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  1. 1. AFFIXES: The building blocks of English
  2. 2. Let’s suffer from verbomania!insane fondness for animals zoomaniamorbid craving for poisons toxicomaniaobsession with stamp-collecting stampomaniacraze for starting fires pyromaniaobsession with music musomaniairrational craving for water hydromaniacraze for flowers florimania
  3. 3. Are you afraid of words?Hippopotomonstrosesquipedaliophobia Fear of long words
  4. 4. Let’s suffer from phronemophobia!fear of heights acro/altophobiafear of numbers arithmophobiafear of being alone or of oneself autophobiafear of books bibliophobiafear of ugliness cacophobiafear of meat carnophobiafear of time chronophobia
  5. 5. Let’s suffer from phronemophobia!fear of computers cyberphobiafear of dentists dentophobiafear of confined spaces claustrophobiafear of sexual love erotophobiafear of hearing good news euphobiafear of nudity gymnophobiafear of words logophobia
  6. 6. What is an affix? An affix is a word element - a prefix, suffix, or infix - that can be attached to a base or root to form a new word. Noun: affixation Adjectives: affixable and affixal
  7. 7. What is an affix? Affixes are of two types: prefixes, occurring before the stem of a word, and suffixes, occurring after. English does not have affixes in large numbers--about fifty common prefixes and somewhat fewer common suffixes.
  8. 8. What is an affix? Prefixes include dis-, mal-, ex-, and semi-, as in disinterested, malformed, ex-husband, and semi- detached. Suffixes include -ship, -ness, -ette, and -let, as in hardship, goodness, kitchenette, and booklet.
  9. 9. What is an affix? Clusters of affixes can be used to build up complex words: nation, national, nationalize, nationalization denationalization, antidenationalization
  10. 10. Some Common Greek and Latin roots: Root (source) Meaning English words aster, astr (G) star astronomy, astrology audi (L) to hear audible, auditorium bene (L) good, well benefit, benevolent bio (G) life biology, autobiography dic, dict (L) to speak dictionary, dictator
  11. 11. Some Common Greek and Latin roots: Root (source) Meaning English words fer (L) to carry transfer, referral fix (L) to fasten fix, suffix, affix geo (G) earth geography, geology log, logue (G) word, monolog(ue), astrology, thought, biology, neologism speech luc (L) light lucid, translucent
  12. 12. Some Common Greek and Latin roots: Root (source) Meaning English words manu (L) hand manual, manuscript meter, metr measure metric, thermometer (G) pathetic, sympathy, path (G) feeling empathy body, phys (G) physical, physics nature scrib, script (L) to write scribble, manuscript
  13. 13. Some Common Greek and Latin roots: Root (source) Meaning English words tele (G) far off telephone, television ter, terr (L) earth territory, extraterrestrial vac (L) empty vacant, vacuum, evacuate verb (L) word verbal, verbose vid, vis (L) to see video, vision, television
  14. 14. What is an affix? “Over half the words in English are there because of processes of this kind (i.e., affixation). And this is one reason why childrens vocabulary grows so quickly once they learn some prefixes and suffixes." (David Crystal, How Language Works. Overlook, 2006)
  15. 15. Prefixes showing quantity Meaning Prefixes in English Words half semiannual, hemisphere one unicycle, monarchy, monorail two binary, bimonthly, dilemma, dichotomy hundred century, centimeter, hectoliter thousand millimeter, kilometer
  16. 16. Prefixes showing negationwithout, no, not asexual, anonymous, illegal, immoral, invalid,irreverent, unskillednot, absence of, nonbreakable, antacid, antipathy,opposing, against contradictopposite to, counterclockwise, counterweightcomplement todo the opposite of, dehorn, devitalize, devalueremove, reducedo the opposite of, disestablish, disarmdeprive ofwrongly, bad misjudge, misdeed
  17. 17. Prefixes showing direction or positionabove, over supervise, supererogatoryacross, over transport, translatebelow, under infrasonic, infrastructure, subterranean, hypodermicin front of proceed, prefixbehind recedeout of erupt, explicit, ecstasyinto injection, immerse, encourage, empoweraround circumnavigate, perimeterwith coexist, colloquy, communicate, consequence, correspond, sympathy, synchronize
  18. 18. Suffixes, on the other hand, modify themeaning of a word and frequentlydetermine its function within a sentence.Take the noun nation, for example. Withsuffixes, the word becomes theadjective national, the adverb nationally,and the verb nationalize.
  19. 19. Typical noun suffixes are -ence, -ance,-or, -er, -ment, -list, -ism, -ship, -ency,-sion, -tion, -ness, -hood, -dom.Typical verb suffixes are -en, -ify, -ize,-ate.
