchesContain ovaBorn with all of her eggs (~ 400,000)Use up ~500Won’t run out!OvulationOne egg released from ovary to oviduct(fallopian tube)
  9. 9. 10
  10. 10. After OvulationEgg pushed along by ciliaFew days travel time to arrive in uterusCervix – Opening between uterus & vaginaNormally tinyAt birth – muscles pull open (dilation) cervix toallow baby to pass through = Labor
  11. 11. Menstrual CycleComplex combination of 10-12chemicals (hormones)Usually one egg once a monthAll about timing!!!Uterus must be ready when egg gets therein case it was fertilizedIf no fertilization, tear down lining of uterusand rebuild for next month
  12. 12. 28-Day Cycle (average)Three Stages1. Tear Down2. Rebuild3. Extra nutrients/blood for potential babyNo Baby?Back to #1
  13. 13. Chemicals (hormones)Regulate events in thebodyEstrogenProgesteroneMany others
  14. 14. 15EstrogenEstrogen is responsible forthe secondary sexcharacteristics and the sexdrive in females. It spursthe onset of puberty and isresponsible forOVULATION.
  15. 15. 16ProgesteroneProgesterone builds up thelining of the uterus calledthe endometrium inpreparation for the fertilizedovum
  16. 16. Day 1First menstrual blood & tissueNo baby = breaks down lining of uterus5-7 days of blood/tissue exits bodyPre-Ovulation
  17. 17. ~Day 14Ovulation = Egg releasedTemp spikes slightlyMost fertile in next few days!Able to get pregnantEgg gets fertilized while traveling throughoviduct.Post-Ovulation
  18. 18. If fertilized…Zygote begins to divide as it travelsthrough oviductImplants into lining of uterus
  19. 19. If not fertilized…Egg travels through oviduct to uterusExits body with blood and tissuesduring menstruation
  20. 20. Birth Control Pills“Trick” body into thinking it’s pregnantExtra hormonesNo ovulation occursNo ovulation = no egg = no fertilization = no baby!No hormones taken for 7 days = menstruation
  21. 21. MaleTestesProduce 2-4 million sperm every dayOutside body – why?Sperm like temps 1-2° cooler than body tempVas DeferensTube sperm travel throughVasectomyCut/tie off tube – sperm can’t get out!
  22. 22. SemenContains300-500 million spermSperm foodpH buffersAllows sperm to survive for a couple ofdays inside female’s body (hostileenvironment)
  23. 23. What is sperm?Then…Used to think it was a tiny humaninside each cellSpermists vs. OvistsDo you remember this?
  24. 24. Now…Contains SeveralParts:HeadChemical todissolve egggooDad’s geneticinformation(DNA)MitochondriaEnergyTailSwimming
  25. 25. 27SpermThe microscopic cells produced by the malestesticles which can fertilize the females ovum.They are tiny, living cells 100 times smaller than apencil dot. (the smallest cell in a mans bodyEnough sperm would fit on the head of a pin to re-populate the earth if each sperm fertilized an egg.It is destroyed by warm body temperature, acidicenvironment.It can survive in a women’s body for 5-8 days.Any sperm not ejaculated are passed in the urine.
