Human reproduction


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Human reproduction

  1. 1. Hasimah Azit
  2. 2. Sexual and AsexualReproduction Sexual reproduction occurs when a new individualis formed through the union of two sex cells(gametes). produce zygote Haploid gametes formed by meiosis in sex organs(gonads). Asexual reproduction occurs when geneticallyidentical cells are produced from a single parentcell by mitosis. fission or budding
  3. 3. Adi Ahmad Danish
  4. 4. Gametogenesis Gamete production By meiosis The chromosomal number in gamete is half ofchromosomal number in parent cell Gamete will carry different genetic constitution
  5. 5. -Testis is located in scrotum, outside the body to maintain the lowtemperature [suitable for gamete production]-Inside the testes, seminiferous tubule is densely coiled, connected toepididymis that connected to vas deferans that connected to semenalvesicle.
  6. 6. Male Reproductive SystemMale accessory sex organs epididymis vas deferens seminal vesicles prostate gland urethra
  7. 7. Spermatogenesis
  8. 8. Testis and Spermatogenesis
  9. 9. spermatogenesisSpermatogoniumPrimary SpermatocyteSecondary SpermatocyteSpermatidSpermatozoaMitosisMeiosis IMeiosis IIDifferentiation
  10. 10. Differentiation
  11. 11. sperm
  12. 12. Male Reproductive SystemSpermatozoa Head encloses nucleus and capped by an acrosome -contains enzymes that aid in egg penetration.body and tail provide propulsion
  13. 13. Epididymis -• Nonmotilesperm arrivein Epididymus- Tubules onouter surfaceof testis wheresperm mature(18 hrs.) andare stored.Epididymus
  14. 14. 1. Prostate gland - large gland behindurinary bladder and producesseminal fluid.2. Seminal vesicles - paired glands atbases of vas deferentia and produceseminal fluid.Seminal fluid serves as a lubricant,pH buffer, and nutrient (high insugars) seminalvesicleprostate
  15. 15. Male Reproductive SystemHormonal control of male reproductionFSH stimulates the Sertoli to facilitate spermdevelopment.LH stimulates Leydig cells to secretetestosterone.Principle negative feedback inhibition appliesto FSH and LH secretion.
  16. 16. UTERUS and OVARY
  17. 17. Ovari
  18. 18. OogenesisOvum production processOccurs in ovaryOocyte develop simultaneously withthe development of follicle.
  19. 19. Female Reproductive SystemMenstrual and estrous cycles At birth, a female’s ovaries containapproximately 2 million follicles.Some follicles are stimulated todevelop each cycle.Human menstrual cycle lastsapproximately one month, and iscommonly divided into a follicularphase and a luteal phase.
  20. 20. I want to learn tosome morePlease …..
  21. 21. OogenesisOogoniumOocyte primerSecondary oocyte + polar bodymitosisMeiosis IOvum + polar bodySpermMeiosis II
  22. 22. Graafian follicle
  23. 23. Inside the fallopian tube
  24. 24. Secondary Oocyte
  26. 26. Ovum andsperm
  27. 27. Mitosis
  28. 28. Oooh… overdosed already
  29. 29. 5 weeks 6 weeks 7 weeks8 weeks 9 weeks 12 weeks
  30. 30. 24 weeks20 weeks18 weeks16 weeks14 weeks
  31. 31. Baby grow?
  32. 32. Before birth After birth
  33. 33. Placenta
  34. 34. Substances that able to diffuseacross the placenta from mother tofetus:OxygenAmino AcidGlucoseFatty acid and glycerolVitaminAntibodyAny virus, drugs, alchohol.
  35. 35. Substances that able to diffuseacross the placenta from fets tomother blood:Carbon dioxideUric acidUrea
  36. 36. Milk production
  37. 37. Normal delivery
  38. 38. Problems in reproductionInfertility in male and female----find the causesEctopic pregnancyFamily planning
  39. 39. Ectopic pregnancy
  40. 40. Procidentia
  41. 41. Placenta abnormal position
  42. 42. Hormone involvePituitary secretes: FSH [Follicle Stimulating Hormone] stimulate thedevelopment of follicle in the ovary LH [Luteinizing – stimulate ovulationFrom ovary: Follicle cells produce Estrogen- – stimulate the endometrial wall (uterine lining) aftermenstrual Corpus luteum produces Progestrone- – stimulate and maintain the thickness of endometrial.
  43. 43. Compilation of graph
  44. 44. Identical twin Produce after fertilization of an ovum by a sperm Membentuk satu zigot Diperingkat morula berlaku pemisahan tisu kepada dua – dua fetusberkembang serentak Berkongsi plasenta Ciri-ciri: Jantina sama Rupa paras sama
  45. 45. Fraternal / non-identical twin
  46. 46. Fraternal twin Two ovum produce at a time Fertilezed by two sperm Two zigotes formed Not sharing the plasenta Developed into two babies with: Same or different gender Different feature
  47. 47. Siamese twin
  48. 48. Group discussion:1 Male and female infertility2 Sperm bank3 Invitro fertilization4 GIFT5 IVF6 Surrogate mother7 Family planning
  49. 49. Natural way….
  50. 50. Infertility has been defined as theinability of a couple to conceiveafter one year of regular intercoursewithout the use of contraceptives.The definition has also cometo include couples who are able toconceive but, due to repeated miscarriages,are unable to carry a pregnancy to term.
  51. 51. causes of infertility>>>In men, these include environmentaland hormonal factors that affect the production ofhealthy, motile sperm and normal semen, as well asblockages that affect the delivery of sperm>>>In women, the causes are more varied since she plays agreater role in reproduction. First, one of the organs involvedin reproduction may be absent, mal-formed or non-functional.Second, the organs may be normal, but the complexhormonal feedback system that is necessary tosupport follicular development, ovulation and implantationof the fertilized egg may be disrupted
  52. 52. If there are enough sperms ?>>less than 20 million sperm per ml,this is considered to be a lowsperm count.>>Less than 10 million is very low.
  53. 53. # Whether the sperms aremoving well or notGrade a ( fast progressive) sperms are thosewhich swim forward fast in a straight lineGrade b ( slow progressive) sperms swim forward,but either in a curved or crooked line,Grade c ( nonprogressive) sperms move their tails,but do not move forward ( local motility only).Grade d ( immotile ) sperms do not move at all
  54. 54. Whether the sperms arenormally shaped or not>> a good sperm should have a regularoval head, with a connecting mid-pieceand a long straight tail.>> abnormal* round heads;* pin heads;* very large heads;* double heads;* absent tails