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  1. 1. Deforestation & loss of Deforestation & loss of Biodiversity Biodiversity by Cristina Coc by Cristina Coc and Amanda Navickis-Francois and Amanda Navickis-Francois
  2. 2. What is deforestation? Deforestation is the elimination of forest and woodland areas on the large scale. An area of tropical forest large enough to cover North Carolina is deforested each year in South America, most of this in the Amazon Basin !
  3. 3. Historical Background Why did it emerge? Deforestation emerged as a major problem because of large scale losses evident particularly in tropical regions. Evidence of deforestation dates back much further than modern times, owing to the fact that deforestation is also a natural process.
  4. 4. Historical Background (continued) Why is it a problem? Deforestation causes problems on both the evolutionary, social, and ecological scales. • Ecological: Deforestation eliminates key habitats that support highly specialized and sensitive species, and eliminates the Forests ability to act as natural water and air filters • Evolutionary: With habitat loss comes the loss of highly specialized species, eliminating continued speciation, and often causing widespread extinctions
  5. 5. Historical Background (continued) • Social: In many developing countries deforestation is committed in an attempt to sustain local human populations on the local and global economic scale. – Slash and burn – Urbanization – Boundary Waters and Old Growth
  6. 6. Current status Where is deforestation still a problem? Developing countries. Tropical regions are at highest risk. Developed countries.
  7. 7. Causes Commercial Logging Agriculture Roads & Railways Forest fires Mining and drilling Fuel-wood collection Residential living space
  8. 8. Two most commonly sited causes Shifting Cultivation Commercial Logging Indigenous farming of Business & trade Rainforest Minor disturbances Grazing space Rotation No threat! Exceed carrying capacity Sustainability Intensive mechanized logging Insufficient recovery time Intensive/ commercial Accessibility to farming remote areas
  9. 9. Effects of deforestation Vanishing Rainforests Topsoil accumulates slowly Erosion Unusable land Disastrous Flooding End of story?
  10. 10. NOT!!! Effects Continued… Clearance = limited food and shelter Desertification Disappearance of ways of life Negative impact on the climate Global warming Green house effect Build up of CO2 Habitat fragmentation When logging companies move into a forest area, they build roads through the center of the forest and then perform their logging operations around those roads. If these roads come into common use, they can pose barriers for wildlife. As such, while only a small area may have actually been harvested, a large portion of the forest's wildlife may lose access to certain essential nearby habitats.
  11. 11. Wait there is more… Loss Scientific possibilities Identification of species Cures for deadly diseases
  12. 12. “Good Reasons for…” Economic benefits Sustenance development Fertility Services provided Habitation
  13. 13. Striving for a Balance Ecological function “Forest management with O2 bank a focus and intention that Replenish nutrient in it be used in the land combination that will best Prevent desertification meet the needs of people Source of timber and not necessarily the Effective use of renewable energy combination of uses that resources, will give the greatest Alleviate use of wood as dollar return.” fuel
  14. 14. Current status (belatedly continued) Key points needing further investigation and study: Connections between atmospheric CO2 concentrations and amount of global forested regions Deforestation as linked to Desertification Solving economic and ecological problems using more than short term solutions.
  15. 15. “certain species may live in a forest but depend on a nearby grassland or wetland for a food source –” ~Elizabeth Brown “While logging is, of course, necessary it should be done in a carefully controlled, certified manner in order to ensure that it doesn't destroy essential wildlife habitats – and, more obviously, in order to ensure that we don't eventually completely run out of wood to log!”
  16. 16. Do the immediate benefits outweigh the long-term costs? We don’t think so…
  17. 17. So it’s bad, so what do you do about it? Stop cutting Suitably enforce Sustainable logging legislation Proper management Education and FSC awareness Indigenous people Life style changes Forest capacity Greater appreciation for Mother Nature Sensitive regions as protected areas
  18. 18. Citations station.htm on/deforestation.html ion/deforestation_3.html ore/nature/rainforest/deforest