  26. 26. Prostate GlandAdds non-sperm stuff to semenpH buffersNourishmentCancer very commonSlower-growing (usually)Surgery for removal
  27. 27. Bulbourethral glandAdds lubricant to aid travel of sementhrough the urethra
  28. 28. Conception/Fertilization
  29. 29. Conception/FertilizationEjaculationRelease of 300-500 million spermEgg needs to be in oviductSperm to egg, not an easy taskGo wrong direction : 2 paths – only 1 leads to aneggGet attacked by female’s white blood cellsAcidic environmentCurrent
  30. 30. Once egg is located…Dissolve protective goo surroundingeggOne gets through – enters eggInstant biochemical change in zygoteNo more sperm allowed in
  31. 31. Zygote begins developmentTime LapseDevelopment
  32. 32. Implants in uterine liningEndometrium= outer lining of uterusBecomes placentaUses mother’s nutrientsContinues development
  33. 33. Fetal DevelopmentAnmionMembrane surrounding babyContains amniotic fluidBreaks just before birth = “water broke”Amniotic FluidThe “water” – surrounding babyBuoyant cradle for babyProtectionFree movement
  34. 34. Fetal Dev (cont’d)Umbilical CordBlood vessels from placenta to babyMom’s & baby’s blood do not circulatetogether!Can have 2 different blood typesDiffusion
  35. 35. BirthLabor – muscles used to open cervixBaby flips upside downHead first!Feet first = Breech (bad)Cesarian Section (“C-section”) surgical removalof babyAfter baby is born mom deliversplacenta (“afterbirth”) that detachesfrom uterus
  36. 36. BreastfeedingMost nutritious option for babyMilk changes as baby growsAntibodies from mom create immunityfor babyStudies have shown correlationbetween breastfeeding and higherintelligence in baby.Bond w/baby is stronger
  37. 37. Twins/Multiple BirthsTwo typesMonozygoticFrom one eggIdenticalDizygoticFrom two eggsFraternalNot identical
  38. 38. Identical twinsOne zygoteSplits in 2Same exact DNANature’s clones
  39. 39. Fraternal Twins2 separate eggs get fertilizedwith 2 different sperm cellsMore than one egg got releasedduring ovulationSiblingsCan be sistersBrothersBrother and sisterTends to run in families
  40. 40. Conjoined TwinsUsed to be called “Siamese” twinsFirst well known case was in SiamIdentical twins that never completelyseparated during developmentSometimes can be separated,depending on what is shared.
  41. 41. 46Sexually Transmitted DiseasesSexuallyTransmittedInfections
  42. 42. 47STDsSTDs are diseases and infections whichare capable of being spread from personto person through:sexual intercourseoral-genital contact or in non-sexual ways.IV drug
  43. 43. 48SymptomsWhat are the symptoms? How would Iknow if I have been infected?Sores (either painful or painless)Blood in urineBurning sensation when urinatingRashesItchingBumpsWartsUnusual discharge
  44. 44. 49What is a SexuallyTransmitted Infection or STI?STI’s are infections that are spreadfrom person to person through intimatesexual contact.STI’s are dangerous because they areeasily spread and it is hard to tell justby looking who has an STI.1 in 4 sexually active teens has an STI.
  45. 45. 50Common STI’sChlamydiaGonorrheaGenital Herpes(HSV-2)Genital Warts(HPV)Hepatitis BHIV and AIDSPubic LiceSyphilisTrichomoniasis
  46. 46. 51What’s the difference between STDs andSTIs?STDs are Sexually Transmitted Diseaseswhile STIs are Sexually TransmittedInfections.  STIs are transmitted throughsexual activity and as a result of the infection,these STIs can become STDs overtime.  Thisprocess is dependent on numerous factors: genetics, immunity, environment, individualmake-up, continual exposure, treatment, thepossibility of multiple STIs, continual sexualactivity without protection.51
  47. 47. 52ChlamydiaCaused by bacteria called ChlamydiaTrachoma.Chlamydia is one of the most commonsexually transmitted infections.Chlamydia is curable.Your healthcare provider will give youantibiotics for treatment.Anyone with whom you’ve had sex willalso need to be treated
  48. 48. 53GonorrheaCaused by a bacteria known asNeisseria gonorrhoeae.Gonorrhea is treatable.Your healthcare provider will give youantibiotics for treatment.Anyone with whom you’ve had sex willalso need to be treated
  49. 49. 54Genital Herpes (HSV-2)HSV-2 is caused by the herpes virus.You can still get HSV-2 even when youuse a condom.After contracting the herpes virus youwill have it FOREVER. There is NOcure.A doctor can prescribe antiviralmedication to help control recurringoutbreaks and clear up painful sores.
  50. 50. 55Genital Warts (HPV)Genital warts are caused by humanpapillomavirus (HPV).There is NO cure for the virus. You mayhave more outbreaks and you can spreadthe virus to anyone you have sex with.You can still get HPV even when you usea condom.Some warts can be dissolved with specialmedication or the doctor can “freeze”them off with a special chemical.
