What is Physical Fitness
• Physical fitness is a general
state of health and well-being
or specifically the ability to
perform aspects of sports or
Being physically fit can help you:
• Increase your chances of living longer
• Feel better about yourself
• Decrease your chances of becoming depressed
• Sleep well at night
• Move around more easily
• Have stronger muscles and bones
• Stay at or get to a healthy weight
• Be with friends or meet new people
• Enjoy yourself and have fun
When you are not physically fit, you
are more likely to:
• Get heart disease
• Get type 2 diabetes
• Have high blood pressure
• Have high blood cholesterol
• Have a stroke
The components of Physical Fitness
• Agility – The ability to stop, start, and change
• Balance – Controlling body positions while
standing still or moving
• Cardiovascular Endurance – Engaging in
physical activity for long periods of time
• Flexibility – Moving joints through a wide
range of motion
• Muscular Endurance – Using muscles
repetitively without fatiguing
• Power – The ability to use muscle strength
• Speed – Performing a movement of covering a
distance in a short period of time
• Shuttle Run Test - a test of speed and agility,
which is important in many sports.
Procedure: This test requires the person to
run back and forth between two parallel lines as
fast as possible. Starting at the line opposite the
blocks, on the signal "Ready? Go!" the
participant runs to the other line, picks up a
block and returns to place it behind the starting
line, then returns to pick up the second block,
then runs with it back across the line.
• Standing Balance Test
Procedure: the person stands on one leg
for as long as possible. Give the subject a minute
to practice their balancing before starting the
test. The timing stops when the elevated foot
touches the ground or the person hops or
otherwise loses their balance position. The best
of three attempts is recorded. Repeat the test
on the other leg.
• Balke 15 minute run - This 15 minute run test,
designed by Bruno Balke, is one of many field
tests designed to measure aerobic fitness.
- Place markers at set intervals around the track
to aid in measuring the completed distance.
Participants run for 15 minutes, and the distance
covered is recorded. Walking is allowed, though
the participants must be encouraged to push
themselves as hard as they can.
Sit and Reach Flexibility Test - The sit and reach
test is a common measure of flexibility, and
specifically measures the flexibility of the lower
back and hamstring muscles.
- This test involves sitting on the floor with legs
stretched out straight ahead. Both knees should
be locked and pressed flat to the floor. With the
palms facing downwards, and the hands on top
of each other or side by side, the subject
reaches forward along the measuring line as far
• Sit Ups Test - This sit up test measures the
strength and endurance of the abdominals and
- Starting Position: Lie on a carpeted or cushioned
floor with your knees bent at approximately right
angles, with feet flat on the ground.
- Squeeze your stomach, push your back flat and
raise high enough for your hands to slide along your
thighs to touch the tops of your knees. Don't pull
with you neck or head and keep your lower back on
the floor. Then return to the starting position.
• Push Up Test - The push-up fitness test measures
upper body strength and endurance.
- A standard push up begins with the hands and
toes touching the floor, the body and legs in a
straight line, feet slightly apart, the arms at
shoulder width apart, extended and at a right
angles to the body. Keeping the back and knees
straight, the subject lowers the body to a
predetermined point then returns back to the
starting position with the arms extended. This
action is repeated, and test continues until
• 40 Yard Dash - The test involves running a single
maximum sprint over 40 yards, with the time
recorded. A thorough warm up should be given,
including some practice starts and accelerations.
Start from a stationary position, in a base-stealing
stance that is most familiar to you and that you
think will yield the best time. The front foot must
be on or behind the starting line. Shoulders
should be perpendicular to the starting line. This
starting position should be held for 2 seconds
prior to starting, and no rocking movements are
• Unit 2
Officiating Individual and Dual Sports
What is the meaning of “Officiate”
act as an official in charge of
something, as a sporting event.
Definition of Volleyball
• Volleyball is a team sport in
which two teams of six players
are separated by a net. Each team
tries to score points by grounding
a ball on the other team's court
under organized rules.
Origin of Volleyball
• On February 9, 1895, in Holyoke,
Massachusetts (USA), William G. Morgan,
a YMCA physical education director, created a
new game called Mintonette as a pastime to
be played indoors and by any number of
• The game took some of its characteristics
from tennis andhandball.
• Mintonette was designed to be an indoor
sport, less rough than basketball, for older
members of the YMCA, while still requiring a
bit of athletic effort.
