Chapter 10:Biodiversity/Forests/Forest Management


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Chapter 10:Biodiversity/Forests/Forest Management

  1. 1. Chapter 10: Sustaining TerrestrialBiodiversity The Ecosystem Approach Case Study: The Reintroduction of the Gray Wolf to Yel
  2. 2. Why Should We Care About Biodiversity?  Intrinsic Value  Instrumental Value  Use Value: For the usefulness in terms of economic and ecological services.  Nonuse Value: existence, aesthetics, bequest for future generations. Figure 10-3
  3. 3. Types of Forests  Old-growth forest: uncut or regenerated forest that has not been seriously disturbed for several hundred years.  22% of world’s forest.  Hosts many species with specialized niches. Figure 10-5
  4. 4. Types of Forests  Second-growth forest: a stand of trees resulting from natural secondary succession.  Tree plantation: planted stands of a particular tree species. Figure 10-6
  5. 5. Animation: Hubbard BrookExperiment PLAY ANIMATION
  6. 6. Forest Benefits1. Influence local climates: 4. Roots hold soil: reduce cooler and moister due erosion to transpiration 5. Watershed protection:2. Global biogeochemical absorb, hold and slowly cycles: provide a sink release water, for CO2 controlling floods3. Release O2 6. Provide habitat for many organisms
  7. 7. Tropical Deforestation Agriculture Logging Mining Hydroelectric power development
  8. 8. Tropical Deforestation: Causes Fig. 11-18 p. 212
  9. 9. Reducing Tropical Deforestation Encourage protection of large tractsSustainable tropical agriculture Debt-for-nature swaps Reduce illegal cutting Reducing poverty and population growth Refer to Fig. 11-19 p. 213
  10. 10. Amazon Rainforest Satellite image of deforestation in the Amazon region, taken from the Brazilian state of Para on July 15, 1986. rc/index.html
  11. 11. Boreal Deforestation Alaska, Canada, Scandinavia, North Russia 11% of earth’s land area – world’s largest biome Frequently clear cut Primary source of industrial wood and wood fiber Annual loss twice the Amazonian rainforest of Brazil
  12. 12. Temperate Forests Have been holding steady or increasing in recent years Biodiversity lower than in virgin forests Reasons include:  Secondary succession of abandoned farms  Commercial planting  Government protection
  13. 13. Results of Deforestation1. Threatens native people and cultures2. Decreased soil fertility3. Soil erosion4. Increased sedimentation in streams5. Formation of deserts in dry areas6. Unregulated water – droughts and floods7. Species extinction8. Migrating species affected9. Regional and global climate change10. Increased CO2 in atmosphere
  14. 14.  Selective Cutting The hard maple forest is managed under a selection system. Individual trees are harvested from stands on a 28 year cycle. Specific trees are retained in these stands for biodiversity and wildlife habitat purposes.
  15. 15. Selective Cutting
  16. 16. Clear cutting
  17. 17. Clear cutting
  18. 18. Ten year oldclear cut –TongassNational Forest,AlaskaUS FS photo 1979
  19. 19. Western Red cedar stump, WashingtonUSFS photo
  20. 20. Logging debris in creek, UmpquaNational Forest, Oregon USFS photo
  21. 21. Planting after clear cut – Jack PineTree Plantation – one species and even aged stand
  22. 22. Shelterwood Cutting
  23. 23. Shelterwood Cutting – Lake Superior
  24. 24. Strip Cutting Forestry in Idaho
  25. 25. Types and Effects of Forest Fires Depending on their intensity, fires can benefit or harm forests.  Burn away flammable ground material.  Release valuable mineral nutrients. Figure 10-13
  26. 26. Kenya’s Green Belt Movement:Individuals Matter  Wangari Maathai founded the Green Belt Movement.  The main goal is to organize poor women to plant (for fuelwood) and protect millions of trees.  In 2004, awarded Nobel peace prize. Figure 10-10A
  27. 27. The Green Belt Movement Wangari Maathai talks about the Billion Tree Campaign Earth Focus: Wangari Maathai