  20. 20. Typical adjective suffixes are -able, -ible,-al, -tial, -tic, -ly, -ful, -ous, -tive, -less,-ish, -ulent.The adverb suffix is -ly (although not allwords that end in -ly are adverbs—likefriendly).
  21. 21. The “infix” A word element (a type of affix) that can be inserted within the base form of a word (rather than at its beginning or end) to create a new word or intensify meaning. The process of inserting an infix is called infixation.
  22. 22. The “infix” Examples and observations: "Abso-Bleedin-Lutely" (Quincy Jones, song in the film Walk, Dont Run, 1966) Absobloodylutely 
  23. 23. The “infix” Examples and observations: Infixes work in fortuitous or aggravating circumstances by emotionally aroused English speakers: Hallebloodylujah! . . . In the movie Wish You Were Here, the main character expresses her aggravation (at another characters trying to contact her) by screaming Tell him Ive gone to Singabloodypore!
  24. 24. The “infix” Examples and observations: "English has no true infixes, but the plural suffix -s behaves something like an infix in unusual plurals like passers- by and mothers-in-law." (R.L. Trask, The Penguin Dictionary of English Grammar, 2000)
  25. 25. The “infix” Examples and observations: Fanflamingtastic Unbeflippinglievable Fanfrigginstastic Absobloominlutely
  26. 26. Exercises - Affixes A mans useless tuxedo could be __________ into a womans smart town suit. (form)
  27. 27. Exercises - Affixes In Garners case, the formal elements often go unnoticed because they are __________ and made almost invisible by the emotional power and urgency of the story. (merge)
  28. 28. Exercises - Affixes Eduardo Duhalde, Argentinas caretaker president, today said that he would __________ the peso as he prepared to unveil a high-risk plan to end the countrys economic turmoil. (value)
  29. 29. Exercises - Affixes The Maya priests discovered, however, that they had slightly __________ the average synodic period of Venus. (estimate)
  30. 30. Exercises - Affixes Of themselves, of course, the rules are normative, and their validity is thus __________ by issues of fact. (affect)
  31. 31. Exercises - Affixes There remained a distinctive philosophy of liberalism which could __________ the Liberals from other political parties. (differ)
  32. 32. Exercises - Affixes In a black leather notebook __________ with a metal clasp, he wrote: Oswestry July 18th 1829... (fast)
  33. 33. Exercises - Affixes The only miracle left in the nuclear dream is that more people have not __________ to the fact that nuclear power is economically - and increasingly, in that it takes much-needed funds away from renewables and efficiency - ethically, redundant. (wake)
  34. 34. Exercises - Affixes Fredericks reforms, however, __________ a major flaw in the progressive infatuation with scientific management. (example)
  35. 35. Exercises - Affixes Drugs which are rapidly inactivated have advantages, because the risk of __________ is minimized and there are no cumulative effects. (dosage)
  36. 36. Exercises - Affixes Sections of the population have also combined their own popular nationalism and religion with aspects of the clerical interpretation already invested in the law, particularly in the __________ movement of the early 1980s. (abortion)
  37. 37. Exercises - Affixes Any technical term used here, whether from __________ or anthropology, is explained in the body of the text, and the index will enable the reader to refer back to these explanation. (Marx)
  38. 38. Exercises - Affixes The best cure in such a case is an __________ of the law by statute. (alter)
  39. 39. Exercises - Affixes He not only uses __________ images to achieve rhythm but, even more subtly, uses __________ ideas for the same purpose. (repeat)
  40. 40. Exercises - Affixes The integral involves two __________ functions. (continue)
  41. 41. Exercises - Affixes It is remarkable that a cell as overtly dull and __________ as the fertilized egg can give rise to such varied and complex forms. (structure)
  42. 42. Exercises - Affixes Even in the university centers, perhaps only 50 per cent of cases are notified, while reporting from private practitioners is __________. (existent)
  43. 43. Exercises - Affixes __________ resources that took aeons to constitute are squandered in an instant, according to the "laws" of supply and demand. (replaceable)
  44. 44. Exercises - Affixes I try not to go to the supermarket at 5pm because its __________________. (practice)
  45. 45. Exercises - Affixes He was accused of __________________ documents. (false)
  46. 46. Exercises - Affixes You shouldnt have done that! It was very __________________ of you. (think)
  47. 47. Exercises - Affixes They had to __________________ the lion before they could catch it. (tranquil)
  48. 48. Exercises - Affixes How many words can you “grow” from each root? act love talk dark comfort excite station suit decide mix