• After an observer, Alfred Halstead, noticed the
volleying nature of the game at its first
exhibition match in 1896, the game quickly
became known as volleyball.
• Volleyball rules were slightly modified by the
International YMCA Training School and the
game spread around the country to various
• PLAYING AREA
- Both indoor and outdoor courts are 18 m x 9m
Indoor courts also include an attack area
a line 3 m back from the center line.
- Lines on the court are 5cm (2" wide) and must
be light in colour, different from the colour of
the floor or any other lines.
• NET AND POSTS
- The net is 1m wide and 9.5m−10m long and is
made of 10cm square, black mesh. The top of
the net is 2.43m high for men and 2.24m for
women. The height is measured from the
centre of the playing court.
• The official size of a volleyball is
between 25.6 and 26.4 inches in
circumference and between 9.1
and 9.8 ounces in weight.
- The official scorer keeps track of the score
throughout the volleyball game. Before the game
begins the scorer notes the starting lineup of
each team and notifies the referees if the lineup
wasn’t received on time.
- If a dispute or irregularity arises regarding the
score, the scorer uses a buzzer to notify the first
and second referees. Additionally, when a
substitution request arises, the scorer notifies the
- At least two, and as many as four, line judges
monitor each game. The line judges stand at the
corners of the court watching the lines to indicate
whether a ball in play falls in or out of the court.
- If a server steps on the line during a serve, the
line judge watching the given line notifies the
referees using a flag. When a player touches an
out-of-play ball or if the ball hits an antenna, the
designated line judge also indicates the
- The first referee stands on the referee stand and controls the
play of the entire game. Whatever issues arise during the
game, the first referee determines the call and the has the
final say. After making a call, no player or other referee can
argue the call, although a formal protest can be placed with
- Before the match begins, the first referee inspects the
equipment and the players uniforms. The warm-ups and the
coin toss also fall under the jurisdiction of the first referee.
- Throughout the match, the first referee makes calls regarding
faults and scoring issues. Following the match, the first
referee notes the score and signs the official paperwork.
- The second referee works to assist the first
referee throughout the game. If for some reason
the first referee can’t finish his/her duties, the
second referee may take the place of the first
- The second referee stands next to the post
opposite the first referee. In addition to assisting
the first referee with determining faults
throughout the game, the second referee is in
charge of all substitutions, timeouts and the
actions of the scorers table.
- Server must serve from behind the restraining line
( end line ) until after contact.
- Ball may be served underhand or overhand.
- Ball must be clearly visible to opponents before serve.
- Served ball may graze the net and drop to the other
side for point.
- First game serve is determined by a volley, each
subsequent game shall be served by the previous game
- Serve must be returned by a bump only. no setting or
attacking a serve.
- Rally scoring will be used.
- There will be a point scored on every score of the
- Offense will score on a defense miss or out of
- Defense will score on an offensive miss, out of
bounds hit, or serve into the net.
- Game will be played to 25 pts.
- Must win by 2 points.
- Team will rotate each time they win the serve.
- Players shall rotate in a clockwise manner.
- There shall be 4-6 players on each side.
PLAYING THE GAME ( VOLLEY )
- Maximum of three hits per side.
- Player may not hit the ball twice in succession ( A block is not
considered a hit ).
- Ball may be played off the net during a volley and on serve.
- A ball touching a boundary line is good.
- A legal hit is contact with the ball by a player body above and
including the waist which does not allow the ball to visibly come to
- If two or more players contact the ball simultaneously, it is
considered one play and the players involved may not participate in
the next play.
- A player must not block or attack a serve.
- Switching positions will be allowed only between front line players.
( After the serve only ).
- Stepping on or over the line on a serve.
- Failure to serve the ball over the net successfully.
- Hitting the ball illegally ( Carrying, Palming,
Throwing, etc. ).
- Touches of the net with any part of the body
while the ball is in play. If the ball is driven into
the net with such force that it causes the net to
contact an opposing player, no foul will be called,
and the ball shall continue to be in play.
- Reaching over the net, except under these conditions:
- When executing a follow-through.
- When blocking a ball which is in the opponents
court but is being returned ( the blocker must not
contact the ball until after the opponent who is
attempting to return the ball makes contact).
Except to block the third play.
- Reaches under the net ( if it interferes with the ball or
opposing player ).
- Failure to serve in the correct order.
- Blocks or spikes from a position which is clearly not
behind the 10-foot line while in a back row position.