Linguistics phenomenon (1) (1)


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Linguistics phenomenon (1) (1)

  1. 1. Linguistics PhenomenonWhen we import words from a foreign language, we often turn generic words intospecific words. Im wondering if there is a name for the this phenomenon oranything written about it.Synaeresis In linguistic, synaeresis (Greek σσναίρεσις) is the contraction of two vowelsinto a diphtong (or long vowel). If synaeresis is used against convention, it mayserve as a rhetorical figure (a metaplasm). The opposite phenomenon is known asdiaeresis.In historical linguistics, such contractions often result after the regular loss of aconsonant that used to separate the two vowels. In this case, the resulting vowel ordiphthong will typically carry a circumflex intonation."ExamplesAncient GreekIn Ancient Greek, synaeresis is the pronunciation of two separate vowels asa diphthong (αι /), and diaeresis is the separation of a diphthong into twovowels (αϊ /a.i/).Certain words in Proto-Indo-European had two vowels separated by theconsonant s or y (esu "good"). In Greek, this consonant changed to h (ehu), andwas lost between vowels (eu). In Homer, the two vowels were sometimespronounced separately (diaeresis: ἐ ΰ) and sometimes together (synaeresis: εὖ ).Later inAttic Greek, they were always pronounced together.SyncopeIn phonology, syncope (pron.: /ˈ ŋkəpiˈ Greek: syn- + koptein “to strike, cut sɪ /;off”) is the loss of one or more sounds from the interior of a word, especially theloss of an unstressed vowel. It is found both in synchronic analysis of languagesand diachronics .For example : In some verbs Imir (To play) should become *"imirím" (I play). However the addition of the "-ím" causes syncope and the second last syllable vowel "i" is lost. So, Imir becomes Imrím.
  2. 2. In some nouns Inis (Island) should become *inise in the genitive case. However, if one looks at road signs one finds not *"Baile na hInise", but "Baile na hInse" (The town of the Island). Once again the loss is of the second syllable "i". It is interesting that if the present root form in Irish is the result of diachronic syncope then there is a resistance to synchronic syncope for inflection. Historically in old Irish, as a rule, syncope happened whenever the addition of an ending gave rise to syncope.Synalepha A synalepha or synaloepha (pron.: /ˈ nəˈ fə/)[1] is the merging of two sɪ liˈsyllables into one, especially when it causes two words to be pronounced as one.The original meaning in Greek is more general than modern usage, and alsoincludes coalescence of vowels within a word. Similarly, synalepha most oftenrefers to elision (as in English contraction), but it can also refer to coalescence byother metaplasms: synizesis, synaeresis, or crasis.ExamplesSpanish and Italian use synalepha very frequently in poetry. As for instance inthis hendecasyllable (11-syllable line) by Garcilaso de la Vega: Los cabellos que al oro oscurecían. "The hair that endarkened the gold"Diaeresis The pronouncing of two successive vowels as separate sounds. - naive The diaeresis, umlaut, or more generically trema is a diacritic that consistsof two dots ( ¨ ) placed over a letter, most commonly a vowel. When that letter isan i or a j, the diacritic replaces the tittle: ï.[1]Strictly speaking, the words diaeresis and umlaut refer to twodistinct phonological phenomena. The diaeresis is used to denote the phenomenonalso known as diaeresis (pron.: /daɪ ˈ rɨ sɨ s/ dy-ERR-ə-səs), or hiatus, in which a ɛvowel letter is not part of a digraph or diphthong. ʊThe umlaut (pron.: /ˈ mlaʊ t/ UUM-lowt) refers to a sound shift. The two diacriticaluses originated separately, with the diaeresis being considerably older.
