The Cultural Significance of the Scientific Innovation Of Birth Control<br />Yang Jiao, DojiKuwahara, Maryam Syed and  Kus...
Outlook on Contraception<br />“No woman can call herself free who does not own and control her own body. No woman can call...
Margaret Sanger<br />Nurse<br />Birth control advocate since 1914<br />Strongly believed in women’s rights to birth contro...
The Making of “the pill”<br />Previous use of contraceptives<br />Margaret Sanger<br />Gregory Pincus<br />Katharine McCor...
Use of Contraceptives and the Law<br />Comstock Act of 1873<br />President Ulysses S. Grant<br />Amendment 1<br />Amendmen...
Expectations of Women<br />“She hesitated as though it took all her courage to say it, ‘what can I do to prevent it?’” (Sa...
The Duggars<br />
Why so many children?<br />Michelle got pregnant while on the pill<br />A few months later, Michelle miscarried.<br />They...
The Bible<br />Children are gifts of God (Genesis 4:1)<br />Children are heritage from the Lord (Psalm 127:3-5)<br />Child...
Birth Control in the Bible<br />There is one passage that relates to birth control.<br />Er is killed by God for being wic...
Judaism View<br />Judaism Law prohibits destroying or wasting of seed.<br />Prohibiting of withdrawal, condoms and vasecto...
Muslim View<br />Contraceptives are accepted in the Islamic culture when necessary.<br />Unaccepted types: surgical steril...
What about today?<br />76% of Americans are Christians<br />1.3% of Americans are Jewish<br />0.5% of Americans are Muslim...
19th Century Views on Contraception (Physicians)<br />Close-Minded<br />Harmful<br />Fear of Domestic Duties<br />Abortion...
Great Depression<br />Limit Family Size<br />Advertisement/Media<br />Contraceptive Industry Generated Revenue<br />Cultur...
Literary Influence on Birth Control<br />Brave New World (	1932)<br />Hills Like White Elephants (1927)<br />Doctor Zay (1...
21st Century Views on Contraception (Physicians)<br />More Open-Minded<br />Benefit Patients<br />Technological Advancemen...
Technological Advancements<br />New forms of Birth Control:<br />IUD<br />Cervical Cap<br />Contraceptive Sponge<br />Lunn...
Effectiveness of Birth Control Methods <br />Most Effective: Vasectomy, Female Sterilization<br />Highly Effective: Shot, ...
Birth Control Pills(Oral contraceptives)<br />Most common method <br />More than 70 Million women <br />   worldwide <br /...
Progress with “the pill”<br />Developed in the 1950s.<br />Contain the female hormones estrogen and progesterone<br />Test...
Social Significance<br />Sexual liberation of women<br />    ( Moral debate) <br />     STD Prevalent <br />Family plannin...
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Birth control presentation final

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Birth control presentation final