  51. 51. 56Hepatitis BHepatitis is a disease of the liver.Hepatitis B is transmitted person to personthrough blood and body fluids.There is no treatment for the virus after ithas been contracted.The only treatment is prevention:Abstain from sexAlways use latex condomsAvoid contact with other people’s bloodGet immunized
  52. 52. 57HIV and AIDSAIDS is one of the most deadlydiseases in history.AIDS is caused by HIV (Humanimmunodeficiency virus).HIV destroys the body’s defensesystem (the immune system).Thousands of teens in the U.S. becomeinfected each year.
  53. 53. 58How do you get HIV?HIV can be transmitted from an infectedperson to another person throughblood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breastmilk.People who have another STD are athigher risk for contracting HIV duringsex with infected partners.
  54. 54. 59How do people know theyhave HIV?Many people do not know they have it.Symptoms may not appear for up to 10years.Some people may feel and look healthyfor years while they are infected withHIV.It is possible to infect others with HIV,even if the person has absolutely nosymptoms.
  55. 55. 60Symptoms of AIDSExtreme weaknessand fatigueRapid weight lossFrequent fevers withnot explanationHeavy sweating atnightSwollen lymph glandsMinor infections thatcause skin rashesand mouth, genital,and anal sores.White spots in themouth or throatChronic diarrheaA cough that won’t goawayShort-term memoryloss
  56. 56. 61How is HIV treated?There is NO cure.If you think you or your partner mayhave HIV or AIDS you need to see ahealthcare provider who can do bloodtests.Prevention is the only way to protectyourself from contracting the virus.
  57. 57. Pubic Lice (Crabs)Pubic lice are tiny insects that can crawl fromthe pubic hair of one person to the pubic hair ofanother person during sex.You will be prescribed or told to buy medicationthat kills the lice and their eggs.You will also need to dry clean or use very hotwater to wash all of your bedding, towels, orrecently worn clothing to kill the lice.Tell your partner.Pubic lice can be spread even when you use acondom
  58. 58. 63SyphilisCaused by bacteria called Trepenomapallidum.If not treated Syphilis can be very dangerousand can cause brain damage and otherserious health problems.If you are diagnosed as having the diseaseyou can be treated with antibiotics.Anyone with whom you’ve had sex will alsoneed to be treated
  59. 59. 64TrichomoniasisSometimes called “trich” it is a parasite thatcan be passed from person to person duringsexual intercourse.One of the most common STD’sCan be passed on via damp towels,washcloths, and bathing suits if someonehas the parasite.If you have the disease your healthcareprovider will give you antibiotics.Anyone with whom you’ve had sex will alsoneed to be treated.
  60. 60. 65What Happens if I don’t gettreated?If you have an STD and don’t gettreatment you can have some long-termeffects such as:Infertility (Unable to have babies)CancerLong-term painCan pass disease from mother to babyDeath
  61. 61. 66What do I do if I havesymptoms?If you think you have an STI you need to seea healthcare provider for treatment.If you feel nervous about getting checked forSTDs, take a few deep breaths and try torelax. You may be shy about having doctorsand nurses look at your genitals. The testsare usually quick, and it may help toremember that the nurses and doctors arethere to help you, and do this kind of test allthe time.
  62. 62. 67Prevention is the KeyAbstinence, not having sex, is the bestway to protect yourself.It is possible to get an STD evenwithout having intercourse through skin-to-skin contact.
  63. 63. 68ConclusionIt is much easier to prevent an STI than tocure one.The ONLY way to prevent STI’s is to abstainfrom ALL types of sexual intercourse.Condoms do not always protect you fromSTI’s such as HSV-2, HPV, and Pubic Lice.Remember, just because you and yourpartner may be monogamous with each other,the risk of getting an STI is increased by thenumber of previous sexual partners eitherpartner has had.
  64. 64. 69How well do you know the 63 people youhad sex with last night?
  65. 65. OF THE STI information was Developed by Bridget Robinson, RN, BSN,SNMUniversity of Kansas School of Nursing HETC Project-This powerpoint has additions