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Reproductive system (slide show)


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My last topic for the semester...

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Reproductive system (slide show)

  1. 1. •(1) liberation of an ovum, or egg, at a specific time in the reproductive cycle •(2) internal fertilization of the ovum by spermatozoa, or sperm cells •(3) transport of the fertilized ovum to the uterus, or womb •(4) implantation of the blastocyst, the early embryo developed from the fertilized ovum, in the wall of the uterus •(5) formation of a placenta and maintenance of the unborn child during the entire period of gestation •(6) birth of the child and expulsion of the placenta, and •(7) suckling and care of the child, with an eventual return of the maternal organs to virtually their original state.
  2. 2. •Penis: •It is the male organ for copulation, the release of semen, and urination •It is richly supplied with nerve endings •It is associated with feelings of pleasure during sexual stimulation •Scrotum: •A pouch of skin that encloses the two testes •It maintains the testes at a temperature suitable for sperm production
  3. 3. •Testes: •paired, oval-shaped organs that produce sperm and the male hormones, the androgens •Epididymis: •a pair of elongated crescent-shaped structures attached to each of the two testes where the sperm matures and stored. •Ductus (Vas) Deferens: •thick-walled tube in the male reproductive system that transports sperm cells from the epididymis •Seminiferous Tubules: •Coiled tubules where sperms are produced by the process called, spermatogenesis
  4. 4. •Prostate gland: •chestnut-shaped reproductive organ located directly beneath the bladder in the male, which adds secretions to the sperm during the ejaculation of semen •the prostate contributes 15–30 percent of the seminal plasma (or semen) secreted by the male •Seminal vesicles: •saclike glands that secrete fluid that contribute approximately 60 percent of the semen. •Bulbourethral (Cowpers) gland: •Are pea-shaped glands that secrete clear and thick fluid that acts as a lubricant; •it is also thought to function as a flushing agent that washes out the urethra before the semen is ejaculated; •it may also help to make the semen less watery and to provide a suitable living environment for the sperm
  5. 5. Urethra: tube that passes urine and semen out of the body. Also the entry point in males for STDs. Note: semen and urine do not pass through the urethra at the same time. Glans penis: sensitive tissue on the head of the penis with purpose for sexual stimulation.
  6. 6. SEMEN
  7. 7. • Is the production of new sperm cells •It occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testis. •Sperm are produced at a rate of 1,000 every second
  8. 8. Sperm •The male reproductive cell, produced by most animals •It consists of genetic substances, called chromosomes, which are responsible for transmitting specific characteristics of an individual, such as the colour of eyes, hair, and skin •Sperm are flagellated; that is, they have a whiplike tail—called flagellum •The sperm unites with (fertilizes) an ovum (egg) of the female to produce a new offspring •Acrosome at the tip of the head releases enzyme to enter the oocyte •Sperm may remain motile for up to 7 days within the female reproductive tract, but are thought to loose their ability to fertilize an egg after 2 to 3 days •Sperms are attached to oocytes by chemicals that act as “homing device” allowing them to locate the oocyte. •It takes 1 to 2 hours for sperm to complete the journey up to the female duct system to the end of the uterine tubes.
  9. 9. Ovary: produce female eggs/ovum as well as estrogen & progesterone Fallopian tubes (Oviducts): tubes that transport ovum to the uterus; passageway where fertilization occurs; site of ectopic pregnancy; site where tubal ligation (sterilization) occurs. Uterus: also known as the “womb” The function of the uterus is to receive and implant the zygote; when no fertilized egg is present the lining of the uterus sheds for the menstrual cycle. Cervix: lower end of the uterus; an opening between the uterus and vagina that passes sperm, menstrual fluid, and a fetus. Vagina: the birth canal, pathway for menstrual flow, and sperm. Opening for sexual intercourse and contains vaginal secretions/lubrication.
  10. 10. Clitoris: sensitive tissue with sole purpose for sexual stimulation. Urethra: opening for urine.
  11. 11. Beginning puberty… Primordial follicles Primary follicles Secondary follicles Graafian Follicle OVULATION Corpus Luteum Corpus Albicans
  12. 12. It is the periodic discharge from the vagina of blood, secretions, and disintegrating mucous membrane that had lined the uterus. • If fertilization does not occur, progesterone levels fall, depriving the endometrium of hormonal support • Spiral arteries kink and go into spasms and endometrial cells begin to die • The functional layer begins to digest itself • The rush of blood fragments weakened capillary beds and the functional layer sloughs off.
  13. 13. HIV and AIDS What’s the difference?
  14. 14. H I V uman mmuno-deficiency irus because this virus infect human beings because the effect of the virus is to create a deficiency, a failure to work properly, within the body's immune system. because this organism is a virus. “A virus is incapable of reproducing by itself. It reproduces by taking over the machinery of the human cell.”
  15. 15. A I D S cquired mmune eficiency yndrome because it's a condition one must acquire or get infected with. because it affects the body's immune system, the part of the body which usually works to fight off germs such as bacteria and viruses because it makes the immune system deficient (makes it not work properly) because someone with AIDS may experience a wide range of different diseases and opportunistic infections.
  16. 16. When a person is HIV positive, it means the HIV virus is in his or her body. When a person has AIDS it means HIV has made it so the body cannot fight off infections.
  17. 17. HIV enters the body through blood, semen, vaginal fluid or breast milk from an infected person
  18. 18. The Immune System is the body’s defense against foreign, invading organisms.
  19. 19. Let’s think of the immune system as an army fighting infections, white blood cells (wbc) are the sodiers—they are called lymphocytes. There are special lymphocytes called CD4 helper lymphocytes—they coordinate the immune system’s attack on foreign organisms.
  20. 20. As HIV infects the body, it destroys CD4 Helper Lymphocytes by using them to make copies of itself. “This causes the immune system not to work well.” Lymphocytes and HIV fight each other for years. Each day the body makes billions of CD4 cells and the HIV uses them to make even more of its own. In most people, the HIV eventually wins the battle.
  21. 21. After a person isinfected with HIV, the number of CD4 cells goes down. A normal count is 600 to 1500 per cubic millimeter of blood. When the count drops below 200, the body’s immune system cannot work well at alland a simple infection could cause alot of trouble because the body cannot fight it off.
  22. 22. Anyone can get HIV A person with HIV can give it to another person through blood, semen, vaginal fluid or breast milk. HIV is not transmitted through saliva, sweat, spit, tears, air or insects. There are different amounts of HIV in various bodily fluids. The highest amount of HIV are in blood, followed by semen, followed by vaginal fluids, followed by breast milk.
  23. 23. The most common way to get HIV is through unprotected sex – sex without a condom. If a person has HIV, the virus is in their blood and semen or vaginal secretions. It could enter another person’s body through tiny cuts or sores on the skin or the lining of the vagina, penis, rectum or mouth. Another common way of getting HIV is by sharing a needle or syringe with someone who has HIV.
  24. 24. Most people do not notice if they get HIV. Some people who get the virus may develop a brief flu-like illness 2 to 6 weeks after becoming infected. However, since these symptoms are similar to a cold or flu, theygo unnoticed…
  25. 25. People with HIV may develop AIDS in much less than 10 years or they may never develop AIDS.
  26. 26. If you engage in high risk behavior, such as unprotected sex or sharing needles for intravenous drug use, get tested for HIV every 3 to 6 months. Your test can be confidential and anonymous.
  27. 27. That’s All for the Semester…
  28. 28. “ It’s been a wonderful experience being your prof, guyz… I just hope that you learned something from me… Good Luck and God Bless!!!” Sir Wyllhy