  3. 3. Nevertheless, in modern computer systems using Unicode, the umlaut anddiaeresis diacritics are identical: ⟨ä⟩ represents both a-umlaut and a-diaeresis.The two dots are also used as a diacritic in other cases, where they are neitherdiaeresis nor umlautDystmesisA form of tmesis in which the compound is separated at an inappropriate orunlikely position. a whole another story unbe-freakin-lievableTmesis is a linguistic phenomenon in which a word or phrase is inserted into themiddle of another, often coming between the parts of a compound word or splittingan infinitive: „to boldly go‟ or even „Jesus H. Christ‟. Tmeses are often employed forhumorous effect, though a great many are unconscious uses of language in naturalways.A subset of tmesis, dystmesis occurs when the insertion is (somewhatsurprisingly, perhaps) between syllable boundaries within a word: „a whole nother‟(‟whole‟ into „another‟). „A whole nother‟ may seem strange to see written out, but ifspoken in conversation would likely pass completely unnoticed.Expletive infixation is a dystmesis where the inserted word is a profanity: „abso-fuckin-lutely‟ or „guaran-god-damn-tee‟.In a similar way, the (meaningless?) particles -iz- or -izn- are inserted into words inhip-hop-slang: „hizouse‟ (for „house‟) or ‟shiznit‟ (for ‟shit‟), although these aren‟ttechnically tmeses since -iz- and -izn- aren‟t words in themselves.Apparently tmeses are common in Australian speech, where they‟re knownas tumbarumba.Examples of tmesis for emphasis:Representative English examples of the use of tmesis for added emphasis include: Wh-words, words usually beginning with wh- that can be used as interrogative words, can also be used as subordinating conjunctions or relative pronouns. When they express indefiniteness using the suffix -ever they can have the intensifier so inserted between the two parts (the base word and the indefinitizerever) to emphasize the indefiniteness: whatsoever, whosoever,
  4. 4. whomsoever, whosesoever, wheresoever, whensoever, howsoever. Unlike the following examples, these are considered standard words in the language. "Abso-fuckin-lutely" in which an expletive or profanity is inserted; see Expletive infixation. "Guaran-damn-tee" in which an expletive or profanity is inserted for humor and/or emphasis. "La-dee-freakin-da", a variation of the above in which a less offensive infix is substituted. "Wel-diddly-elcome", a signature phrase of fictional character Ned Flanders, where a nonsense word is inserted. Note the reduplication of part of the host word (as opposed to "wel-diddly-come").Onomatopoeia The formation of a word by imitation of a sound made by or associated with its referent. "Oink," "Buzz."Onomatopoeia is the imitation of natural noises by speech sounds. To understandthis phenomenon, we must realize that there is a problem here which is by nomeans trivial. There is an infinite number of noises in nature, but only twenty-something letters in an alphabet that convey in any language a closed system ofabout fifty (up to a maximum of 100) speech sounds.Anaphora A reference to a preceding utterance. "I took an apple and ate it." In linguistics, an anaphora (pron.: /əˈ næfərə/) is a type of expressionwhose reference depends upon another referential element. E.g., in the sentenceSally preferred the company of herself, herself is an anaphoric expression in thatit is coreferential with the expression in subject position. Usually, an anaphoricexpression is represented by a pro-form or some other kind of deictic—forinstance, a pronoun referring to its antecedent. The term anaphor, an Englishsingular variant, is sometimes used to designate an individual use: "an anaphor isa linguistic entity which indicates a referential tie to some other linguistic entity inthe same text."Anaphora is an important concept for different reasons and on different levels.First, anaphora indicates "how discourse is constructed and maintained". Second,
  5. 5. on the level of the sentence, anaphora binds different syntactical elementstogether. Third, in computational linguistics anaphora presents a challengeto natural language processing, since the identification of the reference can bechallenging. Fourth, anaphora "tells us some things about how language isunderstood and processed", which is relevant to fields of linguistics interestedin cognitive psychology.
  6. 6. Introduction Language is symbolic, yet its symbols are arranged in a particular system.Almost all languages of the world have their own well-organized and highlydeveloped systems of arranging these symbols. Though symbols in each humanlanguage are finite; they can be arranged infinitely, that is to say, we can producean infinite set of sentences by a finite set of symbols. Every language is a systemof systems. All languages have phonological and grammatical systems, and withina system there are also several sub-systems. For example, within grammaticalsystem, we have morphological and syntactic systems, and within these two sub-systems, we have still other sub-systems such as those of number, of mood, oftense, of class etc.We will look at examples of how the “same” linguistic forms provide varyingexpressive opportunities across the dimensions of both space and time; this will bea story of variations in cognitive strategies as they are played out bothsynchronically and diachronically. Across space, cross-linguistically, the “same”linguistic form provides varying expressive opportunities; we see the resultingdiversity expressed in dialect geography. Across time, diachronically, the “same”linguistic form provides varying expressive opportunities; these variations are thematerial of historical linguistics.
  7. 7. Conclusions:Linguistic phenomena subtly and powerfully shape our reality. Our perceptionsabout the world guide our decisions, and we shape our cognitive models of howthe world works--or should work--partly via our interactions with cultural(philosophical, spiritual, folk, scientific or religious) ideas.Culture communicates ideas primarily through language. We generally express ourfeelings, thoughts, opinions and what we call "facts" verbally or in writing. It is notthe actual content of the expression we hear, however, which determines thesmooth integration of meaning in our own psyches. In a series of rapid cognitiveoperations, we form hasty abstract associations in order to decode our personalmeaning in the message so that it might be assimilated into our existing schema--or potentially modify it.Linguistic phenomena in this report help us understand a little more about theirimportance in logic and language, as we are for those who are starting to studyEnglish for easy understanding when each words.
  8. 8. Index: Pag.Introduction…………………………………………………………………….3Development………………………………………………………………….4 to 8Conclusions…………………………………………………………………...9Bibliography…………………………………………………………………..10
  9. 9. Bibliography:https://www.wikipedia.comhttps://www.grammar.about.comhttps://www.depling.org
  10. 10. Republica Bolivariana De VenezuelaMinisterio Del Poder Popular para la educacionU.E Colegio Miguel Otero Silva5to año seccion “C” Linguistics phenomenonProf. Alumnas:Mirna Calderon Cecilia Gómez nº35 María Alvarez nº07 Yelianni Medina nº04