  1. 1. The Cultural Significance of the Scientific Innovation Of Birth Control<br />Yang Jiao, DojiKuwahara, Maryam Syed and KushangVashi<br />
  2. 2. Outlook on Contraception<br />“No woman can call herself free who does not own and control her own body. No woman can call herself free until she can choose consciously whether she will or will not be a mother.”<br /> ~Margaret Sanger<br />
  3. 3. Margaret Sanger<br />Nurse<br />Birth control advocate since 1914<br />Strongly believed in women’s rights to birth control<br />Opened first birth control clinic in 1916 <br />1942 – Planned Parenthood Federation of America<br />1960s – contraceptive distribution more widely accepted<br />
  4. 4. The Making of “the pill”<br />Previous use of contraceptives<br />Margaret Sanger<br />Gregory Pincus<br />Katharine McCormick<br />John Rock<br />“Every night and every morn some to misery are born. Every morn and every night some are born to sweet delight. Some are born to sweet delight, some are born to endless night.”<br /> ~William Blake<br />
  5. 5. Use of Contraceptives and the Law<br />Comstock Act of 1873<br />President Ulysses S. Grant<br />Amendment 1<br />Amendment 5<br />Amendment 9<br />Amendment 14<br />Griswold v. Connecticut<br />Case against Doctor<br />
  6. 6. Expectations of Women<br />“She hesitated as though it took all her courage to say it, ‘what can I do to prevent it?’” (Sanger 91)<br />WWII<br />Baby boomers<br />Leave it to Beaver<br />Image of the ideal woman<br />Femininity <br />Women’s rights<br />
  7. 7. The Duggars<br />
  8. 8. Why so many children?<br />Michelle got pregnant while on the pill<br />A few months later, Michelle miscarried.<br />They decided to use no contraceptives and let God decide how many children they would have.<br />Conservative Christians<br />
  9. 9. The Bible<br />Children are gifts of God (Genesis 4:1)<br />Children are heritage from the Lord (Psalm 127:3-5)<br />Children are blessings from God (Luke 1:42)<br />Children are a crown to the aged (Proverbs 17:6)<br />God blesses barren women with children (Psalm 113:9)<br />What about birth control in general?<br />
  10. 10. Birth Control in the Bible<br />There is one passage that relates to birth control.<br />Er is killed by God for being wicked<br />Onan, Er’s brother is to marry Tamar (Er’s wife)<br />They have sex; used withdrawal method.<br />God then smites Onan for doing so.<br />
  11. 11. Judaism View<br />Judaism Law prohibits destroying or wasting of seed.<br />Prohibiting of withdrawal, condoms and vasectomies.<br />Pills, patches, injections, and implants are accepted.<br />But, condoms are acceptable when one has an incurable sexually transmittable disease.<br />
  12. 12. Muslim View<br />Contraceptives are accepted in the Islamic culture when necessary.<br />Unaccepted types: surgical sterilization and withdrawal.<br />Sex only within marriage for expression of love.<br />When is birth control acceptable?<br />Rest between pregnancies<br />STD<br />Health requires it<br />Financial aspects<br />
  13. 13. What about today?<br />76% of Americans are Christians<br />1.3% of Americans are Jewish<br />0.5% of Americans are Muslim<br />BUT 98% of Americans are thought to have used birth control at least once in their lives.<br />Views have changed since their religious laws have been established.<br />
  14. 14. 19th Century Views on Contraception (Physicians)<br />Close-Minded<br />Harmful<br />Fear of Domestic Duties<br />Abortion vs. Contraception<br />Moral Dilemma<br />
  15. 15. Great Depression<br />Limit Family Size<br />Advertisement/Media<br />Contraceptive Industry Generated Revenue<br />Cultural Phenomena<br />
  16. 16. Literary Influence on Birth Control<br />Brave New World ( 1932)<br />Hills Like White Elephants (1927)<br />Doctor Zay (1882)<br />Other Novels by Phelps<br />
  17. 17. 21st Century Views on Contraception (Physicians)<br />More Open-Minded<br />Benefit Patients<br />Technological Advancement<br />Prefer Abstinence<br />
  18. 18. Technological Advancements<br />New forms of Birth Control:<br />IUD<br />Cervical Cap<br />Contraceptive Sponge<br />Lunnelle injection<br />Ortho Evra Patch<br />NuvaRing<br />Cannot prevent STI’s<br />Non-Accessible<br />
  19. 19. Effectiveness of Birth Control Methods <br />Most Effective: Vasectomy, Female Sterilization<br />Highly Effective: Shot, Pill, Ring<br />Moderately Effective: Male Condom, Diaphragm<br />Least Effective: Withdrawal and Spermicide<br />
  20. 20. Birth Control Pills(Oral contraceptives)<br />Most common method <br />More than 70 Million women <br /> worldwide <br />70% of users are girls <br /> under 30 years<br />
  21. 21. Progress with “the pill”<br />Developed in the 1950s.<br />Contain the female hormones estrogen and progesterone<br />Tested on human volunteers<br /> in Puerto Rico<br />Pregnancy prevention reached <br /> a level close to 100 percent<br />In May 1960 . FDA approved <br />
  22. 22. Social Significance<br />Sexual liberation of women<br /> ( Moral debate) <br /> STD Prevalent <br />Family planning <br />Promote gender equality<br /> and autonomy of women <br />Improve marriage<br />Control the world<br /> population<br />

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